Test cases.txt in Anoé

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  • ,on–ofel ló. ,(I.e. al-ló).
  • ,ofel elmé ló. ,(I.e. mélit-en-tmalfe ló).
  • One animal is a cow. (I.e. an example from a class)
  • The cow is black. (I.e. has a given attribute.)
  • The cow is in the pasture. (I.e. is at the specified location.)


  • This horse is here. (at this place)
  • That horse is there. (or over there, at a more distant place)
  • The cow is somewhere else. (at an unspecified place)
  • These horses are everywhere. (or "are scattered around" or some concept to that effect)
  • Those men are far away.
  • The women are gone.

PREPOSITIONS or other things somewhat like them

  • The cows are going out of the pasture. (The cows are leaving the pasture.)
  • The cow is walking around the house. (Implying outside the house.)
  • The woman is walking around the house. (Implying inside the house.)
  • The man is going into the house. (The man is entering the house.)
  • The woman is by the pasture. (near or adjacent to)
  • The horse is walking by. (passing by, or walking past)
  • The man is on the horse. (on top of, or upon)
  • The cow is outside of the house. (out of, or not inside of)
  • The horse is going to the pasture. (as toward a destination)
  • The woman gives the grass to the cows. (as a recipient of something given)
  • The grass is for the horse. (for the use or benefit of)
  • The horse walked to the pasture for grass. (I.e. in order to get grass)
  • The cow is walking with the horse. (accompanying)
  • The man is looking at the cow. (toward, in the direction of)
  • The cow jumps over the water.
  • The horse walks through the water.
  • The woman walks under the tree.
  • The horse stands against the tree.
  • The man stands between the horse and the cow.
  • The woman walks before the horse. (in front of)
  • The horse walks behind the man.
  • The horse eats after the cow. (sequence in time)
  • The cow eats before the horse. (sequence in time)
  • The man walks up the hill.
  • The cow walks down the hill.
  • The man walks away. (I.e. away from the location of the speaker)
  • The cow walks away from the man.
  • The woman walks toward the horse.
  • The man walks here. (I.e. The man approaches the speaker.)
  • The horse stands to the right of the cow.
  • The cow stands to the left of the horse.
  • The horses are all together.
  • The cows are to the north.
  • The horses are walking northward.
  • The water moves inward. (toward a point possibly from different directions)
  • The water moves outward. (away from a point possibly in different directions)


  • I am leaving. (Describing an event currently happening.)
  • I am leaving. (Describing an intended event about to happen.)
  • I am leaving. (Showing immediacy or ugrgency.)
  • Leave! (Imperative)
  • Let's leave. (Suggesting or requesting action.)
  • I see the cows.
  • You saw the horses. (You singular)
  • He will see the man.
  • She will see the house.
  • He/she has seen the cows. (Gender neutral singular pronoun, if any)
  • We will see it.
  • I see myself in the water.
  • He gave himself some food.
  • Do not talk to yourself.
  • I was seen by the man.
  • I built a house. (for someone else)
  • I built a house. (for myself, if you nave a middle voice)


  • You must see the man. (You plural)
  • We must not see you.
  • They may see the horses. (I.e. granting permission)
  • She may not go near the horses.
  • They can see the cows. (I.e. stating ability to do the action)
  • The tree can not see anything.
  • You should not talk to animals.
  • She made the women happy. (I.e. cause a change in state)
  • The men made themselves unhappy.

ADVERBS or things that act like them

  • The man walks slowly.
  • The horse walks quickly.

FOREIGN NAMES or words that don't fit your phonology or morphology

  • I saw John and Marsha.
  • Julius Ceasar did not see Christopher Columbus.

ADJECTIVES and other ways to modify a noun

  • I saw the black cow.
  • He saw the big black horse.
  • We saw the man who has two cows.
  • The woman on the horse saw us walk by.


  • Where are the horses?
  • Where are the cows going?
  • Is this a dog?
  • Do you have horses?
  • How many cows does he have?
  • What kind of animal is that?
  • What is that?
  • Who has the biggest horse?
  • Who's cow is this?


  • He saw the horse drink the water. (I.e. He saw this: The horse drank the water.)
  • I will stand here until the old man comes back. (returns to this place)
  • He talks while he walks.
  • He is happy because his cows came back.
  • He is sad that his horses went away.
  • He likes talking with the woman. (I.e. He likes this: He talks to the woman.)


  • John saw the man enter his house. ("his" meaning John's house)
  • John saw the man enter his house. ("his" meaning the man's house)


  • The man's horse is not here.
  • My cow is here.
  • Your cow is in the pasture. (You singular)
  • His horses are there.
  • Her dogs are in the house.
  • His/her house is far away. (Gender neutral pronoun if any)
  • Our house is near. (I.e. near here)
  • Your house is far away. (You plural)
  • Their horses are not in the house.


  • The horse is as big as the cow.
  • The cow is bigger than the man.
  • This cow is the man's biggest animal.
  • My dog is the smallest one.
  • That dog is almost as big as a horse.


  • The four seasons are summer, fall, winter, and spring. (or whatever applies on your planet)

OTHER KEY CONCEPTS - some questions to be addressed

  • What number base does your conlang use?
  • What is your system of weights and measures?
  • What is your system of time measurement, clocks and calandars?
  • How is the color wheel divided up?
  • What are the color names used by your language?

Required Vocabulary

  • can (is able) may (is permitted) must should
  • to_be build drink eat give go have jump leave make(cause to happen) move see stand talk walk
  • here there everywhere somewhere left right north
  • this that these those all some
  • and not
  • anything
  • animal cow dog food grass hill horse house man pasture water woman
  • I you he she he/she it we you (pl) they
  • himself myself themselves yourself
  • big (bigger biggest) black far happy (unhappy) old small (smallest)

(These came from [1].)