Senjecas Word Formation

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Pronunciation table

peműko
(labial)
riisűko
(dental)
muitűko
(alveolar)
vainűko
(palatal)
ṡ̨uuše̋nos
(vowels)
nı̋þo ṡ̨uuše̋nos
(weak vowels)
p
b f v m t d þ ð ɫ l ż s z r n k g x ƣ h ȝ š i e a ǫ o u ĭ ĕ ŭ
/p/ /b/ /ɸ/ /β/ /m̥/ /m/ /t/ /d/ /θ/ /ð/ /l̥/ /l/ /ʦ/ /ʣ/ /s/ /z/ /ɾ̥/ /n/ /k/ /g/ /ç/ /ʝ/ /j̊/ /j/ /sʷ/ /sʲ/ /i/ /e/ /ä/ /ɒ/ /o/ /u/ /ɪ/ /ɛ/ /ʊ/


Part IV - WORD FORMATION – pűlo m̃ sam̃zı̋na

  • Senjecas has a well-developed system of word formation in which roots are modified by various prefixes and suffixes to form new words. For example, the root ed- may give e̋da, eat; e̋do, food; e̋d̨i, edible; eðde̋mo, restaurant; ale̋d̨i, inedible; and e̋ðlu, eater.

4.1 Morphologysam̃zinsa̋a̋r̈a

  • 4.1.1 A root (fűlo) is that part of a word which remains after its formative elements are removed. It gives the meaning or abstract idea apart from its relations. It is not necessarily a monosyllable.
  • 4.1.2 A simple word is formed from a single root. A compound word is formed by combining two or more roots.
  • 4.1.3 The basic form of the Senjecan verb is called the triphonetic root (tíršenfűlo). It may consist of a vowel (ØVØ, o-); a consonant and a vowel (CVØ, baa-); a consonant, a vowel(s), and a consonant (CVC, kup-); or a vowel(s) and a consonant (ØVC, em-).
  • 4.1.4 A lengthened triphonetic root can be formed by inserting a non-plosive consonant (N) before the last consonant (CVNC, le̋mb-; ØVNC, a̋st-).
  • 4.1.5 Derivatives of verbs may be formed by adding a proclitic element to the triphonetic root, e.g., an-dőőa, reciprocate. As with enclitics, the proclitic element is intoned on the basal pitch. These proclitic elements are linked to the root by a hyphen.
  • 4.1.6 To this triphonetic root are added the various prefixes and suffixes to form compound words, e.g., nouns from verbs.
  • 4.1.7 Nouns and pronouns, adjectives, adverbs, and postpositions not derived from verbs have their own forms independent of any triphonetic root. To these also may be added the various prefixes and suffixes to form other parts of speech, e.g., fĭrı̋ı̋si, toothless.


4.2 Compounding Rules – kaþzı̋los

  • 4.2.1 Compound words are very common in Senjecas. They are formed where other languages might use noun modifiers, e.g., ga̋þo, berry + va̋a̋ȝo, crop field = gaþva̋a̋ȝo , berry patch.
  • 4.2.2 If the first element in the compound word ends in a single consonant and the initial letter of the second element is a vowel, the second element is added to the root of the first element, e.g., ba̋na, wash + amvőro, tub = bánamvőro, washtub; őṡi, swift, + őre, hawk = oṡőre, goshawk.
  • 4.2.3 If the first element in the compound word ends in a single consonant and the initial letter of the second element is a consonant, the second element is added to the root, e.g., abe̋lo, apple + he̋e̋lo, cider = ábelhe̋e̋lo, apple cider. But remember lenition, e.g., e̋da, eat + pe̋e̋xo, plan = eðpe̋e̋xo, diet.
  • 4.2.4 If the root of the first element in the compound word ends in two consonants and the second element begins with a vowel, the second is added to the root, e.g., ha̋rmo, temple, + e̋ðo, vestibule = harme̋ðo, temple entrance hall.
  • 4.2.5 If the root of the first element in the compound word ends in two consonants and the second element begins with a consonant, an epenthetic <ĕ> is added for euphony, e.g., a̋lvi, barley + ȝőőuso, broth = alvĕȝőőuso, barley broth.
  • 4.2.6 If the first element in the compound word ends with a palatalized consonant, the palatal indicator is changed into the short vowel known as nı̋þi (weak i), e.g., hőlv̨e, swan + ha̋a̋ɫe, chick = holvĭha̋a̋ɫe, cygnet.
  • 4.2.7 If the first element in the compound word ends with a labialized consonant and the second element begins with a consonant the labial indicator is changed into the short vowel known as nı̋þu (weak u), e.g., al̬a, brew + de̋mo, building = alŭde̋mo, brewery.


4.3 Denominatives - feþgı̋ı̋naþos

  • Denominative words are compound words built on the root of a noun.

4.3.1 Denominative nouns from simple nouns

  • 4.3.1.1 Most of the names of animals have only one word for both sexes; these are known as epicene words, e.g., ve̋vre, beaver. In order to designate the sex of epicene words, a prefix is added.
To designate a male animal, the prefix is ur-, e.g., ur-ve̋vre, male beaver.
To designate a female animal, the prefix is ii-, e.g., ii-ve̋vre, female beaver.
  • 4.3.1.2 -a̋a̋gu combined with a noun forms a noun denoting a profession or occupation, e.g., m̃e̋ino, wine; m̃eina̋a̋gu, vintner; on̈a̋a̋m̃o, barge; ón̈aam̃a̋a̋gu, bargeman.
  • 4.3.1.3 aþ- combined with a noun forms a noun denoting the patronymic, e.g., aþ-zǫ̋ðlu, son/daughter of the farmer.
  • 4.3.1.4 -be̋la combined with the name of a body part forms a noun denoting the surgical excision of that part, e.g., ɠődo, stomach; ɠoðbe̋la, gastrectomy.
  • 4.3.1.5 -de̋mo combined with an animal name forms a noun denoting the residence of that animal, e.g., m̃e̋ȝe, bird; m̃eide̋mo, aviary.
  • 4.3.1.6 –e combined with a noun forms a noun denoting animals that are characterized by what is named in the noun, e.g., se̋e̋fa, grasp + na̋so, nose = seefna̋se, tapir.
  • 4.3.1.7 -e̋ðlo combined with the name of an animal forms a noun denoting a place frequented by that animal, e.g., arőőde, heron; ároode̋ðlo, heronry.
  • 4.3.1.8 -e̋l̨e combined with the name of a mammal forms a noun denoting the young of that mammal, e.g., na̋a̋ȝe, dog; naaȝe̋l̨e, puppy.
  • 4.3.1.9 -ı̋ı̋mo combined with a noun forms a noun denoting a solution of what is named in the noun, e.g., sa̋lo, salt; salı̋ı̋mo, salt water, brine.
  • 4.3.1.10 -ı̋ȝo combined with a noun forms a collective noun, e.g., ve̋do, glass; vedı̋ȝo, glassware; la̋a̋ne, red deer; laanı̋ȝo, herd of red deer.
  • 4.3.1.11 -k- combined with a noun forms a noun denoting a diminutive of or a term of endearment for the noun. Because this suffix is an enclitic, the primary intonation remains on the original syllable of the root word, e.g., ka̋a̋m̃e, eagle owl; ka̋a̋m̃ke, Scops owl.
  • 4.3.1.12 -me̋e̋lo combined with a noun forms a noun denoting the instrument that measures what is named in the noun, e.g., te̋na, time; tenme̋e̋lo, clock.
  • 4.3.1.13 -sa̋a̋r̈a combined with a noun forms a noun denoting the science, theory or study of what is named in the noun, -ology, e.g., n̨a̋ru, human; n̨arsa̋a̋r̈a, anthropology.
  • 4.3.1.15 -ṡe̋e̋m̃a combined with the name of a body part forms a noun denoting an inflammation of that part, e.g., ɠődo, stomach; ɠoðṡe̋e̋m̃a, gastritis.
  • 4.3.1.15 -ta combined with a noun forms a noun denoting the state, quality, or condition of being what is named in the verb or noun, -ty, -ness, -tude, -hood, e.g., ma̋a̋ma, mother; ma̋a̋mta, motherhood.
  • 4.3.1.16 -þűslu combined with a noun forms a noun denoting a person who works with the metal named in the noun, e.g., gı̋lo, gold; gilþűslu, goldsmith.
  • 4.3.1.17 -ve̋e̋l̤u combined with a noun forms a noun denoting the person in charge of what is named in the noun, e.g., ða̋mu, family; ðamve̋e̋l̤u, head of the family.
  • 4.3.1.18 –ż- combined with a noun augments the meaning of the noun, e.g., a̋a̋þe, fire; a̋a̋þże, conflagration.

4.3.2 Denominative nouns from simple adjectives

  • 4.3.2.1 -e combined with an adjective forms a noun denoting an animal that is characterized by what is named in the adjective, e.g., la̋ṡi, speckled; la̋ṡe, salmon.
  • 4.3.2.2 -ı̋ȝo combined with a cardinal number forms a noun denoting inanimate nouns of quantity, e.g., sa̋a̋d, six; saadı̋ȝo, hexad.
  • 4.3.2.3 -ı̋ȝu combined with a cardinal number forms a noun denoting animate nouns of quantity, e.g., sa̋a̋d, six; saadı̋ȝu, sextet.
  • 4.3.2.4 -o combined with an adjective forms a noun denoting a perceptible noun related to the adjective, e.g., epe̋li, infirm; epe̋lo, physical infirmity.
  • 4.3.2.5 -ta combined with an adjective forms a noun denoting the state, quality, or condition of being what is named in the adjective, -ty, -ness, -tude, e.g., re̋uði, red; re̋uðta, redness.
  • 4.3.2.6 -u combined with an adjective forms a noun denoting a person possessing the quality named in the adjective root, e.g., ma̋ƣi, young; ma̋ƣu, youth.

4.3.3 Denominative adjectives from nouns

  • 4.3.3.1 -i combined with a noun forms an adjective denoting the existence of or a relationship to what is named in the noun root, -(e)y, -(e)d, e.g., e̋lo, stripe; e̋li, striped.
  • 4.3.3.2 –m- combined with a noun forms an adjective denoting the possession of the physical attribute named in the noun root, -(e)y, -(e)d, e.g., pa̋a̋do, pouch; pa̋a̋ðme, marsupial. It is used in words where, in English, the –ed form would be used, e.g., főrmi, winged.
  • 4.3.3.3 -m̃- combined with a noun forms an adjective denoting pertaining to, connected with, belonging to, of the nature of, or characteristic of what is named in the noun root, e.g., ba̋a̋ve, cat; ba̋a̋vm̃i, feline, catlike. (cf. 4.3.3.4)
  • 4.3.3.4 –n- combined with a noun forms an adjective denoting similarity, likeness or resemblance to what is named in the noun root, -ish, -like, e.g., ba̋a̋ve, cat; ba̋a̋vni, like a cat. (cf. 4.3.3.3)
  • 4.3.3.5 –on- combined with a palatalized noun forms an adjective denoting made of the material named in the noun, e.g., taga̋ro, tin; tágar̨őni, made of tin, stannic.
  • 4.3.3.6 –r- combined with a noun forms an adjective denoting being full of what is named in the noun, -ful, e.g., űþa, (good) luck, fortune; űþri, lucky, fortunate.
  • 4.3.3.7 -s̨őőm- combined with a noun forms an adjective denoting imperviousness to or the ability to resist or withstand what is named in the noun, -proof, -tight, e.g., hűro, water; hurs̨őőmi, waterproof, watertight.
  • 4.3.3.8 –zini combined with a noun forms an adjective denoting having the shape or form of what is named in the noun, e.g., m̃e̋ho, wedge; m̃ehzı̋ni, wedge-shaped.

4.3.4 Denominative adjectives from adjectives

  • 4.3.4.1 –ti combined with a cardinal number forms an ordinal number, e.g., þűn, one; þűnti, first.
  • 4.3.4.2 –Vski combined with an adjective forms a moderative adjective denoting somewhat or rather, -ish, e.g., ða̋li, green; ðala̋ski, greenish. The V is the vowel of the adjectival root, although length is not repeated, e.g., kőőxi, blue; kooxőski, bluish.

4.3.5 Denominative adverbs from nouns

  • 4.3.5.1 –vi combined with a noun or numeral forms an adverb denoting a multiple of a quantity, by the..., in the..., e.g., főőd̬o, dozen; fóódŭvi, by the dozen; t̨űmo, thousand; t̨úmvi, in the thousands.

4.3.6 Denominative adverbs from adjectives

  • 4.3.6.1 –vi combined with an adjective forms an adverb, e.g., xa̋li, tardy; xálvi, tardily.

4.3.7 Denominative verbs from nouns and adjectives

  • 4.3.7.1 –ı̋d̨a combined with a noun or an adjective forms a transitive verb, e.g., bőri, gray; borı̋d̨a, to make or to color gray; e̋imo, copy; eimı̋d̨a, to copy.
  • 4.3.7.2 -űla combined with a noun or an adjective forms an intransitive verb meaning to change into, (i)fy, e.g., ta̋a̋ino, stone; taainűla, petrify.


4.4 Deverbatives - kaaþgı̋ı̋naþos

  • Deverbative words are compound words built on the root of a verb.

4.4.1 Deverbative nouns

  • 4.4.1.1 -aþu combined with a verb forms a noun denoting the recipient of the action expressed in the verb, e.g., kőla, imprison; kőlaþu, prisoner. Note that the primary pitch remains on the root vowel. This is, in fact, the patient participle used as a noun.
  • 4.4.1.2 -da̋ro combined with a verb forms a noun denoting the place where the action of the verb occurs, -ery, e.g., sa̋a, buy; sada̋ro, marketplace.
  • 4.4.1.3 -de̋mo combined with a verb forms a noun denoting a building where the action of the verb occurs, e.g., kőla, imprison; kolde̋mo, prison.
  • 4.4.1.4 -e combined with a verb forms a noun denoting an animal that is characterized by the action of the verb, e.g., ga̋m̃a, to caw; ga̋m̃e, crow.
  • 4.4.1.5 –lo combined with a verb forms a noun of instrument, e.g., lőṡa, t.v. saw; lőslo, saw.
  • 4.4.1.6 -lu combined with a verb forms a noun of agent, e.g., lőṡa, t.v. saw; lőslu, sawyer.
  • 4.4.1.7 -o combined with a verb forms a concrete noun related to the action of the verb, e.g., þa̋ma, to earn; þa̋mo, wage.
  • 4.4.1.8 -ra combined with a verb forms an abstract noun, -ment, -ness, -tion, -tude, -ty, e.g., mőṡa, betray; mősra, betrayal.
  • 4.4.1.9 -t̬i combined with a verb forms a noun denoting a medicine or other substance used to perform the action expressed by the verb, e.g., ba̋na, to wash; ba̋nt̬i, soap.

4.4.2 Deverbative adjectives from verbs

  • 4.4.2.1 –(ĕ)s- combined with a verb forms an adjective denoting having a tendency toward or inclination to perform the action expressed in the verb, e.g., da̋ba, attract; da̋vsi, attractive.
  • 4.4.2.2 -i combined with a palatalized verb root forms an adjective denoting having the capability of performing the action expressed in the verb, e.g., a̋iða, to burn; a̋ið̨i, combustible. If the root ends in a vowel, an epenthetic <ȝ> is inserted, e.g., me̋e̋a, to measure; me̋e̋ȝi, measurable.


4.5 Prefix formations

  • 4.5.1 al- combined with an adjective negates the adjective, e.g., a̋ṡ̨i, movable; ala̋ṡ̨i, immobile.
  • 4.5.2 ðees- combined with a noun forms a word with a spiritual or religious meaning, e.g., ma̋a̋ma, mother, ðeesma̋a̋ma, abbess.
  • 4.5.3 kaal- combined with an adjective of color denotes a darker shade, e.g., ða̋li, green; kaalða̋li, dark green.
  • 4.5.4 ɫen- combined with a verb forms a word denoting to an excessive degree, e.g., ƣa̋a̋va, hold; ɫenƣa̋a̋va, hold on.
  • 4.5.5 ɫiið- combined with an adjective of color denotes a lighter shade, e.g., vı̋mi, orange, ɫiiðvı̋mi, light orange.
  • 4.5.6 mel- combined with an adjective of color denotes a darker shade, darker than kaal-, e.g., ða̋li, green; melða̋li, dark green.
  • 4.5.7 m̃i- (m̨̃ before a vowel) combined with a verb forms the conversive, e.g., ȝűga, harness; m̃iȝűga, unharness; őuta, dress; m̨̃őuta, undress.
  • 4.5.8 pel- combined with a verb denotes a lighter shade, lighter than ɫiið-, e.g., xűli, yellow; pelxűli, pale yellow.
  • 4.5.9 v- combined with a noun or adjective beginning with a vowel denotes a lack of something, -less, e.g., ı̋ṡa, hope; vı̋ṡa, despair. If the word begins with a consonant, the prefix is joined by a weak vowel, considering vowel harmony, e.g., da̋ri, tree; vĭda̋ri, treeless. If the word begins with a voiceless consonant the prefix is f-, e.g., þőno, help; fŭþőni, adj. helpless.


4.6 Formation of geographic names

  • 4.6.1 There are three ways to form the name of a country.
    • 4.6.1.1 The name of the country is respelled according to Senjecan phonetics, e.g., Andorra, andőra; Brazil, bárazı̋la; Taiwan, taȝ̌a̋na.
    • 4.6.1.2 The palatalization of the final consonant + -a is appended to a noun to create a noun denoting a country named from its inhabitants, e.g., germa̋nu, German; germa̋n̨a, Germany; pastűnu, Pashtun; pastűn̨a, Afghanistan; ange̋lu, Angle; ange̋l̨a, England. If the noun ends in a vowel, -n̨a is added, e.g., sefda̋a̋es, seven rivers; sefda̋a̋n̨a, Sefdaania.
    • 4.6.1.3 The Senjecan name is a calque of the native name, e.g., the Netherlands, níterna̋a̋las.
  • 4.6.2 –ru combined with a place name (formed according to 4.6.1.1 and 4.6.1.3) forms a noun denoting an inhabitant of that place, e.g., bárazı̋lru, Brazilian; ȝísrae̋lru, Israeli; monőixru, Monegasque.
  • 4.6.3 -m̃- combined with the inhabitant's name forms the adjective, e.g., germa̋nm̃i, German; ámerı̋xm̃i, American.


Senjecas Orthographies