Senjecas - List of Postpositions

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Pronunciation table

peműko
(labial)
riisűko
(dental)
muitűko
(alveolar)
vainűko
(palatal)
ṡ̨uuše̋nos
(vowels)
nı̋þo ṡ̨uuše̋nos
(weak vowels)
p
b f v m t d þ ð ɫ l ż s z r n k g x ƣ h ȝ š i e a ɔ o u ĭ ĕ ŭ
/p/ /b/ /ɸ/ /β/ /m̥/ /m/ /t/ /d/ /θ/ /ð/ /l̥/ /l/ /ʦ/ /ʣ/ /s/ /z/ /ɾ̥/ /n/ /k/ /g/ /ç/ /ʝ/ /j̊/ /j/ /sʷ/ /sʲ/ /i/ /e/ /ä/ /ɒ/ /o/ /u/ /ɪ/ /ɛ/ /ʊ/


List of postpositions

Non-derivative postpositions - algı̋ı̋no pos̈a̋m̃os

  • 1. áda denotes in association or connection with: among(st), with(in).
no m̃a̋a̋sto leuðős áða le̋uða gűa e̋sa:
That is a custom popular among(st)/with the desert people
koldemős áfa tum še̋vu mu-m̃aka̋s áða vűűa ne:
It is not within my power to free you from prison.
  • 2. áfa denotes separation from support, attachment or position: off (of), from, of.
m̃úm áfa þűn
one of us
t̨e̋ƣse mőre e-t̨e̋ga da mı̋mu nem áfa e-főőla:
The skittish horse shied and the rider fell off it.
duspőrvu riine̋ȝu boþa̋s áfa hesáhvi dűűraþu e-ı̋la:
The corrupt mayor was removed from office yesterday.
  • 3. ána denotes change to, toward, or at an elevated place literally or figuratively: up (to).
šı̋naþu ii-s̨űűþlu ra̋ȝom ána ááþvi e-re̋e̋sa:
The threatened milkmaid quickly ran up the hill.
  • 4. ápa denotes removal from or location at a certain place or time either literally or figuratively: from, away from.
laanı̋ȝo re̋e̋pante bı̋ı̋rem ápa e-re̋e̋sa:
The herd of red deer ran away from the prowling lion.
  • 5. ba denotes on or toward the exterior of: outside, without.
m̃us ðurős ba tőro þı̋mom e-ve̋na:
We heard a loud noise outside the door.
m̃úm e-rekantűm. m̃u-þőősu terős ba e-ṡűra:
Our opponent stood without the room while we decided.
  • 6. do denotes motion towards literally or figuratively: to, toward, at, into.
a̋a̋do ta̋do lı̋ı̋me da̋a̋em do e-a̋ta:
The thirsty herd moved off toward the flooding river.
ȝuþne̋ðlu ȝőbante ve̋rem do ta̋a̋inom e-ȝe̋e̋a:
The hiker threw the rock at the approaching bear.
ba̋a̋k̬o ṡúm̃vi le̋e̋tam ǧa̋ron do u-a̋a̋ta:
Tomorrow the flock will move into the mountains for the summer.
tú sa̋ram do a̋tek̬e ra̋a̋dek̬e:
Go to the party and have a good time.
  • 7. dúna denotes at or during a time anterior to; before, by, no later than, of, to.
tú duua̋s dúna íðu vűűe:
Be here by/no later than sunset.
d̬őfoos te̋nlas pe̋n tena̋s dúna
twenty minutes of/to five
éȝu. rı̋ı̋ba i-aha̋s dúna. num m̃e̋e̋rum e-vűűu ðe̋ra:
To this very day, he insists he was right.
  • 8. éha denotes movement or direction from the inside to the outside: (out) of, from (within).
tűgu pe̋e̋l̤us a̋iðanto demős éha e-re̋e̋sa:
The frightened occupants ran from the burning building.
mı̋mum ɔ́nu e-mı̋mantum—ii-be̋kus tungős éha e-ża̋ba:
The young women were looking out (of) the window when the knight rode by.
na̋a̋ðrus ðuunős éha ṡata̋' še̋nom e-ve̋na:
The villagers heard the sound of fighting from within the fortress.
  • 9. éna denotes stationary position or location within or movement into: at, in, into, on, to.
pempe̋lo ta̋a̋inżo raȝős niterős éna ṡe̋ȝu e-tőpa:
The gigantic boulder came to rest at the bottom of the hill.
tú m̃aspe̋go e̋rgom éna pe̋lkon ðeee̋ȝa:
Please put the dishes in the cupboard on the left.
ṡűvlu ṡeȝős néra ı̋vkom éna kűgom e-ðe̋e̋a:
The maid put the quilted clothing into the box under the bed.
  • 10. épa denotes accordance with: after the manner of, after, at, behind, in, under, according to, in terms of, as, in the role of.
ii-mı̋mu mal̤űm épa eȝu-mőrem e-mı̋ma:
The rider rode her horse after the manner of the nomads.
ṡa̋þm̃us soþveel̤űs eevős épa e-ȝűða:
At the general's command the troops charged.
ȝa mol̤űs kőzu peeka̋s épa e-vűűa—te̋ido e-e̋sa:
It was clear that the miller’s wife was behind the plan.
no. reeƣűs ȝűűno þ̨orős épa. dőraþo ile̋ȝa mee:
Under the king's new law, that would not be allowed.
  • 11. éva denotes position on top of literally or figuratively: on, over, to, upon.
tu eðős éna serős éva ṡa̋bom u-de̋e̋sa:
You will find the hat on the table in the hall.
ma̋l̤us że̋e̋ro reðnős éva re̋uði te̋e̋rt̬im e-te̋e̋ra:
The nomads applied red paint to the old wagon.
dőxlu maat̨őno serős éva a̋ito m̃e̋vom e-ðe̋e̋a:
The teacher put a variegated cloth over the wooden table.
  • 12. ha denotes causality: at, because of, by, for, in, of, on account of, by reason of, in consequence of, as a result of, out of, owing-, due -to, from, through, under, with.
dı̋slu m̃u-igős ha m̃enðónu terkős ðűrom e-lűra:
At our request, the guard finally opened the cell door.
m̃us ṡarsa̋a̋ke suum̃e̋s ha a̋tu e-ma̋ƣa ne:
Because of the torrential rain we could not go.
ii-re̋e̋ƣu mexa̋s þáfa eȝu-govta̋s ha de̋ku e-vűűa:
The queen was famous throughout the land for her beauty.
m̃us i-sepa̋m ha na̋a̋nu ke̋la:
Under these circumstances, we should turn back.
le̋uðu nakaþős ha naaa̋s ha ðe̋inu e-ı̋la:
At the sight the people went pale with fear.
  • 13. ȝúṡa denotes situation or partition between two or more entities: among(st), (in) between, through, with.
þa̋la voourlűm ȝúṡa vűűla ne:
There is no honor among(st) thieves.
de̋e̋ȝos m̃eesősk̬e beƣősk̬e ȝúṡa vűűa:
The beehives are between the house and the barn.
i-lűvo me̋e̋o ma̋non ȝúṡa kĭke̋e̋da:
This book has passed through many hands.
  • 14. kóma denotes physical proximity: about, beside, by, next to, on.
om̃ta̋ðlu raȝős éva noivdarős kóma miþa̋a̋gum e-me̋na:
The shepherd waited beside the shrine on the hill for the messenger.
  • 15. la denotes on this side of.
vőðlus m̃eesős la ı̋vkom e-de̋e̋sa:
The diggers found the box on this side of the house.
  • 16. n̨a denotes change to, toward or at a lower place either literally or figuratively: down (through).
me̋ṡe ha̋iṡim n̨a e-re̋na:
The monkey climbed down the tree.
éȝu dı̋lanĕ n̨a mu-vı̋lu e-e̋sa:
He has been my friend down through the years.
d̬ő űðres da̋a̋em n̨a m̃u-la̋im̃om e-da̋ga:
The two otters followed our canoe down the river.
  • 17. o denotes the indirect object of the verb: for, to; or indicates a relationship to an adjective: to.
re̋uðok̬e xűlok̬e i-na̋nos tús o e̋sa:
These red and yellow flowers are for you.
eȝu-sa̋m̃no orűm o te̋ido e-vűűa:
His speech was clear to all.
  • 18. ɔ́na denotes on the farther side of time or space literally or figuratively: after, around, behind, beyond, by, on the other side of, outside, past.
te̋na meðlaata̋s ɔ́na e̋sa:
The time is after/past midnight.
műdu őmu kéþu ten̈e̋msom ɔ́na e-tőpa:
The exhausted army arrived way behind schedule.
va̋rsim seea̋s tááda tena̋s ɔ́na e̋sa:
It is beyond/past the time for sowing barley.
m̃al̤űs ne̋e̋ra pe̋e̋ka nı̋þa mu-þumra̋s ɔ́na e̋sa:
The master’s ingenious plan is beyond/past my feeble understanding.
re̋iðlu k̨ősaþo ðűűnom ɔ́na m̃e̋ƣom e-re̋iða:
The driver drove the wagon by/past the beseiged fortress.
soþlűs ƣőlvo kı̋o eȝu-boþa̋s ɔ́na e-e̋sa:
The soldier's brave action was outside his duty.
rem̃rűs żőőnaþu főő ɔ́na lűku e-fe̋e̋a ne:
The peasant’s child couldn't count past 10.
  • 19. sána denotes having a lack of something; without.
t̬ı̋ɫus tı̋r a̋han m̃a̋stom tára hurő' sána e-ta̋ƣa:
The survivors traveled three days across the desert without water.
  • 20. sííra denotes up to a limit; at the edge of, as far as, as many as, to, until/till, (up) to.
ka̋a̋ðlu peliső' sííra e-ṡűra: péru e-ı̋ta:
The murderer stood at the edge of the cliff, then jumped.
m̃us da̋a̋em sííra tum u-sűna:
We will go with you as far as the river.
tu pe̋n abelőm sííra gae̋ȝa:
You may have as many as five apples.
abe̋li bı̋n peda̋m sííra e-a̋la:
The apple tree grew to a height of eight feet.
m̃us needa̋' sííra tum u-me̋na:
We will wait for you until/till sunup.
ginda̋a̋gu tűbom sííra mu-gı̋ndom e-pe̋e̋la:
The cupbearer filled my cup (up) to the brim.
  • 21. ša denotes exception; apart from, beside, besides, but for, except, save, not to-, -speak of, -mention, other than, outside.
m̃u-nuvke̋e̋sa þűn ðuső' ša dı̋zra e-vűűa:
Apart from that one storm, our vacation was wonderful.
tu-tőso ȝoba̋' ša e̋sa:
Your statement is beside the point.
néu bilűsk̬e músk̬e ša íðu vűűla:
There's no one here besides Bill and me.
őmu ṡaþmórmimlűs ze̋go kiő' ša ṡa̋tom hĭhaȝe̋ȝa:
But for the cavalryman’s brave deed, the army would have lost the battle.
őru éȝus mú' ša tóru e-vűűa:
They were all there except/save me.
dűƣlus ṡaþm̃űs o me̋e̋e kake̋m ša tı̋r ǧőősen e-nı̋ı̋xa:
The cooks served the troops three oxen, not to speak of/mention the many chickens.
mu paadős éna pa̋uo piinkőm ša néo pı̋ı̋nom űda:
I have no money other than the few coins in my pocket.
néo govta̋' ša eȝús o vűűa:
Outside her beauty, she has nothing going for her.
  • 22. ṡ̨úfa denotes in the course of; during, for, in, in the process-, -course-, -of, on, through, throughout, under
m̃us leeta̋s ṡ̨úfa še̋ma:
During the summer we go swimming.
m̃us vı̋l̤us me̋e̋a kalta̋m ṡ̨úfa e̋e̋sa:
We have been friends through many trials.
m̃e̋kos reeƣűs zila̋s ṡ̨úfa m̃éumvi vĭva̋dos e-e̋sa:
Under the king's rule things were much better.
  • 23. þáfa denotes duration or extension through space literally or figuratively; (all) over, through(out).
me̋ża ba̋ȝa mexa̋s þáfa e-vűűla:
Throughout the nation there was great joy.
ga̋a̋ȝu őro vutiȝős þáfa ve̋naþo ı̋lu e-ma̋ƣa:
The singing could be heard (all) over the whole camp.
re̋e̋ƣu m̃űn ðűűnom þáfa male̋ȝu e-te̋e̋a:
The king said we might wander through the castle.
  • 24. úúda denotes egress; out of, from.
bőőde eȝe-dűpom úúda e-főőla:
The chick fell out of its nest.


Derivative postpositions - gı̋ı̋no pos̈a̋m̃os

  • 25. altéua denotes paying no attention to: regardless of [< al, negating prefix; te̋ua, t.v. pay attention to].
mu dagőm altéu' a̋ta:
I am going regardless of the consequences.
  • 26. dása denotes on the authority of: by [< da̋sa, t.v. govern].
k̨uðdı̋slu daslűs dása őnom e-e̋ma:
The coast guard seized the cargo on the authority of the governor.
  • 27. déla denotes reference: with reference to, as to [< de̋la, t.v. refer to].
mu meta̋s déla kı̋rom sa̋a̋ra ne:
As to your question, I don’t know the answer.
  • 28. déxa denotes in order to obtain or acquire: for [< de̋xa, t.v. obtain, acquire].
tu sade̋mom do toolőm déxa a̋tu ma̋ƣame:
Can you go to the store for some eggs?
  • 29. ðééa denotes in place of, replacement or preference: for, instead of, in lieu of, rather than [< ðe̋e̋a, t.v. put, place].
e̋rlus erőm ðééa fa̋lonĕ ne̋udu e-ke̋la:
The rowers had to use boards for oars.
m̃us ǧom̃ős ðééa dorős kíma þe̋som e-e̋da:
Instead of beef we had lamb for supper.
vőőƣlu i-voogős éna k̨ortemős ðéé' abe̋lon e-ne̋uda:
The baker used apples rather than pears in this cake.
  • 30. éba denotes eventuality: in case of, against [< e̋ba, t.v. befall, bechance].
m̃u' suum̃ős éba beƣős éna u-sa̋ra:
In case of rain, we'll have the party in the barn.
nu' sűűm̃' aha̋s éba pı̋ı̋nom a̋uka:
They are saving money against a rainy day.
  • 31. éȝa denotes in charge of: in charge of, with [< e̋ȝa, t.v. entrust].
nu le̋e̋mon műűlu éȝa vűűa:
She is in charge of planting the vegetables.
  • 32. éra denotes done on behalf of, for the benefit, sake, or interest of someone: for [< e̋ra, t.v. take advantage of, benefit].
m̃us leudős éra íðu vűűa:
We are here on behalf of the people.
  • 33. éta denotes addition: as well as, besides, in addition to, with [< étu, adv. also, too, as well, likewise].
sausm̃evős éta šemőutom toƣe̋ȝa:
Please bring your swimming suit as well as your towel.
da̋mu e̋fu maama̋s éta eȝús o mɔ̋ɔ̋ru e̋sa:
Besides a mother, he has an invalid older sister to support.
éȝu xirős éta mőrem e-sa̋a:
He bought the horse with the saddle.
  • 34. fára denotes in preparation for: for [< fa̋ri, adj. ready].
m̃ús ṡ̬ena̋s fára bege̋ȝa:
Let’s brew some millet beer (in preparation) for the celebration.
mu-taƣős fára bűtu ke̋la:
I must pack for my trip.
  • 35. fésa denotes before in time: before, previous to [< fe̋si, adj. earlier, prior].
leuðm̃e̋ƣo naaża̋s fésa vı̋da:
The bus leaves before noon.
  • 36. f̨óþa denotes being able to see by some light: by, in [< f̨őþo, light].
pa̋a̋vo zeere̋s f̨óþa na̋k̨o e-ı̋la:
By the light of the moon the road became more visible.
  • 37. góþa denotes similarity or likeness: like, similar to [< gőþa, t.v. make similar, resemble.].
tu-eðdőka mu-eðdoka̋s góþa e̋sa:
Your recipe is like/similar to mine.
tu voutős góþa nűmon e-ża̋a̋da:
You spread out the heavens like a tent.
  • 38. íla denotes change from one form into another: into [< ı̋la, i.v. become].
ga̋a̋lem e-le̋ża: m̃enantűm íla éȝem e-űűra:
He gathered air. He crafted it into loving beings:
  • 39. ı́za denotes descent from: down from [< ı̋za, t.v. descend, go down].
korős ı́za re̋nantu da̋rlu e-főőla:
The workman fell climbing down from the roof.
  • 40. ȝéta denotes relating to someone or something: toward, in relation to [< ȝe̋ta, t.v. have to do with, relate to].
tu-űtos eȝús ȝéta xos vűűa:
What are your feelings toward him?
  • 41. ȝóba denotes proximity: near, about, by, next to, on, close to, against [< ȝőba, t.v. approach, draw near].
mı̋ı̋nlu leðős éna eherős ȝóba nomős éna e-m̃e̋e̋sa:
The fisherman lived in a home by/on the lake in the valley.
be̋ƣo m̃eesős ȝóba e̋sa: tu ta̋sen ve̋nu ma̋ƣa:
The barn is close to the house. You can hear the animals.
sa̋mu m̃eesős ȝóba m̃e̋ƣom e-ṡűra:
The shaman parked the wagon against the house.
  • 42. ȝúa denotes interiority: inside, within [< ȝűi, adj. inside; interior].
kűno nı̋ı̋go vőm̃aþo abelős ȝúa e-vűűa:
Inside each baked apple was a walnut.
mőres sa̋ko riȝős ȝúa dőraþes ı̋la ne:
Horses are not permitted within the holy city.
  • 43. kéésa denotes from a past time: since [< ke̋e̋sa, t.v. while (away)].
mu hesdila̋s kéésa éȝum żĭże̋e̋na:
I have known her since last year.
  • 44. kía denotes agency: by [< kı̋a, t.v. work, do].
éȝu taata̋s kía ka̋a̋daþu ı̋la:
He was killed by his father.
  • 45. kíma denotes intention: for [< kı̋ma, t.v. intend].
mu dorős kíma m̃e̋inom u-sa̋a:
I will buy the wine for the dinner.
  • 46. kúȝa denotes gratitude for: thanks to [< kűȝa, t.v. thank].
eȝu-dooős kúȝa mu-e̋dom sa̋u e-ma̋ƣa:
Thanks to his donation, I was able to buy my food.
  • 47. láába denotes hanging down from: on [< la̋a̋ba, i.v. hang down loosely].
abe̋los haiṡı̋m láába a̋la:
Apples grow on trees.
  • 48. méṡa denotes in a parallel direction: along, alongside of [< me̋ṡa, t.v. lie alongside].
ve̋e̋ðlus fűrom þáfa pa̋a̋vom méṡa e-ne̋da:
The hunters walked along the road through the forest.
na̋a̋ȝe mumĕ méṡa saxm̃e̋e̋som do őra a̋tam e-re̋e̋sa:
The dog ran alongside me all the way to the tavern.
  • 49. með- denotes the middle; the exact meaning is determined by the postposition to which it is prefixed [< me̋ði, adj. middle].
ne̋sku terős meðéna e-ṡűrak̬' e-ɫı̋ı̋gak̬e:
The girl stood in the middle of the room and cried.
éȝu pósu lőukomĕ méðdo e-re̋e̋sa:
Then she ran to the middle of the field.
  • 50. méta denotes at the same time as [< métu, adv. at the same time].
éȝu mús méta he̋lem e-na̋ka:
She saw the lightning at the same time as me.
m̃us gindős nűno haðdepős méta va̋a̋om e-żűsa:
We enjoyed a conversation over a fine cup of lavender tea.
  • 51. méþa denotes in the center of [< me̋þa, t.v. center, focus].
m̃ú' se̋rom méþa na̋non ðeee̋ȝa:
Let’s put the flowers in the center of the table.
  • 52. móóda denotes the manner, method, way by which something is done: with, by means of, through, in [< mőőda, means, method].
raaðta̋s móóda ȝűmum nı̋ı̋xe:
Serve God with gladness.
  • 53. m̃ása denotes to or on the side of a person or thing toward the north when facing the rising sun: on-, to-, -the left [< m̃a̋si, adj. left].
be̋ku eȝu-taata̋s m̃ása e-ṡűra:
The young man stood to the left of his father.
sőþlu ha̋iṡim m̃ása e-re̋e̋sa:
The soldier ran to the left of the tree.
  • 54. néra denotes at or to a lower level than something else literally or figuratively: behind, below, beneath, under(neath) [< ne̋ri, adj. under].
re̋e̋slu þ̨axős néra la̋kom e-ȝa̋fa:
The runner broke his leg below the knee.
fa̋ṡo sűðo ka̋l' o-niivrős néra bűþa:
Beneath that stern visage beats a kindly heart.
zɔ̋ðlu m̃eesős n̨erős néra eȝu-goolƣa̋vom e-ðőőva:
The farmer buried his treasure under(neath) the floor of his house.
  • 55. nóóla denotes to the extent of: by [< nőőla, t.v. size].
n̨a̋ro pe̋n bı̋n nóóla me̋a:
The picture measures 5 by 8.
éȝu þűn ṡidős nóóla tĭt̨a̋a̋ru efű' sóma vűűa:
He is shorter than his older sister by one inch.
  • 56. nóma denotes to or at the home of someone [< nőmo, home].
m̃us riineȝűs nóma tum u-pa̋na:
We will meet you at the home of the mayor.
ȝŭȝűűnus riine̋ȝum nóma e-re̋e̋sa:
The younger ones ran to the home of the mayor.
  • 57. n̨áxa denotes disregard for: despite, in spite of, for, in face of, notwithstanding [< n̨a̋xa, t.v. defy].
be̋ku gaudős eȝu-egős n̨áxa e-ve̋e̋da:
The young man went hunting despite his lack of experience.
a-sőþlu sóólvi þűn be̋som űðu n̨áxa dűbu da̋a̋rlu vűűa:
That soldier is a good worker for having only one arm.
  • 58. n̨óópa denotes in a position forward of: in front of, before, ahead of, against, in advance of [< n̨őőpo, front].
va̋mlu tozdemős n̨óópa e-ṡűra:
The priest stood in front of the church.
ṡiṡűs nı̋zo éȝum n̨óópa e-me̋m̃a da éȝum e-tűga:
The child’s shadow advanced before/ahead of him and frightened him.
m̃us żı̋mo posnákaþős n̨óóp' alkénvi na̋non e-na̋ka:
We saw the flowers easily against the dark background.
  • 59. óita denotes the taking of an oath; by, in the name of [< őito, oath].
mu ȝuműs óita éȝom kı̋u ma̋ƣa:
By God, I can do it.
  • 60. péga denotes position at or movement towards the side of something or someone; at-, to-, -the side of [< pe̋go, side].
me̋vlus mevsárterős péga e-se̋da:
The dancers sat at the side of the ballroom.
ṡı̋ṡus leida̋ulom péga e-re̋e̋sa:
The children ran to the side of the playground.
  • 61. pósa denotes posterior to in time or space; after, behind, following.
m̃úm m̃enðónu tŭtopaþűm. naaża̋s pósa e-e̋sa:
It was after noon when we finally arrived.
mu mús pósa ȝaṡős aaþe̋s műxom na̋ku e-ma̋ƣa:
I could see the smoke of the pine forest fire behind me.
ǧe̋nus ṡatős pósa t̬iɫőnun e-ve̋da:
Following the battle, the women looked for survivors.
  • 62. réiða denotes a means of conveyance; by [< re̋iða, t.v. drive, ride].
soorta̋ƣlus reðnős réiða noiivda̋rom do e-a̋ta:
The pilgrims went by wagon to the shrine.
  • 63. ríza denotes support; in-, -support-, -favor-, -of [< rı̋za, t.v. prop, support].
le̋udu reeƣűs tolős ríza vűűa:
The people are in favor of the king’s decree.
  • 64. sépa denotes reference or interest; concerning, concern with, about. [< se̋pa, t.v. treat (of), concern].
pe̋rlu saarkős áfa vőőuraþo doþős sépa néxom e-sa̋a̋ra:
The ferryman knew nothing regarding/as regards/about the money stolen from the treasury.
  • 65. sóma denotes comparison, compared to, than [< sőma, t.v. liken, compare].
sa hesdila̋' sóma tı̋ı̋þa le̋e̋ta e-e̋sa ne:
Compared to last year, this was not a hot summer.
mőre mĭme̋że m̃ake̋' sóma e̋sa:
A horse is bigger than a cow.
  • 66. ṡóta denotes position on both sides of something; astraddle, astride [< ṡőta, straddle, bestraddle, bestride].
hűsu turős þóla e-se̋da:
The boy perched astraddle the fence.
lűmlu eȝu-paame̋s þóla e-se̋da:
The wizard sat astride his dragon.
  • 67. súna denotes accompaniment in time or space; with, in company with, along with [< sűna, t.v. accompany].
m̃u-pőiku' őra sı̋xam eȝu-orpűm súna e-le̋ida:
Our sons played with their cousins all afternoon.
ṡ̨őƣlu tı̋r eepűm súna sade̋mom e-ka̋da:
The trader in company with three associates robbed the store.
ii-asűru ɫiirlűm súna e-gaȝa̋sa:
The princess began to sing along with the minstrels.
  • 68. šéða denotes possessing a special characteristic; characteristic of, with [< še̋ða, t.v. characterize].
mu-ta̋a̋ta miiṡő' šéða m̃ı̋ru e̋sa:
My father is the man with the moustache.
  • 69. šóóða denotes from one side of an opening to another; through [< šőőða, t.v. pass-, go-, -through].
éȝu tűngom šóóða þűslum e-ȝe̋e̋a:
He threw the hammer through the window.
  • 70. ṡ̨óga denotes in exchange for, literally or figuratively: (in-, -exchange-, -return-) -for.[< ṡ̨őga, t.v. exchange].
tu-ǧiiȝa̋s ṡ̨óga re̋e̋se:
Run for your life!
mu tu-l̨omős ṡ̨óga tús o tı̋r abe̋lon u-dőőa:
I will give you three apples for your bow.
  • 71. tááda denotes purpose; for, in order to [< ta̋a̋da, t.v. do on purpose].
m̃us m̃ite̋ra siiga̋s tááda ka̋ltam le̋mu e-pe̋ra:
We tried to break down the problem for further study.
  • 72. táɫa denotes to or on the side of a person or thing toward the south when facing the rising sun: on, to-, -the right of [< ta̋ɫi, adj. right(-hand)].
ii-asűru eȝu-taata̋s reeƣűs táɫa e-se̋da:
The princess sat to the right of her father the king.
  • 73. tára denotes motion from one side to the other; across, on the other side of, over [< ta̋ra, t.v. cross].
ii-ba̋nlus vőgom tára ṡŭṡ̬őko ðeeős éna e-m̃a̋a̋ða:
The washerwomen waded across the stream at its shallowest part.
tú terős tára se̋dom ðeee̋ȝa:
Please put the chair on the other side of the room.
se̋haþu ṡa̋þmus þőlom tára e-vűga:
The defeated troops fled over the bridge.
  • 74. túȝa denotes with respect or regard to; in/with regard to, with respect to, regarding, as regards, about, with, on, for, in [< tűȝa, t.v. consider].
mu tu-miþős túȝa ṡúm̃vi u-kı̋ı̋ra:
In/with regard to your letter, I will answer tomorrow.
mu tu-m̃ida̋s túȝa ṡa̋a̋ma:
With respect to your knowledge, I disagree.
mu—ȝa tu-kőzu tanɠőno dooős túȝa u-se̋ba—ne̋sa:
I am sure your wife will be pleased with this mother-of-pearl gift.
ruunȝara̋s túȝa áulmuþı̋ȝu
The Committee on Orthography
(tú) i-sim̃ős túȝa bŭbőőko ne̋e̋tom ne̋ude:
For this stitch, use a heavier thread.
mu-dőxlu nomvagős túȝa mum e-re̋e̋ga:
My teacher helped me with my homework.
marvőőurlu þűn t̬alős túȝa re̋e̋mu e-e̋sa:
The pirate was blind in one eye.
  • 75. þála denotes in honor of [< þa̋la, t.v. honor, award].
éȝus ka̋a̋daþu asurűs þála þőlom e-fe̋e̋ta:
They named the bridge in honor of the murdered prince.
  • 76. þééxa denotes foundation or dependence; based-, depending-, -on [< þe̋e̋xa, t.v. rest-, be based-, -on].
m̃us eȝu-kiirős þééxa da̋rom u-se̋e̋ra:
Depending on his response, we will continue the work.
  • 77. þifápa denotes at a far distance; far away from [< þı̋fi, adj. distant; a̋pi, adj. away].
m̃us i-ǧarős þifápa m̃e̋e̋sa:
We live far away from these mountains.
  • 78. þóósa denotes in opposition to, in contact with, against, contrary to, into, on, opposed to, opposite, up, with [< þőősa, t.v. oppose, face].
vı̋smu őőðlus a̋a̋to ṡűrkom þóósa e̋ru e-ke̋la:
The desperate fugitives had to row against the swift current.
m̃us darı̋s þóósa ṡı̋lantu műdu re̋e̋slum e-na̋ka:
We saw the exhausted runner leaning against the tree.
mu vĭva̋a̋da mu-meda̋s þóósa som kı̋a:
I do this against/contrary to my better judgment.
da̋mu eȝu-damős þóósa na̋a̋rom e-ha̋ȝa:
The patient lost the struggle against his illness.
fűðnaþu eȝu-þamős þóósa fesþa̋mom e-ı̋ga:
The employee asked for an advance against his salary.
dúslatőlu ṡı̋ṡ' uflős þóósa va̋a̋dom że̋e̋na néstu:
The poor child does not yet know good from bad.
mőőm̃aþu da̋a̋rlu da̋rim þóósa e-re̋e̋sa:
The dazed workman ran into the tree.
ðűűnom þóósa ȝűðo ṡum̃a̋s fára pe̋e̋kaþo e-ı̋la:
The attack on the castle was planned for tomorrow.
rı̋ı̋rus asurű' sőtu þóósa e-vűűa:
The citizens were opposed to the prince’s going to war.
ża̋vlu a̋a̋þem ża̋bu tááda gooldarős þóósa da̋rim e-re̋na:
The onlooker climbed the tree opposite the store to look at the fire.
ǧe̋nu (eȝu-)potűs þóósa e-le̋ida:
The woman played opposite her husband.
pűűmus m̃e̋e̋em þóósa na̋a̋m̃om na̋a̋m̃u e-ke̋la:
The explorers had to sail the boat up wind.
eȝu-ȝorűs þóósa ṡa̋tantu e-a̋ha:
He spent the day fighting with his younger brother.
reeƣűs n̨a̋ro godős þóósa kőranþo vŭvűűa:
The picture of the king has been hanging on the wall.
  • 79. þóla denotes at or to the two sides of a place or thing; on both sides of [< þőlo, bridge].
ṡı̋mżo daae̋s þóla e-e̋sa:
The town was on both sides of the river.
  • 80. þóna denotes assistance; with help [< þőna, t.v. help, aid].
mu eȝús þóna meedős éna a̋a̋þem e-ǧe̋sa:
I put out the fire in the attic with his help.
  • 81. úfa denotes the position of the body with the front toward the object; facing [< űfa, t.v. face, look out on].
alta̋a̋bu ṡı̋ṡu godős úfa e-ṡűra:
The disobedient child stood facing the wall.
  • 82. úpa denotes to or at a higher level than something else literally or figuratively; above, over [< űpi, adj. upper, higher].
mı̋mlu niimős úpa ve̋e̋mom e-ƣa̋va:
The knight held the sword above his head.
ga̋s' ehe̋rom úpa e-k̬iilpe̋ta:
The osprey hovered over the lake.
  • 83. vóóa denotes encirclement or in or to various directions or locations [< vőői, adj. both, ambi-].
főőd̬o m̃aat̨őno se̋dos ketős vóóa e-vűűa:
About/On all sides of/All about the living room were twelve wooden chairs.
sevta̋ƣlus íþsada̋rom vóóa e-ma̋la.
The tourists wandered about/around the meat market.
sőtu asűru eȝu-ðuunős vóóa fa̋dom e-de̋ma:
The warlike prince built a wall around his castle.
  • 84. xéma denotes instrumentality; with, by means of [< xe̋mo, tool].
meðna̋mu siimlős xéma ðűrom lűru e-ma̋ƣa:
By means of a knife the policeman was able to open the door.
ve̋e̋mlu eȝu-veemős xéma n̨e̋tum e-ka̋a̋da:
The swordsman killed the enemy with his sword.


Senjecas - List of Conjunctions