- Main article: Qihep
Qihep morphology includes every morphological feature of the Qihep language.
- 1 Typological description
- 2 Nouns
- 3 Adjectives
- 4 Pronouns
- 5 Postpositions
- 6 Numbers
- 7 Verbs
- 8 Derivative morphology
Typologically speaking, Qihep is an isolating language, that means its words never change nor add any additional ending to show number, gender, tense, aspect, modality, etc.
Let's see an example of a simple sentence:
Analysing the sentence: * Ul: means I * la: it's a grammatical particle which shows the idea of plural * nār: means that * vran: means person * ta: it's a grammatical particle, conveying the idea of past * śak: means follow * fa: it's a grammatical particle, conveying the idea of action complete
Grammar roles and complements are conveyed by the position in the sentence, by grammatical particles and by postpositions. Grammatical particles are not strictly needed and can be left out of the sentence if the meaning is clear from the context. For example, in the previous sentence, the particle ta can be easily omitted if it's clear that we are talking about the past.
Even if there is no strict morphology, Qihep words can be compounded to form new words and a complex derivational morphology does exist. For example:
- xep, mouth + svūk, sound → xepsvūk, voice
- troj, to build + -kȳt, noun for the result of the action → trojkȳt, building
As usual for an isolating language, nouns do not change their forms according to number or gender or any other feature.
- horvran means both monarch and monarchs, or both king and queen
The feature of gender and plural may however be expressed by compounding words:
Nouns denoting humans or animals can be linked to a definite gender by prefixing the terms tan, male or res, female:
- vran, human, person → tanvran, man, resvran, woman.
By reduplicating the nouns we can express the meaning of a collective noun:
- vran, human, person → vranvran, people, population
The particle la can be postponed after the nouns to express plurality, but it conveys also the idea of "many".
- vran(vran) la, many people
Nouns never flect in agreement with the noun they modify and do not change for number or for gender. They are always placed before the noun they modify.
They can be modified by the adverb ply, very.
By reduplicating the adjective we can express an intensive meaning, or roughly the meaning of really.
Comparative and superlative
Comparative forms are expressed in two ways:
1 - by using the reduplicated adjective and marking the second compared object with the postposition fe, with regard to, in relation to:
- Ul la fe jūnjūn, I am younger than you
2 - by using the reduplicated adverb ply, very, placed before the adjective. The second compared object is marked with the postposition fe, with regard to, in relation to.
- Rȳs tȳn fe plyply fī, She is taller than him
There is no real distinction between the two ways, and both can be used with no difference in meaning. Compound adjectives and derived adjectives tend to use the second form, while simple and basic adjectives tend to use the first form.
If the comparison degree is meant to express equality, reduplication is not used and the adjective is preceded by mēm, same, identical, and marking the second compared object with the postposition fe, regarding, in relation to
- Tȳn ma fe mēmfī, He is as tall as you
Superlative forms are expressed in the same ways as the comparative forms, with the second compared object is usually ńikmē, ńikvran, everyone, ńikqem, everything, or ńik + any noun.
- Tȳn ńik ul la fe plyply fī, He is the tallest among us
Pronouns show a limited gender distinction and mandatorily use the grammar particle la for plural if they refer to plural forms.
|3rd||he||tȳn||for humans or animals, male or without defining gender|
|3rd||she||rȳs||for humans or animals, strictly for female|
|3rd||it||qem||for objects or small animals|
|3rd||it||do||indicates something undefined, object or idea, which it has already been talked about, aforementioned|
|recip.||each other||sī||indicates that the subjects perform an action on another object and this viceversa on the subject|
|refl.||self||śy||indicates that the subject performs the action on himself|
When referring to more people or objects, particle la is mandatorily postponed after the pronouns, except for the reciprocal and reflexive forms, which have no plural:
- ul, I → ul la, we
Pronouns do not change for case, as they do in English, but they express their role by using the position in the sentence:
- ul tȳn nat piǵ kra, I can't see him
- tȳn ul nat piǵ kra, He can't see me
Possessive pronouns and adjectives do not exist as independent forms. To express their meaning the normal personal pronouns followed by the genitive particle are used:
- ul, I + dī, of = ul dī, my, mine
- Ul dī suk pūcin, My hair is black
There are two basic interrogative adjectives and pronouns
|wē||who, which||for humans and animals|
|wū||what, which, where||for objects and small animals, it can also express location with locative verbs|
|wō||how much, how many||for quantity, of objects and people, also for time expressions|
- Ma wē ta piǵ fa lo, Who did you see?
- Tȳn la wū skyt sty lo, What are they doing?
- Rȳs wū stā sty lo, Where is she?
Other interrogative pronouns are formed by adding specific nouns:
|wū + meś, place||= wūmeś||where, in which place|
|wū + tsēd, time||= wūtsēd||when, in which period|
|wū + dān, moment||= wūdān||when, in which moment|
|wū + cin, way||= wūcin||how, in which way|
|wū + prīc, reason||= wūprīc||why, for which reason|
|wū + tsel, purpose||= wūtsel||why, for which purpose|
|wū + wu, kind||= wūwu||which, which kind of|
Demonstrative adjectives and pronouns
There are three demonstrative adjectives and pronouns
|tyk||this||for something or somebody near both the listener and the speaker|
|qē||that||for something or somebody near the listener but far from the speaker|
|nār||that||for something or somebody far from both the listener and the speaker|
Indefinite adjectives and pronouns
Indefinite pronouns are built from indefinite adjectives, almost as in English:
| + vran
| + mē
| + meś
| + ńō|
at any time)
at any time)
Ńak and ńakmā differ in meaning:
- ńak conveys the idea of an undefined quality or type or kind.
- ńakmā conveys the idea of an undefined quantity.
Qihep makes an intensive use of postpositions. Postpositions mark the role of the word in the sentences. They are always placed after the noun they modify.
|it marks the subject of the sentence|
|it marks the direct object of the sentence|
|to||it marks the indirect object of the sentence|
|of||it marks the possessor of something or an attributive relationship|
|ō||Instrument||with, by||it marks the instrument or means by or with which the subject achieves or performs the action|
|e||Comitative||with||it marks the person in whose company the action is carried out|
|se||Privative||without||it marks the lack or absence of the marked noun|
|ab||Thematic||about||it marks the theme, the matter we're talking about|
|bā||Essive-formal||like, as||it marks transmits of making a condition as a quality or a similarity|
|fe||Relative|| comparing to,
in relation with
|used in causative constructions|
|an||Superessive||on||it marks a position or a movement above with contact|
|xub||Superlative||over||it marks a position or a movement above without contact|
|gy||Frontal||in front of, opposite|
|ud||Ablative||from||it marks the beginning point of a movement|
|tsu||Originative||from, of||it marks the origin, the original source|
|to||Adlative||towards||it marks the direction of the movement|
|dū||Allative||up to||only for movement in space|
|ras||Dispersive||(many possible)||it marks a movement towards multiple directions|
|o||Temporal-essive||in, at, by||related to time|
|on||Temporal-quantitative||for||related to time|
|u||Temporal-ablative||since||related to time|
|bī||Temporal-adlative||until||Only for movement in time|
|ho||Vocative||it marks an element of the sentence which is called|
|ǵe||Partitive-singulative||a bit of, a piece of||it marks a piece of something or an unit from an uncountable entity|
The first three postpositions (wa, ā, ū) are not mandatory, since they are used only in case of ambiguity. Every other preposition are mandatorily used, except for time preposition with some time construction.
Merging and reduplication
Similarly to other parts of speech, postpositions in Qihep may undergo two processes of derivative morphology: merging and reduplication.
Two or more postpositions can be merged to form a new postposition with a totally new meaning or with something like a blending of the previous meanings.
- o + ńo, at, in + after = ońo, ago
- Ul city qo rok ońo gyb fa: I was born thirtyfive years ago
Postpositions can be also reduplicated, with an intensive meaning.
- un, inside → unun, right inside
- Rȳs trojkȳt unun ta unbim sty: She was going right inside the building
Numeral terms are considered as adjectives and thus they are always placed before the noun they modify.
These are the basic numbers from 1 to 10:
Qihep numeral system is decimal, thus use a 10-based system. Powers of ten are expressed by other basic forms:
The nouns of tens, hundreds, thousands, etc, are compound:
- 20 = 2x10 = xup and ty = xupty
Complex numbers are built by placing the lesser number after the higher one:
- 78 = 7x10+8 = śo and ty plus rō = śoty rō
|145||sto voty qo|
|2156||xupqur sto qoty bum|
|1 259 978||mil xupsto qoty vaqur qosto śoty rō|
As seen in the examples, when transcribed, units, tens, hundreds and higher numbers, are usually written separated.
Ordinal numbers are derived from cardinal numbers by prefixing the entire number with the ordinal particle go-:
- go- + qo, five = goqo, fifth
Go- is prefixed only to the first written part of the number.
|1678th||goqur bumsto śoty rō|
Fractional numbers convey in how many parts an entire is divided, and how many parts are taken in consideration. They are derived from cardinal numbers by prefixing the entire number with the fractional particle co-:
- co- + qo, five = coqo, one fifth
Co- is prefixed only to the first written part of the number.
The only irregular fractional number is pōl, half, halfth
The simple fractional number is to be meant as one part:
- Coci = one third
To build a more complex fraction the simple cardinal number is added before the fractional number:
- Vo coqo = the four fifths
Distributive numbers convey how many objects are redistribuited for every single part. They are derived from cardinal numbers by prefixing the entire number with the distributive particle ńu-:
- ńu- + qo, five = ńuqo, five each
Ńu- is prefixed only to the first written part of the number.
There is no irregular form. The meaning in English is Number X (to) Each Y
- Ul ma la ńuci qōcsy grunpom fut kreś fa vol: I am going to give each one of you three cooked potatoes
The use of ńik is thus optional.
Using the simple distributive number without a clear referent implies the meaning of each time.
- Ńuty marmor unbim fa da: Ten workers each time are allowed to enter.
Multiplicative numbers convey how many times an object is repeated. They are derived from cardinal numbers by prefixing the entire number with the distributive particle mal-:
- mal- + qo, five = malqo, five times
Mal- is prefixed only to the first written part of the number.
Many of this numeral forms have a direct translation in English, like malxup: twice
|4||malvo||four times, quadruple|
There is only one irregular form, xūp, which means only double. For the meaning of twice, the regular compound form malxup is used.
Using the simple multiplicative number without a clear referent implies the meaning of X times.
- Tȳn qem malxup piǵ maj: They've already seen it twice.
Verbs do not change according to time, aspect, mode, number, gender, etc. They are usually associated inside of the so-called verbal cluster with other grammar particles which convey the concepts of negation, time, aspect, modality or evidentiality of the action. No one of this particle are strictly mandatory if the context is clear enough to express these meanings.
The particles in the verbal cluster are strictly placed in this order:
Let's an example of a verbal cluster inside a sentence:
- Tȳn la tȳn nat mo qum sty vol nah: It seems they aren't looking for him right now
- nat: assertive negation, it negate an assertion, a question, a normal sentence
- Ul ma piǵ kra, I can see you → Ul ma nat piǵ kra, I cannot see you
- pē: prohibitive negation, it negate an order, expressing a prohibition
- Ma tȳn ma snā dī do kāǵ si fa, Tell him what you know → Ma tȳn ma snā dī do pē kāǵ fa, Don't tell him what you know
- ta: past, it locates the action in the past
- rā: remote past, it locates the action in the remote past, historical past or a past that we feel remote and far
- mo: present, it locates the action in the present, it is usually omitted, and when expressed it conveys the meaning of precise present "right now"
- fut: future, it locates the action in the future
- fu ta: future in the past, it locates the action in the (hypotetic) future of a past action (still in the past)
Time particles are often left out, expecially in direct speech, since the time of the action is usually inferred by the context. They are usually used in the first sentences of the speech to temporally localize the action or when omission may cause ambiguity.
- fa: perfective, it marks a completed action, with no regard for its effects or results
- ǵa: perfect, it marks a completed action which results are still affecting the moment we are talking about, (= English perfect tenses)
- sty: continous, it marks an uncompleted ongoing action in the moment we are talking about (= English continuous tenses)
- rē: repetitive, it marks an action which is repeated many times (= doing again, keep on doing again)
- sōl: habitual, it marks an action which is routinely or habitually performed (usually, used to)
- pyr: prospective, it marks an action which is about to start in the moment we are talking about (= to be about to)
- maj: experiencial, it marks the fact we have have or never have had experience of the action in the moment we are talking about (ever, never)
- vol: volitive, it conveys intention or will, going to, want
- des: octative, it conveys wish, want, wish, desire
- pos: potentive, it conveys ability, capability, can, know how
- kra: abilitial, it conveys a momentaneus ability, can
- ro: potential, it conveys possibility, may, might
- da: permissive, it conveys allowance, permission, may, allow to
- nec: necessity, it conveys an idea of necessity, must, it is necessary that, it is needed that
- ōb: jussive, it conveys an idea of obligation and duty, have to, to be forced to
- vā: causative, it marks that the action is caused by someone on someone/thing else, let, make, get, have
- kōm: incohative, it marks a beginning action, to begin, to start
- fōr: hypothetical, it marks the uncertainty of the action or that the action is/was/will be hypothetical, maybe, if
- si: imperative, to give orders (usually not used with the negative prohibitive particle).
Modal particles can be used in the same sentences together, since they conveys meanings which can be expressed in the same sentences. If there are two or more modal particles, they follow the order of the list above.
- nah: reported action, the speaker does not personally see the action, the action is reported by someone else
- box: doubtful action, the speaker does not personally see the action, the action is reported by someone else, but the speaker expresses his/her doubt about its truthfulness
- kap: deduced action, the speaker does not personally see the action, but he/she deduces the action by seeing traces or evidences
As usual for an isolating language, words in Qihep can often be used as nouns, adjectives or verbs.
- Tȳn rȳs ta smāx fa, he kissed her
- Rȳs tȳn dī smāx nat vyūmbēl maj, she has never forgot his kiss
In the first sentence smāx, as in English, plays the role of verb, while in the second sentence it is a noun.
- Ul ma mīl, I love you
- Rȳs ma dī mīl wīś sty, she wants your love
- Tyk mīl pej, this is a love song
In the first sentence mīl, as in English, plays the role of verb, while in the second sentence it is a noun and in the third one it is an adjective.
However some derivative suffixes can be added to the words to indicate a more precise meaning:
Verb → Verb
- -vor: it forms a special verbal form, called the supine, which indicates an aim for the same action of the verb (almost corresponding to English construction to [verb])
Verb → Noun
- -kȳt: it forms a noun indicating the concrete result of the action (almost corresponding to English -tion)
- lā. to write → lākȳt, text
- -tān: it forms a noun indicating the ongoing process of the action (almost corresponding to English -ing)
- obstā. to be around → obstātān, circumstance
- -mor: it forms a noun for the person who performs the action (corresponding to English -er)
- lā. to write → lāmor, writer
- -oh: it forms a noun for the instrument which the action is typically performed with
- lā. to write → lāoh, pen
- -meś: it forms a noun for the place which the action is typically performed in
- qoc. to cook → qocmeś, kitchen
Verb → Adjective
- -sy: it forms an adjective with a perfective passive meaning (almost corresponding to English -ed). Because of its passive meaning, it cannot be added to intransitive verbs.
- ul dī mīlsy tanvran, my beloved man
- -or: it forms an adjective with a potential passive meaning that can be [verb]-ed (almost corresponding to English -able, -ible). Because of its passive meaning, it cannot be added to intransitive verbs.
- cax → caxor, to eat → edible
- -ne: it forms an adjective with a gerundive passive meaning that must be [verb]-ed, to be [verb]-ed. It has no corresponding ending in English, but it has a corresponding form in the Latin grammar. Because of its passive meaning, it cannot be added to intransitive verbs.
- byn → bynne, to clean → to be cleaned, that must be cleaned
Noun/Adjective → Verb
- -skyt (to make): it forms a verb indicating that the object is made according to the meaning of the adjective or of the noun (almost corresponding to English -fy, to make)
- mē, one + -skyt → mēskyt, to unite
- -bly (to become): it forms a verb indicating that the subject is becoming according to the meaning of the adjective or of the noun (almost corresponding to English to become, to get)
Noun → Adjective
- -im: it forms an adjective with the meaning of full of (almost corresponding to English -ful, -ous, -y)
- vȳl, cloud→ vȳlim, cloudy
- -sē: it forms an adjective with the meaning of deprived of, without (almost corresponding to English -less)
- vȳl, cloud→ vȳlsē, cloudless
- Name of a place + -vran: indicates the common noun for the inhabitants of a place
- Itālia, Italy → Itāliavran, Italian person, an Italian
- Name of a place + -xēp: indicates the common noun for the language related to a place
- Itālia, Italy → Itāliaxēp, Italian language
- Name of something + snakȳt: indicates the science which studies the object
- men, heart → mensnakȳt, cardiology
- Name of something + snakȳtvran: indicates the common name for the person which studies the object
- men, heart → mensnakȳtvran, cardiologist
Qihep makes an extensive use of the process of reduplication, that means repeating a word two times. That process conveys more derivative or morphological meanings, depending of the reduplicated words.
When the word is used with the role of a noun, reduplication conveys the meaning of a collective noun, that is, XX → a group of X:
- bē, sheep → bēbē, flock
This should not properly considered a plural form, even if sometimes is used to convey something like a plural meaning. In order to conveys the idea of many X, the pluralizing particle la can be used.
With words playing the role of an adjective, reduplication conveys the idea of instensified meaning, that is, XX → very X.
- īs, easy → īsīs, very easy
This reduplicated construction can be used to express a comparative or superlative meaning, if used with the comparative particle.
- Tyk dōm nār fe bōlbōl, This house is bigger than that one over there
With words playing the role of a verb, reduplication conveys the idea of instensified meaning, that is, XX → really X .
- Tȳn sty tsā lo, Is he dancing? → Tȳn sty tsātsā lo, Is he really dancing?
Compound words are reduplicated entirely. When only one of the syllable is reduplicated, that means that the compound is created with the already duplicated syllable and another one.
Reduplication may potentially be used with every word, but compound words, expecially with more than two syllables, tend not to use this process, particularly when another similar process, not involving reduplication, is available.