Plant families

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This is a presentation of the living families of true plants (kingdom Plantae), with the famous members from each family. They are placed into their higher orders, subclasses, classes, and divisions, which are indicated by the way this list is formatted.

This list is intended for people who want to make sure they have all their bases covered when they have Earth-like flora in their conworld. If a word is bolded, that indicates that that plant name occurs on the Landau Core Vocabulary, but even many plants that are not "core" enough to be included in the LCV are listed here, in the hopes of giving conlangers a complete conlang lexicon. Most of these words will be the base-level words for plants (oak, maple, apple, apricot, banana, durian, cabbage, broccoli, potato, anise, ivy, almond, cactus, rice, orchid, lily, reed, pine, spruce, etc.), but commonly-used more specific terms are also included under a more inclusive term {in braces}.

If your conpeople have modern science, they will probably have words like "conifer", "monocot", and "pteridophyte" in their language. You might even want to try to create some adjectives for plant families (such as "liliaceous" and "rosaceous") in your conlang. Linnaean taxonomy simply names these plant families (and orders) after a prominent member, but if you are so imaginatively inclined, the taxonomy used by your conpeople may have a different method for coming up with plant family names. You can also come up with different nominate members for each family -- perhaps your conpeople's word for "rosaceous" derives from the name of the peach rather than the rose, or their word for "lythraceous" is taken from the word for pomegranate instead of the word for loosestrife. By no means do you have to come up with names for all 707 families listed here -- even Kankonian only has about 200 of them, at last count.

If your conworld has plant species (and/or cultivars) not found in Our World, they will not only of course need their own names, but at least a few will probably belong to families not found in Our World. Kankonia, for instance, has such plants as the blue tree (family Cyanophyllaceae) and the surasmas (family Surasmataceae). (Note that in that 200 figure, many of the Kankonian words are for families not known on Earth.) You might want to consider how these plants are related, what plants fit in what families, and what orders the un-Earthlike families belong in.

And now, the list:

Marchantiophyta (liverwort)

Haplomitriopsida

Haplomitriales

  • Haplomitriaceae

Treubiales

  • Treubiaceae

Marchantiopsida

Blasiidae

Blasiales

  • Blasiaceae

Marchantiidae

Neohodgsoniales

  • Neohodgsoniaceae

Sphaerocarpales

  • Monocarpaceae
  • Riellaceae
  • Sphaerocarpaceae

Lunulariales

  • Lunulariaceae

Marchantiales

  • Marchantiaceae: common liverwort
  • Aytoniaceae
  • Cleveaceae
  • Monosoleniaceae
  • Conocephalaceae
  • Targioniaceae
  • Wiesnerellaceae
  • Dumortieraceae
  • Monocleaceae
  • Oxymitraceae
  • Ricciaceae
  • Corsiniaceae
  • Cyathodiaceae

Jungermanniopsida

Pelliidae

Pelliales

  • Noerocladaceae
  • Pelliaceae

Pallaviciniales

  • Phyllothalliaceae
  • Sandeothallaceae
  • Moerckiaceae
  • Hymenophytaceae
  • Pallaviciniaceae

Fossombroniales

  • Calyculariaceae
  • Makinoaceae
  • Fossombroniaceae
  • Allisoniaceae
  • Petalophyllaceae

Metzgeriidae

Pleuroziales

  • Pleuroziaceae

Metzgeriales

  • Metzgeriaceae
  • Aneuraceae

Jungermanniidae

Porellales

  • Porellaceae
  • Goebeliellaceae
  • Lepidolaenaceae
  • Radulaceae
  • Frullaniaceae
  • Jubulaceae
  • Lejeuneaceae

Ptilidiales

  • Herzogianthaceae
  • Ptilidiaceae
  • Neotrichocoleaceae

Jungermanniales

  • Schistochilaceae
  • Lophocoleaceae
  • Plagiochilaceae
  • Lepicoleaceae
  • Lepidoziaceae
  • Pseudolepicoleaceae
  • Blepharostomataceae
  • Trichocoleaceae
  • Grolleaceae
  • Mastigophoraceae
  • Herbertaceae
  • Adelanthaceae
  • Anastrophyllaceae
  • Cephaloziaceae
  • Cephaloziellaceae
  • Scapaniaceae
  • Lophoziaceae
  • Myliaceae
  • Arnelliaceae
  • Blepharidophyllaceae
  • Endogemmataceae
  • Harpanthaceae
  • Hygrobiellaceae
  • Jackiellaceae
  • Notoscyphaceae
  • Saccogynaceae
  • Southbyaceae
  • Trichotemnomataceae
  • Balantiopsidaceae
  • Chonecoleaceae
  • Brevianthaceae
  • Geocalycaceae
  • Gyrothyraceae
  • Solenostomataceae
  • Stephaniellaceae
  • Acrobolbaceae
  • Calypogeiaceae
  • Jungermanniaceae
  • Antheliaceae
  • Gymnomitriaceae

Anthocerotophyta (hornwort)

Leiosporocerotopsida

Leiosporocerotales

  • Leiosporocerotaceae

Anthocerotopsida

Anthocerotales

  • Anthocerotaceae: field hornwort

Notothyladales

  • Notothyladaceae

Phymatocerotales

  • Phymatocerotaceae

Dendrocerotales

  • Dendrocerotaceae

Bryophyta (moss)

Takakiopsida

Takakiales

  • Takakiaceae

Sphagnosida

Sphagnales

  • Ambuchananiaceae
  • Flatbergiaceae
  • Sphagnaceae: peat moss

Andreaeopsida

Andreaeales

  • Andreaeaceae: lantern moss

Andreaeobryopsida

Andreaeobryales

  • Andreaeobryaceae

Oedipodiopsida

Oedipodiales

  • Oedipodiaceae: gouty-moss

Polytrichopsida

Polytrichales

  • Polytrichaceae: hair moss/haircap moss, dawsonia

Tetraphidopsida

Tetraphidales

  • Tetraphidaceae: four-tooth moss

Bryopsida

Buxbaumiidae

Buxbaumiales

  • Buxbaumiaceae: bug-on-a-stick

Diphysciidae

Diphysciales

  • Diphysciaceae

Timmiidae

Timmiales

  • Timmiaceae

Funariidae

Encalyptales

  • Encalyptaceae: extinguisher moss

Funariales

  • Funariaceae: bonfire moss

Disceliales

  • Disceliaceae: flag-moss

Dicranidae

Timmiellales

  • Timmiellaceae

Catoscopiales

  • Catoscopiaceae

Distichiales

  • Distichiaceae

Flexitrichales

  • Flexitrichaceae

Pseudoditrichales

  • Pseudoditrichaceae
  • Chrysoblastellaceae

Scouleriales

  • Drummondiaceae
  • Scouleriaceae

Bryoxiphiales

  • Bryoxiphiaceae

Grxmmiales

  • Grxmmiaceae
  • Ptychomitriaceae
  • Seligeriaceae
  • Saelaniaceae

Archidiales

  • Archidiaceae

Dicranales

  • Fissidentaceae: maidenhair pocketmoss
  • Hypodontiaceae
  • Eustichiaceae
  • Ditrichaceae: Cornish path-moss
  • Bruchiaceae: Bolander's candlemoss
  • Rhachitheciaceae
  • Erpodiaceae
  • Schistostegaceae: goblin gold/luminous moss
  • Viridivelleraceae
  • Rhabdoweisiaceae
  • Dicranaceae: fork-moss, heath star moss
  • Micromitriaceae
  • Leucobryaceae: pincushion moss
  • Octoblepharaceae
  • Calymperaceae

Pottiales

  • Bryobartramiaceae
  • Cinclidotaceae
  • Ephemeraceae
  • Pleurophascaceae
  • Pottiaceae: tortula moss
  • Serpotortellaceae
  • Splachnobryaceae

Bryidae

Bartramiales

  • Bartramiaceae

Bryales

  • Bryaceae: thread moss
  • Leptostomataceae
  • Mniaceae: calcareous moss
  • Phyllodrepaniaceae
  • Pulchrinodaceae

Hedwigiales

  • Hedwigiaceae
  • Helicophyllaceae
  • Rhacocarpaceae

Orthotrichales

  • Orthotrichaceae: orthotrichum moss

Rhizogoniales

  • Rhizogoniaceae
  • Orthodontiaceae
  • Aulacomniaceae: ribbed bog-moss

Splachnales

  • Meesiaceae
  • Splachnaceae: dung moss

Hypnodendrales

  • Hypnodendraceae: palm moss
  • Braithwaiteaceae
  • Pterobryellaceae
  • Racopilaceae

Ptychomniales

  • Garovagliaceae
  • Ptychomniaceae

Hookeriales

  • Daltoniaceae
  • Hookeriaceae
  • Hypopterygiaceae
  • Leucomiaceae
  • Pilotrichaceae
  • Saulomataceae
  • Schimperobryaceae

Hypnales

  • Fabroniaceae: knothole moss
  • Amblystegiaceae: calliergon moss, hygrohypnum moss
  • Anomodontaceae
  • Brachytheciaceae: neat feather-moss
  • Calliergonaceae
  • Catagoniaceae
  • Climaciaceae
  • Cryphaeaceae: multi-fruited river moss
  • Echinodiaceae
  • Entodontaceae
  • Fontinalaceae
  • Helodiaceae
  • Hylocomiaceae
  • Hypnaceae: carpet moss, feather moss
  • Lembophyllaceae
  • Leptodontaceae
  • Lepyrodontaceae
  • Leskeaceae
  • Leucodontaceae
  • Meteoriaceae
  • Microtheciellaceae
  • Miyabeaceae
  • Myriniaceae
  • Myuriaceae
  • Neckeraceae: Derbyshire heather moss
  • Orthorrhynchiaceae
  • Phyllogoniaceae
  • Plagiotheciaceae
  • Prionodontaceae
  • Pterigynandraceae
  • Pterobryaceae
  • Pylaisiadelphaceae
  • Regmatodontaceae
  • Rhytidiaceae
  • Rutenbergiaceae
  • Sematophyllaceae: signal moss
  • Sorapillaceae
  • Stereophyllaceae
  • Symphyodontaceae
  • Theliaceae
  • Thuidiaceae: thuidium moss
  • Trachylomataceae

Lycopodiophyta (club moss)

Lycopodiopsida

Isoetales

  • Isoetaceae: quillwort

Lycopodiales

  • Lycopodiaceae: creeping cedar/ground pine

Selaginellales

  • Selaginellaceae: spikemoss

Pteridophyta

Equisetopsida

Equisetales

  • Equisetaceae: horsetail

Polypodiopsida (fern)

Marattiidae

Marattiales

  • Marattiaceae: para/king fern/potato fern, pala/Hawaii potato fern

Ophioglossidae

Ophioglossales

  • Ophioglossaceae: adder's-tongue

Psilotales

  • Psilotaceae: whisk fern, fork fern

Polypodiidae

Osmundales

  • Osmundaceae: royal fern, cinnamon fern, flowering fern

Hymenophyllales

  • Hymenophyllaceae: filmy fern, bristle fern

Gleicheniales

  • Dipteridaceae
  • Gleicheniaceae (the forked fern family): umbrella fern/shield fern
  • Matoniaceae

Schizaeales

  • Schizaeaceae: ray fern, curlygrass fern
  • Anemiaceae: flowering fern
  • Lygodiaceae: climbing fern/nito

Salviniales

  • Marsileaceae: ihi'ihi, pepperwort
  • Salviniaceae: mosquito fern, water moss

Cyatheales (tree fern)

  • Thyrsopteridaceae
  • Loxsomataceae
  • Culcitaceae
  • Plagiogyriaceae
  • Cibotiaceae: manfern
  • Metaxyaceae
  • Dicksoniaceae: woolly tree fern/whekī-ponga, diamondleaf fern
  • Cyatheaceae: scaly tree fern

Polypodiales

  • Cystodiaceae
  • Dennstaedtiaceae: bracken
  • Lindsaeaceae: necklace fern
  • Lonchitidaceae
  • Pteridaceae: brake, cliff brake, maidenhair fern
  • Saccolomataceae: soralpouch fern
  • Aspleniaceae: spleenwort
  • Athyriaceae: lady fern, vegetable fern
  • Blechnaceae: midin, chain fern
  • Cystopteridaceae: bladder fern/fragile fern
  • Desmophlebiaceae
  • Diplaziopsidaceae: glade fern
  • Hemidictyaceae: marginated half net fern
  • Onocleaceae: ostrich fern, sensitive fern
  • Rhachidosoraceae
  • Thelypteridaceae: maiden fern, beech fern
  • Woodsiaceae: cliff fern
  • Davalliaceae: squirrel's foot fern, rabbit's foot fern
  • Didymochlaenaceae: mahogany maidenhair
  • Dryopteridaceae: Western sword fern
  • Hypodematiaceae
  • Lomariopsidaceae: Süsswassertang
  • Nephrolepidaceae: sword fern
  • Oleandraceae
  • Polypodiaceae: staghorn fern
  • Tectariaceae: halberd fern, button fern, snail fern, oak leaf fern

Cycadophyta

Cycadopsida

Cycadales (cycad)

  • Cycadaceae: sago cycad (Cycas revoluta)
  • Stangeriaceae: Byfield fern
  • Zamiaceae: Kaffir bread, burrawang nut

Ginkgophyta

Ginkgoopsida

Ginkgoales

  • Ginkgoaceae: ginkgo

Pinophyta

Pinopsida

Pinales (the conifer order)

  • Araucariaceae: monkey-puzzle, bunya, Wollemi pine, kauri
  • Cupressaceae: juniper, cypress, redwood, sequoia, arbor vitae/thuja, Japanese cedar/sugi, bald cypress, giant redwood
  • Pinaceae: pine {piñon, ponderosa pine, bristlecone pine}, fir {balsam fir}, spruce {blue spruce, Norway spruce, Sitka spruce}, cedar, larch, Douglas fir, hemlock (Tsuga)
  • Podocarpaceae: kahikatea
  • Sciadopityaceae: umbrella pine
  • Taxaceae: yew, torreya/nutmeg yew

Gnetophyta

Gnetopsida

Gnetales

  • Gnetaceae: gnemon, African jointfir
  • Welwitschiaceae: welwitschia/tumboa
  • Ephedraceae: ephedra/mahuang

Magnoliophyta

Amborellopsida

Amborellales

  • Amborellaceae

Nymphaeopsida

Nymphaeales

  • Cabombaceae: fanwort
  • Hydatellaceae
  • Nymphaeaceae: water lily

Austrobaileyopsida

Austrobaileyales

  • Austrobaileyaceae
  • Schisandraceae: star anise, schisandra/schizandra
  • Trimeniaceae

Chloranthopsida

Chloranthales

  • Chloranthaceae: sarcandra

Ceratophyllopsida

Ceratophyllales

  • Ceratophyllaceae: coontail/hornwort (Ceratophyllum)

Magnoliopsida

Canellales

  • Canellaceae: white cinnamon
  • Winteraceae: winter's bark/canelo

Piperales

  • Aristolochiaceae: Dutchman's pipe/birthwort
  • Piperaceae: pepper (Piper), kava, betel leaf
  • Saururaceae: lizard's tail

Laurales

  • Calycanthaceae: spicebush
  • Siparunaceae
  • Atherospermataceae: southern sassafras
  • Gomortegaceae
  • Hernandiaceae: lantern tree
  • Monimiaceae: lemonwood
  • Lauraceae: avocado, cinnamon, bay laurel/bay leaf, camphor, cassia, sassafras

Magnoliales

  • Myristicaceae: nutmeg/mace
  • Magnoliaceae: magnolia, tulip tree, champak
  • Degeneriaceae
  • Himantandraceae: white magnolia
  • Eupomatiaceae: bolwarra
  • Annonaceae: cherimoya, custard apple, soursop/guanábana, sweetsop, ylang-ylang, pawpaw (Asimina triloba), kepel fruit, atemoya, biribá, ilama

Tricolpa (eudicots)

Gunneridae

Gunnerales

  • Gunneraceae: dinosaur food
  • Myrothamnaceae: resurrection plant

Buxidae

Buxales

  • Buxaceae: box, pachysandra
  • Didymelaceae
  • Haptanthaceae

Proteidae

Proteales

  • Nelumbonaceae: lotus (Nelumbo)
  • Platanaceae: sycamore/plane tree (Platanus)
  • Proteaceae: macadamia, protea/sugarbush, hakea, silverleaf tree (Leucadendron), cone bush/drumstick
  • Sabiaceae: meliosma

Ranunculidae

Ranunculales

  • Eupteleaceae
  • Papaveraceae: poppy, California poppy/eschscholzia, Matilija poppy, bleeding-heart, corydalis, fumitory, Dutchman's breeches, celandine/nipplewort
  • Circaeasteraceae
  • Lardizabalaceae: zabala fruit
  • Menispermaceae: giloy
  • Berberidaceae: barberry, twinleaf/rheumatism root, inside-out flower
  • Ranunculaceae: buttercup, clematis, columbine, delphinium/larkspur (Delphinium), anemone/windflower, hellebore, larkspur (Consolida), pasqueflower, akeley, hepatica, aconite/monkshood, pheasant's-eye, bugbane, globeflower

Trochodendridae

Trochodendrales

  • Trochodendraceae: wheel tree

Dilleniidae

Dilleniales

  • Dilleniaceae: elephant apple

Berberidopsidae

Berberidopsidales

  • Aextoxicaceae: olivillo
  • Berberidopsidaceae: coral plant

Caryophyllidae

Caryophyllales

  • Aizoaceae (ice plant): aloinopsis
  • Amaranthaceae: spinach, quinoa, beet {sugar beet}/chard, amaranth, epazote, goosefoot, Good King Henry, kañiwa, coxcomb
  • Anacampserotaceae: grahamia
  • Ancistrocladaceae
  • Asteropeiaceae
  • Barbeuiaceae
  • Basellaceae: ulluco, Malabar spinach
  • Cactaceae (cactus): dragon fruit, peyote, prickly pear, saguaro, cholla {teddy bear cholla}, xoconostle, cereus, mammillaria, barrel cactus {golden barrel, bisagre, cotton top cactus, dahlia cactus}, Aaron's beard (Opuntia leucotricha), claret cup, bird's-nest cactus
  • Caryophyllaceae: carnation, pink, sweet william, baby's breath, campion, soapwort, chickweed, nailwort
  • Didiereaceae: octopus tree
  • Dioncophyllaceae
  • Droseraceae: Venus' flytrap, sundew, waterwheel plant
  • Drosophyllaceae: Portuguese sundew/flycatcher
  • Frankeniaceae: sea heath
  • Gisekiaceae
  • Halophytaceae
  • Kewaceae: salad plant
  • Limeaceae
  • Lophiocarpaceae
  • Macarthuriaceae
  • Microteaceae: jumpy pepper
  • Molluginaceae: carpetweed
  • Montiaceae: parakeelya, lewisia
  • Nepenthaceae: tropical pitcher plant (Nepenthes)
  • Nyctaginaceae: bougainvillea, four o'clock
  • Petiveriaceae
  • Physenaceae
  • Phytolaccaceae: pokeweed
  • Plumbaginaceae: leadwort
  • Polygonaceae: buckwheat, rhubarb, sea grape, sorrel, dockleaf, bistort {smokeweed}, knotweed (Polygonum), knotweed/smartweed (Persicaria)
  • Portulacaceae: portulaca/purslane
  • Rhabdodendraceae
  • Sarcobataceae: greasewood/seepwood
  • Simmondsiaceae: jojoba
  • Stegnospermataceae: Cuban tangle
  • Talinaceae
  • Tamaricaceae: tamarisk

Santalidae

Santalales

  • Balanophoraceae: ground pineapple
  • Loranthaceae: some mistletoes
  • Olacaceae: yellow plum
  • Misodendraceae: feathery mistletoe
  • Opiliaceae
  • Santalaceae: some mistletoes, sandalwood, quandong (Santalum acuminatum)
  • Schoepfiaceae: arana

Asteridae

Cornales

  • Hydrangeaceae: hydrangea, deutzia
  • Loasaceae: stingbush/velcro plant, blazingstar
  • Hydrostachyaceae
  • Nyssaceae: tupelo
  • Grubbiaceae: sillyberry
  • Curtisiaceae: Assegai tree/cape lancewood
  • Cornaceae: dogwood

Ericales

  • Actinidiaceae: kiwifruit
  • Balsaminaceae: impatiens, balsam
  • Clethraceae: lily-of-the-valley tree
  • Cyrillaceae: titi
  • Diapensiaceae: pincushion plant
  • Ebenaceae: persimmon, ebony, date-plum
  • Ericaceae: blueberry, cranberry, azalea, rhododendron, heather, huckleberry, madrone, trailing arbutus, manzanita, kinnikinnik, crowberry, bilberry, lingonberry, wintergreen (Gaultheria), wintergreen (Pyrola), dingleberry (Vaccinium erythrocarpum)
  • Fouquieriaceae: ocotillo, boojum tree/cirio
  • Lecythidaceae: Brazil nut
  • Marcgraviaceae: monkey paws, schwartzia
  • Mitrastemonaceae
  • Pentaphylaceae
  • Polemoniaceae: phlox, Jacob's ladder {abscess root}
  • Primulaceae: primrose, cyclamen, pimpernel {scarlet pimpernel}, marlberry
  • Roridulaceae: fly bush/dewstick
  • Sapotaceae: sapodilla, mamey sapote, gutta-percha, shea, argan, abiu, canistel, tambalacoque/dodo tree/calvaria
  • Sarraceniaceae: North American pitcher plant (Sarracenia), cobra lily/California pitcher plant
  • Sladeniaceae
  • Styracaceae: styrax
  • Symplocaceae: sapphireberry
  • Tetrameristaceae: tea mangrove
  • Theaceae: tea, camellia, stewartia

Aquifoliales

  • Aquifoliaceae: holly, yerba maté
  • Cardiopteridaceae: citronella tree
  • Helwingiaceae
  • Phyllonomaceae
  • Stemonuraceae

Asterales

  • Alseuosmiaceae: toropapa
  • Argophyllaceae: silver leaf (Argophyllum nullumense)
  • Asteraceae (also known as Compositae): sunflower, artichoke, lettuce {romaine}, wormwood, dahlia, daisy, marigold (Calendula officinalis), chrysanthemum, dandelion, aster, zinnia, black-eyed Susan (Rudbeckia), echinacea, stevia, chamomile, radicchio, safflower, sagebrush, tarragon, mugwort, ragweed, achillea/yarrow {ptarmica/sneezewort, milfoil}, edelweiss, elecampane, gazania, goldenrod, abrotanum/lad's love/southernwood, xeranthemum, endive, celtuce, chicory, salsify, black salsify/scorzonera, Jerusalem artichoke/sunchoke, cardoon, burdock, yacón, nyjer seed/inga seed/guizotia, incienso/brittlebush, ageratum, arnica, groundsel, calea/dream herb, ironweed, bitterleaf, mule's ear, knapweed, costus root/kuth (Saussurea costus), coreopsis, cosmos, globe thistle, blanket flower, tansy {feverfew}, ragwort, pellitory (Anacyclus pyrethrum), tussilago/coltsfoot, oxeye, curry plant, fleabane (Erigeron), tridax daisy/coatbuttons, cornflower, mistflower
  • Calyceraceae: false-plantain
  • Campanulaceae: campanula/bellflower {rampion}, lobelia, solenopsis
  • Goodeniaceae: scaevola/fanflower
  • Menyanthaceae: floatingheart
  • Pentaphragmataceae
  • Phellinaceae
  • Rousseaceae: marbleleaf
  • Stylidiaceae: triggerplant

Escalloniales

  • Escalloniaceae: mountain laurel

Bruniales

  • Bruniaceae: common buttonbush (Berzelia languinosa)
  • Columelliaceae: Chilean holly

Apiales

  • Apiaceae: carrot/Queen Anne's lace, anise, celery, cilantro/coriander, parsley, parsnip, celeriac, fennel, poison hemlock (Conium maculatum), alexanders, angelica, asafoetida, caraway, chervil, culantro, cumin, dill, lovage, silphium, samphire, skirret, llareta/yareta, arracacha, keck/cow parsley, giant fennel/galbanum, giant hogweed/hogsbane
  • Araliaceae: ginseng, ivy, schefflera
  • Griseliniaceae: kapuka
  • Myodocarpaceae
  • Pennantiaceae: kaikomako
  • Pittosporaceae: pittosporum
  • Torricelliaceae

Dipsacales

  • Adoxaceae: elder/elderberry, viburnum/arrowwood, moschatel, cassioberry
  • Caprifoliaceae: honeysuckle, valerian, mache/cornsalad, linnaea/twinflower, zabelia, spikenard, widow flower
  • Dipsacaceae: teasel, scabious/pincushion flower

Paracryphiales

  • Paracryphiaceae: possumwood (Quintinia)

Icacinales

  • Icacinaceae: ingudi
  • Oncothecaceae

Metteniusales

  • Metteniusaceae: white pear

Garryales

  • Garryaceae: aucuba
  • Eucommiaceae: hardy rubber tree

Boraginales

  • Boraginaceae: borage, forget-me-not, comfrey, lungwort, navelwort
  • Codonaceae
  • Wellstediaceae
  • Hydrophyllaceae: Aunt Lucy, baby blue eyes
  • Namaceae
  • Heliotropiaceae: heliotrope
  • Ehretiaceae: ehretia/anacua/sandpaper tree
  • Cordiaceae: manjack
  • Lennoaceae
  • Hoplestigmataceae
  • Coldeniaceae

Gentianales

  • Rubiaceae: coffee, gardenia, cinchona (quinine), remijia (quinine), noni, ixora, ipecacuanha (ipecac), kratom, woodruff, madder, jagua, café marron
  • Gentianaceae: gentian, screwstem
  • Loganiaceae: strychnine tree, pinkroot
  • Apocynaceae: oleander, milkweed, plumeria/frangipani, periwinkle, iboga, desert rose/impala lily, rauwolfia, dogbane, Natal plum, stephanotis {Madagascar jasmine}, dysentery bush/sea box, coral swirl/tellicherry bark
  • Gelsemiaceae: yellow jasmine/evening trumpetflower

Vahliales

  • Vahliaceae

Lamiales

  • Acanthaceae: acanthus, zebra plant (Aphelandra squarrosa), thunbergia
  • Bignoniaceae: jacaranda, catalpa
  • Byblidaceae: rainbow plant
  • Calceolariaceae: lady's purse
  • Carlemanniaceae
  • Gesneriaceae: cyrtandra, African violet, gloxinia
  • Lamiaceae: basil, rosemary, sage/salvia, thyme, lavender, mint {peppermint, spearmint, pennyroyal}, stachys, marjoram, oregano, catnip, chia, teak, patchouli, savory, hyssop (Hyssopus officinalis), hyssop/za'atar (Origanum syriacum), lemon balm, ajuga, horehound, shiso, skullcap
  • Lentibulariaceae: bladderwort, butterwort
  • Linderniaceae: wishbone flower/bluewings
  • Martyniaceae: tiger's claw
  • Mazaceae: mazus
  • Oleaceae: olive, lilac/syringa, ash, privet, jasmine, forsythia, osmanthus
  • Orobanchaceae: Indian paintbrush, desert paintbrush, betony/lousewort (Pedicularis) {Furbish's lousewort}
  • Paulowniaceae: paulownia
  • Pedaliaceae: sesame
  • Phrymaceae: lopseed
  • Plantaginaceae: digitalis/foxglove, psyllium, penstemon/beardtongue, snapdragon, plantain (Plantago), hebe, brooklime, Culver's root, mare's tail, turtlehead, veronica/speedwell
  • Plocospermataceae
  • Schlegeliaceae
  • Scrophulariaceae: buddleia/butterfly bush, mullein, figwort
  • Stilbaceae: notsung/tree fuchsia
  • Tetrachondraceae: juniperleaf/rustweed
  • Thomandersiaceae
  • Verbenaceae: verbena/vervain

Solanales

  • Solanaceae: pepper/chili pepper (Capsicum annuum) {bell pepper, sweet pepper, cayenne, habanero, jalapeño, chipotle, ghost pepper/bhut jolokia, paprika}, potato, tomato, tobacco, eggplant/aubergine, deadly nightshade/belladonna (Atropa belladonna), mandrake (Mandragora), goji, poha/goldenberry, tomatillo, tamarillo, pepino, dulcamara/bittersweet (Solanum dulcamara), datura/jimsonweed, ají pepper, henbane, ashwagandha, tomacco, topepo
  • Convolvulaceae: sweet potato, morning glory, ponysfoot/ponyfoot, wilsonia, woodrose, dodder
  • Montiniaceae
  • Sphenocleaceae
  • Hydroleaceae: false fiddleleaf

Saxifragidae

Saxifragales

  • Peridiscaceae
  • Paeoniaceae: peony
  • Altingiaceae: liquidambar
  • Hamamelidaceae: witch-hazel
  • Cercidiphyllaceae: katsura
  • Daphniphyllaceae
  • Crassulaceae: sedum/stonewort, kalanchoe, jade plant/friendship tree, pennywort, echeveria, aeonium {saucer plant}, cotyledon, orpine/livelong
  • Aphanopetalaceae: gum vine
  • Tetracarpaeaceae
  • Penthoraceae: penthorum
  • Haloragaceae: water milfoil, seaberry (Haloragis)
  • Iteaceae: sweetspire
  • Grossulariaceae: redcurrant, blackcurrant, gooseberry
  • Saxifragaceae: saxifrage, astilbe
  • Cynomoriaceae: desert thumb

Rosidae

Vitales

  • Vitaceae: grape, Concord grape, muscadine {scuppernong}, creeper, bushkiller, ayo

Zygophyllales

  • Zygophyllaceae: creosote bush, guaiacum/lignum vitae, caltrop, bean-caper/twinleaf (Zygophyllum)
  • Krameriaceae: rhatany

Celastrales

  • Celastraceae: khat/qat, bittersweet (Celastrus scandens)
  • Lepidobotryaceae

Malphigiales

  • Achariaceae: chaulmoogra
  • Balanopaceae
  • Bonnetiaceae
  • Calophyllaceae: mammee
  • Caryocaraceae: souari tree
  • Centroplacaceae
  • Chrysobalanaceae: coco plum
  • Clusiaceae: mangosteen, clusia
  • Ctenolophonaceae
  • Dichapetalaceae: gifblaar/poison leaf
  • Elatinaceae: waterwort
  • Erythroxylaceae: coca (cocaine)
  • Euphorbiaceae: cassava, rubber, spurge/euphorbia, kukui/candlenut, castor bean, jatropha/physic nut, poinsettia, croton, sandbox tree/possumwood/jabillo (Hura crepitans)
  • Euphroniaceae
  • Goupiaceae: goupie
  • Humiriaceae
  • Hypericaceae: St. John's wort
  • Irvingiaceae: African mango
  • Ixonanthaceae
  • Lacistemataceae
  • Linaceae: flax
  • Lophopyxidaceae
  • Malpighiaceae: ayahuasca/caapi, acerola/Barbados cherry
  • Ochnaceae: ochna
  • Pandaceae
  • Passifloraceae: passionfruit, maypop
  • Peraceae: lightning bush
  • Phyllanthaceae: sweet leaf/tropical asparagus (Sauropus androgynus), bignay
  • Picrodendraceae: shrubby-spurge
  • Podostemaceae: riverweed
  • Putranjivaceae: ironplum
  • Rafflesiaceae: rafflesia/stinking corpse lily
  • Rhizophoraceae: true mangrove
  • Salicaceae: willow {weeping willow, pussy willow, osier/basket willow}, aspen {quaking aspen/popple}, poplar {white poplar/silverleaf poplar}, cottonwood, xylosma, ramontchi/governor's plum, kei-apple
  • Trigoniaceae
  • Violaceae: violet {Johnny jump-up}, pansy

Oxalidales

  • Huaceae
  • Connaraceae: Indian zebrawood
  • Oxalidaceae: starfruit, bilimbi
  • Cunoniaceae: butterspoon tree, leatherwood (Eucryphia)
  • Brunelliaceae: West Indian sumac
  • Cephalotaceae: Albany pitcher plant
  • Elaeocarpaceae: rudraksha tree, maqui/Chilean wineberry, quandong (Elaeocarpus)

Fabales

  • Fabaceae (legumes): bean {green bean/string bean, kidney bean, pinto bean, lima bean/butter bean, black bean, navy bean}, pea {snap pea, snow pea}, peanut, garbanzo, lentil, tamarind, soybean, wisteria, clover {shamrock}, licorice/liquorice, mung bean, alfalfa, carob, adzuki bean, blackeye pea, kudzu, true indigo, cowpea, fava bean, acacia, mimosa/sensitive plant, jicama, mesquite, fenugreek, lupin, gorse/furze, laburnum, broom, rooibos, guar, mopane, African locust bean, joaquiniquil, long bean/asparagus bean, rosewood (Dalbergia), tonka bean, sweet pea, poinciana, runner bean, shittimwood, padauk/mukwa/narra, scarlet flame bean, brazilwood/pernambuco, yellowwood (Cladrastis), purpleheart, vetch {tare}, astragalus/milkvetch, ceibo (Erythrina crista-galli), palo verde, zebrawood (Microberlinia brazzavillensis), pagoda tree, jequirity, bitter-pea, campeche logwood
  • Quillajaceae: soap-bark
  • Polygalaceae: milkwort
  • Surianaceae: bay cedar, ooline

Rosales

  • Rosaceae: rose {eglantine}, apple, pear, cherry, peach, strawberry, almond, apricot, blackberry, loquat, plum {greengage, damson plum}, raspberry, nectarine, pluot, quince, boysenberry, aronia, Asian pear, black cherry, chokecherry, hawthorn/May tree/mayflower {tejocote}, Eastern mayhaw, medlar (Mespilus germanica), pyracantha, rowan, serviceberry, sloe, crab-apple, dewberry, loganberry, wineberry, olallieberry, tormentil, cinquefoil, (salad) burnet, spiraea, filipendula, cotoneaster, photinia, salmonberry/mayberry
  • Rhamnaceae: jujube, buckthorn, sea buckthorn, Christ's-thorn
  • Elaeagnaceae: goumi, sea buckthorn, oleaster (Elaeagnus angustifolia), silverberry
  • Barbeyaceae
  • Dirachmaceae
  • Ulmaceae: elm {Dutch elm, wych-elm}, zelkova
  • Cannabaceae: hemp, marijuana, hops, hackberry {beaverwood/sugarberry (Celtis occidentalis), honeyberry (Celtis australis)}
  • Moraceae: breadfruit, fig {desert fig, sycamore (Ficus sycamorus), strangler fig, bearded fig}, mulberry, jackfruit, banyan, bodhi tree/bo tree, Osage orange, cempedak, monkey fruit, breadnut (Brosimum alicastrum), breadnut (Artocarpus camansi)
  • Urticaceae: nettle, cecropia, ramie

Fagales

  • Nothofagaceae: southern beech
  • Fagaceae: chestnut, oak {cork, live oak, black oak, Caucasian oak}, beech, chinquapin
  • Myricaceae: yangmei, bayberry
  • Juglandaceae: walnut {black walnut, English walnut, butternut}, hickory {pecan, shagbark hickory}, wingnut
  • Ticodendraceae
  • Betulaceae: birch, hazel (hazelnut), filbert, alder, hornbeam
  • Casuarinaceae: she-oak/ironwood/cassowary tree

Cucurbitales

  • Apodanthaceae: stemsucker
  • Anisophylleaceae
  • Corynocarpaceae
  • Coriariaceae: tutu, redoul
  • Cucurbitaceae: melon (muskmelon) {cantaloupe, honeydew, casaba melon, Santa Claus melon}, watermelon, cucumber, squash (winter/summer) {pumpkin, zucchini, kabocha, acorn squash}, gourd, kiwano/horned melon, calabash, chayote, loofah, bryony, colocynth
  • Tetramelaceae
  • Datiscaceae: Durango root
  • Begoniaceae: begonia

Geraniales

  • Geraniaceae: geranium (Geranium and Pelargonium)
  • Francoaceae: honey flower (Melianthus), bridalwreath

Myrtales

  • Alzateaceae
  • Combretaceae: white mangrove
  • Crypteroniaceae
  • Lythraceae: pomegranate, henna, loosestrife, water caltrop
  • Melastomataceae: miconia, blue tongue, blakea
  • Myrtaceae: guava, eucalyptus, clove, myrtle, strawberry guava, wax-apple, allspice, feijoa, guavaberry, camu camu, jaboticaba, lillypilly/satinash, Brazil cherry, pitanga/Suriname cherry, riberry, callistemon/bottlebrush, lehua, strawberry myrtle, manuka
  • Onagraceae: fuchsia, oenothera/sundrop, enchanter's nightshade, clarkia, fireweed/willowherb
  • Penaeaceae: hard-pear
  • Vochysiaceae: jacaré

Crossosomatales

  • Strasburgeriaceae: ixerba/tawari
  • Geissolomataceae
  • Aphloiaceae
  • Staphyleaceae
  • Guamatelaceae
  • Stachyuraceae: stachyurus
  • Crossosomataceae: rockflower

Picramniales

  • Picramniaceae: cedrinho

Sapindales

  • Anacardiaceae: mango, cashew/acajou, pistachio, poison oak, poison ivy, poison sumac, sumac, smoke tree, marula, green plum, mastic
  • Biebersteiniaceae
  • Burseraceae: frankincense, myrrh, copal, bdellium/guggul, pili, galip nut
  • Kirkiaceae
  • Meliaceae: mahogany, langsat, chinaberry, neem, emu apple, toon, some mangroves
  • Nitrariaceae: Syrian rue/harmal/harmel
  • Rutaceae (including all the citrus species): lemon, orange {blood orange}, grapefruit, lime, tangerine, kumquat, mandarin, key lime, clementine, tangelo, yuzu, Buddha's hand, pomelo/shaddock, ugli/uniq fruit, citron {etrog}, bergamot, finger lime, Kaffir lime, bitter orange, kiyomi, Meyer lemon, limequat, orangequat, Persian lime, satsuma/mikan/naartjie, rue, Szechuan pepper, casimiroa/white sapote, wampee, spurge olive, burning bush/dittany/fraxinella, toothache tree (Zanthoxylum clava-herculis), curry tree
  • Sapindaceae: maple {sugar maple, Japanese maple}, longan, lychee, rambutan, guarana, akee, genip, goldenrain tree, buckeye {Indian horse chestnut}, soapberry, korlan, hopbush/akeake
  • Simaroubaceae: quassia, ailanthus {tree of heaven}, corkwood (Leitneria floridana)

Huerteales

  • Dipentodontaceae
  • Gerrardinaceae
  • Petenaeaceae
  • Tapisciaceae

Brassicales

  • Akaniaceae: turnipwood
  • Bataceae: saltwort/beachwort/pickleweed (Batis maritima)
  • Brassicaceae: cabbage, broccoli, Brussels sprouts, cauliflower, kale, radish, mustard, kohlrabi, collard greens, broccoflower, watercress, turnip, horseradish, wasabi, bok choy, arugula/rocket, tat soi, daikon, Chinese broccoli/kai-lan, mizuna, Napa cabbage, rapini, rutabaga/swede, sea kale, honesty, rapeseed, woad, maca, alyssum, wallflower
  • Capparaceae: caper, temple plant
  • Caricaceae: papaya, babaco, mountain papaya
  • Cleomaceae: spider plant (Cleome)
  • Emblingiaceae
  • Gyrostemonaceae: camel poison
  • Koeberliniaceae: crown of thorns/crucifixion thorn
  • Limnanthaceae: meadowfoam
  • Moringaceae: moringa
  • Pentadiplandraceae
  • Resedaceae: mignonette
  • Salvadoraceae: toothbrush tree
  • Setchellanthaceae
  • Tiganophytaceae
  • Tovariaceae
  • Tropaeolaceae: nasturtium (Tropaeolum)

Malvales

  • Bixaceae: achiote (source of annatto), silk-cotton tree
  • Cistaceae (the rock-rose family): helianthemum, halimium/false sun-rose
  • Cytinaceae: vampire cup
  • Dipterocarpaceae: lauan
  • Malvaceae: cotton, durian, cacao, hibiscus {rose of Sharon}, okra, kola, baobab, linden, hollyhock, marshmallow, jute mallow, abelmosk, kurrajong, money plant (Pachira aquatica), abutilon, kapok, balsa, mazapan, swampmallow, seashore mallow/sweatweed, majagua/majaguillo
  • Muntingiaceae: calabur tree
  • Neuradaceae: sand button
  • Sarcolaenaceae
  • Sphaerosepalaceae
  • Thymelaeaceae: daphne {mezereum/mezereon}, agarwood/agalloch, ‘ākia

Monocots

Acoridae

Acorales

  • Acoraceae: sweet flag

Alismatidae

Alismatales

  • Tofieldiaceae: Harper's beauty
  • Alismataceae: water-plantain, velvetleaf/sawah lettuce (Limnocharis)
  • Butomaceae: flowering rush
  • Hydrocharitaceae: elodea, freshwater eelgrass (Vallisneria), water nymph/naiad
  • Aponogetonaceae: aponogeton/cape pondweed
  • Scheuchzeriaceae
  • Juncaginaceae: arrowgrass
  • Maundiaceae
  • Posidoniaceae: Neptune grass
  • Ruppiaceae: widgeonweed/widgeon grass
  • Cymodoceaceae: sea nymph
  • Potamogetonaceae: pondweed
  • Zosteraceae: marine eelgrass (Zostera)
  • Araceae (the arum family): taro/dasheen, malanga/elephant ears/cocoyam/'ape, calla lily, philodendron, Jack-in-the-pulpit, dieffenbachia/dumb cane, ZZ plant, eddoe, skunk cabbage, Chinese evergreen, titan arum, duckweed, caladium

Petrosaviidae

Petrosaviales

  • Petrosaviaceae

Dioscoreidae

Dioscorales

  • Burmanniaceae: bluethread
  • Dioscoreaceae: yam {nagaimo, yampee}, pia, Jew's beard/black bat plant
  • Nartheciaceae: bog asphodel/yellow asphodel

Pandanales

  • Cyclanthaceae: jipijapa/Panama hat plant
  • Pandanaceae: pandanus/screwpine
  • Stemonaceae
  • Triuridaceae
  • Velloziaceae

Liliidae

Liliales

  • Corsiaceae
  • Campynemataceae: green mountain lily
  • Melanthiaceae: trillium, bunchflower
  • Petermanniaceae
  • Colchicaceae: naked lady, Chinese lantern lily, bellwort/merrybells
  • Alstroemeriaceae: Peruvian lily
  • Rhipogonaceae: supplejack/kareao
  • Philesiaceae: Chilean bellflower/copihue
  • Smilacaceae: smilax/catbrier, sarsaparilla
  • Liliaceae: lily {Easter lily, tiger lily}, tulip, fritillary

Commelinidae

Arecales

  • Dasypogonaceae: kingia/bullanock
  • Arecaceae (palm): coconut, date, rattan, sago palm (Metroxylon sagu), açaí, carnauba, attap/nipa, toddy, raffia, sugar palm/gomuti palm (Arenga pinnata), talipot palm, betel nut, palmetto, palmyra, washingtonia, salak, saw palm/Everglades palm, aiphanes, xate, wax palm, doum palm, coco de mer, thatch palm, zombie palm, araque/palma real, Sierran palm

Bromeliales

  • Bromeliaceae (bromeliad): pineapple, Spanish moss, aechmea/silver vase/urn plant, vriesea, dyckia, pitcairnia
  • Typhaceae: cattail

Poales

  • Mayacaceae
  • Rapateaceae: Inírida flower
  • Thurniaceae: palmiet
  • Cyperaceae: sedge, papyrus, water chestnut, bulrush, spikerush
  • Juncaceae: rush
  • Eriocaulaceae: pipewort
  • Xyridaceae: yellow-eyed grass
  • Flagellariaceae: whip vine/false rattan/bush cane
  • Poaceae (grain, grass): corn/maize, rice, wheat, barley, millet {fonio}, oats, rye, sorghum, sugarcane, bamboo {terai}, reed, wild rice, lemongrass, durum (semolina), spelt, teff, einkorn, triticale, finger millet, emmer, teosinte, kernza, bluegrass, bluestem/andropogon, pampas grass, zoysia, timothy, crabgrass, Ozark grass, fescue, beach grass/marram, pennisetum/fountaingrass, quitch/couch grass, brome {foxtail brome}, goatgrass
  • Ecdeiocoleaceae
  • Joinvilleaceae
  • Restionaceae: restion, hopkinsia

Commelinales

  • Commelinaceae: spiderwort, zebrina/wandering Jew (Tradescantia zebrina), dayflower/widow's tears
  • Haemodoraceae: bloodwort, kangaroo paw
  • Hanguanaceae
  • Philydraceae: stream lily
  • Pontederiaceae: water hyacinth, pickerelweed

Zingiberales

  • Zingiberaceae: ginger, turmeric, cardamom, galangal, kra chai, zedoary
  • Costaceae: costus {spiral ginger}
  • Cannaceae: canna
  • Marantaceae: arrowroot
  • Lowiaceae
  • Strelitziaceae: bird-of-paradise
  • Heliconiaceae: heliconia/false bird-of-paradise
  • Musaceae: banana, plantain (Musa), abacá, fe'i

Asparagidae

Asparagales

  • Boryaceae: pincushion (Borya sphaerocephala)
  • Blandfordiaceae: Christmas bells
  • Lanariaceae: Cape edelweiss/lambtail
  • Asteliaceae: astelia {pineapple grass}
  • Hypoxidaceae: star lily/star grass
  • Ixioliriaceae: Siberian lily
  • Tecophilaeaceae: lady's-hand
  • Doryanthaceae: gymea lily, giant spear lily
  • Iridaceae: iris {Dutch iris, orrisroot, Persian iris), crocus (saffron), gladiolus, Kaffir lily (Hesperantha coccinea), watsonia, freesia, flame freesia
  • Xeronemataceae: Poor Knights lily
  • Asphodelaceae: aloe, asphodel, pipe lily
  • Xanthorrhoeaceae: grass tree
  • Hemerocallidaceae: day lily, phormium
  • Amaryllidaceae: garlic, onion, green onion, leek, daffodil, shallot, chive, amaryllis, narcissus, jonquil, pearl onion, agapanthus/lily of the Nile, snowdrop (Galanthus), oxblood lily, Natal lily/bush lily, snowflake
  • Asparagaceae: asparagus, agave/century plant {sisal}, yucca, Joshua tree, ti/ki/good luck plant, lily-of-the-valley, bluebell (Hyacinthoides), hyacinth, ophiopogon, dracaena, hosta, dasylirion (sotol), soaproot/amole, ponytail palm, St. Bernard's lily, aphyllanthes, hesperaloe/false yucca, desert lily/ajo lily, butcher's broom, squill, spider plant (Chlorophytum), Canada mayflower, Solomon's seal
  • Orchidaceae (orchid): vanilla, phalaenopsis/moth orchid, tiger orchid (Grammatophyllum speciosum), showy orchis, vanda, cattleya, cymbidium/boat orchid, dendrobium, disa, oncidium/dancing-lady orchid, golden shower orchid, bee orchid, Italian orchid, stanhopea, scorpion orchid, dragon's mouth orchid, Medusa orchid, eyelash orchid