From FrathWiki
Jump to: navigation, search

One of the major languages of Sumatra on Earth'.


i ʉ u
e ɵ o

Possible vowel combinations in a word:

  • /i o a ?/
  • /ʉ o a/
  • /i ʉ u a/
  • /i e o a/
  • /i ʉ ɵ o a/
  • /i o u a/
  • /i u a/

In all of these except the last, /a/ can only occur as the final vowel.

This system is derived from total harmony (save final /a/) + _j _w _ː by the following changes:

  • Assimilation: aj aw ew → ej ow ɵw
  • Smoothing: ij ej ʉj ʉw ow uw → iː eː ʉː uː oː uː
  • iː ʉː uː → … → oː oː ʉː
  • Raising: eː ɵː oː → iː ʉː uː
  • Loss of vowel length
  • iw → … → ??
  • oj uj → … → i
  • ew → … → o
  • ɵj ɵw → … → i o
  • Dissimilation of /ʉ/ /i/ (to what???) in an *u-word or *ɵ-word

This can be still seen from that most vowels are unchanged, and the changed vowels can only appear in an open syllable.


p t k
(b) d g
v z s
w l j
m n r

Color code:

Freely occurring · non-initial · medial only · non-final · initial only

In other words, coda consonants are /t k d g s r l m n/. Medial [b] should be consider'd allophonic with initial [p], and one could additionally consider medial [z] allophonic with initial [j].

A few morphophonemic rules: -l + l- → -ld-; -r + -l- → -rd-; -m + n- → -nd-; -n + m-, -n + v- → -mv-