Liwadi: List of Prepositions

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Table of Phonemes

IPA /h/ /χ/ /ɣ/ /w/ /o/ /u/ /k/ /g/ /ŋ/ /t/ /d/ /θ/ /ð/ /p/ /b/ /ɸ/ /β/ /s/ /z/ /j/ /i/ /e/ /ɛ/ /ä/ /n/ /m/ /l/ /ɾ/ /ʔ/
Latin H h ġ W w O o U u K k G g Ń ń T t D d P p B b S s Z z Y y I i E e ė A a N n M m L l R r ʻ
Arabic ح خ ݗ و ۄ ۆ ک ݢ گ ط ظ د ذ ٮ ڡ ڢ ص ض ی ي ه ا ن م ل ر ع
Name Ha
حا
Ḳa
خا
Ġa
ݗا
Wa
وا
Wo
وۄ
Wu
وۆ
Kaf
کا
Gaf
ݢا
Ńaf
گا
Ta
طا
Da
ظا
Ṭa
دا
Ḍa
ذا
Pa
ٮا
Ba
با
Ṗa
ڡا
Ḃa
ڢا
Sa
صا
Za
ضا
Ya
ىا
Yi
ىي
Ye
ىه

ىٰ
Alif
ا
Nun
نۆن
Mim
ميم
Lam
لام
Ra
را
ʻan
عان


List of Prepositions

  • aba denotes concern for someone or something: concerning, respecting, in/with regard to, as regards, regarding, with respect to, with regard for, about, with, on, for, in.
Em aba sa 'ń dikud tagasa.
I know about your illness.
  • adu denotes exception: apart from, beside, besides, but for, except, save, not to-, -speak of, -mention, other than, outside.
Adu ya ruzdar, em sa yok lusrur-na awańa:
I have all the ingredients, except for eggs.
  • ae denotes the indirect object of the verb: for, to; or indicates a relationship to an adjective: to.
Em ae su 'm mintikag sa lomed-na mańama.
I will give the banana to my daughter.
  • ala denotes up to a limit: at the edge of, as far as, as many as, to, till, until, up to.
Emer ala oyinulen lu ń manapa.
We will stay with you until tomorrow.
  • ańa denotes at or to a lower level than something else literally or figuratively: below, behind, beneath, under(neath).
Es ańa sa litad sa yon-na deraʻu.
She hid the cup under the bed.
  • apu denotes in a parallel direction: along, alongside (of).
Su tin apu su 's bab dakadu.
The boy is walking alongside his father.
  • ara denotes anterior to in time or space: before, in front of, ahead of, against, in advance of, previous to.
Emer ara sa nulen ńisup sewaru.
We left before sunrise.
  • asi denotes paying no attention to: regardless of, despite, in spite of, for, in face of, notwithstanding, disregarding.
Asi sa 's yisur es sa lipez-na netal.
Regardless of his pain, he completed the race.
  • ata denotes change to, toward or at a lower place either literally or figuratively: down (through), down from.
Su tikag ata sa dokem ńeʻanu.
The child climbed down the tree.
  • aya denotes position on top of literally or figuratively: atop, over, to, on, upon.
Su min aya sa nikem sa ʻiṗyar-na leyal.
The woman placed the flowers on the table.
  • ba denotes movement or direction from the inside to the outside: (out) of, from (within).
Su limad ba sa napuʻ rutiń epazu.
The people ran out of the burning house.
  • egu denotes in opposition to, in contact with: against, contrary to, into, on, opposed to, opposite, up, with:
Su tikag egu sa ikam epazu.
The child ran into the tree.
  • elo denotes motion towards literally or figuratively: to, toward, at, into, -ward.
Su ziʻpor elo sa yam ńanalu.
The birds are flying seaward.
  • ere denotes in the course of: during, for, in, in the process-, -course-, -of, on, through, throughout, under.
Eter ere sa nuʻad yo sa lisap deraʻ.
They hid in the cave during the storm.
  • eri denotes situation or partition between two or more entities: among, (in) between, through, with.
Su tėmin eri su 's bab he su 's mam salagu.
The girl is standing between her father and mother.
  • esa denotes agency: by.
Es esa ya mesnor gėmeban.
He was bitten by the snakes.
  • eto denotes proximity: near, about, beside, by, next to, on, close to, against.
Sa emer yi'up eto sa dap ayadu.
Our village is near the mountain.
  • eya denotes from a past time: since.
Es eya olan doked eyadu.
She's been sick since yesterday
  • hi denotes instrumentality: with, by means of.
Eń hi ya niʻom dad rinap-na mėnaʻam tadaki.
You can cut that meat with a knife.
  • ido denotes purpose: for.
Eter ido sa duʻok wid-na renaka.
They're cooking this for the party.
Em ido sa nitug wed yimon-na remada.
I made this spear for the hunt.
  • ige denotes movement into: into.
Sa rinap ige sa map meʻak.
The meat fell into the fire.
  • ila denotes to or at a higher level than something else literally or figuratively: above, over.
Su ziʻop ela sa tusip ńanalu.
The bird flew over the forest.
  • ilu denotes from one side of an opening to another: through.
Es ata sa rutiń yik ta binel ledaru.
He hurried home through the rain.
  • ini denotes comparison: compared to, than.
Et yodayyoday ini m ayadu.
He is stronger than I am.
  • ińa denotes the manner, method, way by which something is done: with, through, in.
Su in ińa bigok luliz sa ʻoṭder-na enaʻu.
The man harvested the papayas with a great effort.
  • iro denotes encirclement or in or to various directions or locations: around.
Sa tehom iro sa obul epazu.
The animal ran around the lake.
  • isi denotes having a lack of something: without.
Eń isi sa 'm sitop wed-na mėsanad zapayi.
You will have to do this without my help.
  • ize denotes the in the middle: middle.
Sa bunper ize sa tal ayadu.
The islands are in the middle of the ocean.
  • iʻe denotes relating to someone or something: toward, in relation to.
La sa 'ń puben iʻe 's ayadu ha.
What are your feelings towards him?
  • lu denotes accompaniment in time or space; in company with, along with.
Es lu su 's minsad relanu.
He came with his sister.
  • ne denotes possession: of.
Sa rutiń ne su in aya sa dap ayadu.
man's house is on the mountain.
  • odu denotes motion from one side to the other: across, on the other side of, over.
Su tikag odu sa nipap epazu.
The child ran across the beach.
  • ola denotes having the front in the direction of something else: facing.
Su in ola sa nutas menapu.
The man remained facing the danger.
  • ono denotes to or on the side of a person or thing toward the north when facing the rising sun: on-, to-, -the left.
Su tėmin ono su 's bab salagu.
The girl stood to the left of her father.
  • ore denotes in exchange for, literally or figuratively: (in-, -exchange-, -return-) -for.
Em ore dad nugem keń miz yoṭnur-na mańama.
I will give you eight coconuts for that raft.
  • oyi denotes posterior to in time or space literally or figuratively: after, around, behind, beyond, by, on the other side of, outside, past, following.
Su limad oyi sa pub yewapa.
The people returned after the fire.
Seń su tin oyi su 's bab dakadu.
Now the boy is walking behind his father.
Su nulen oyi sa nuʻad wepayu.
The sun shone after the storm.
  • ugo denotes in place of, replacement or preference: for, instead of, in lieu of, rather than.
Su 's mam ae 's ugo ya uban ńeʻom-na meńamu.
His mother gave him an apple instead of a pear.
  • uli denotes removal from or location at a certain place or time either literally or figuratively, away from, or separation from support, attachment or position: from, off (of), of.
Su tikag uli su 'ń mam-na epazu.
The child ran away from her mother.
Em uli ya Amerika ayada.
I am from America.
Ayap es uli sa kisob meʻaku.
Then he fell off the log.
  • uma denotes possessing a special characteristic: with.
Su 'm bab su in uma sa yimon ayadu.
My father is the man with the spear.
  • uńu denotes duration or extension through space literally or figuratively: (all) over, through(out).
Es uńu sa zeʻid sa lutol gekayu.
She spilled the water all over the floor.
  • ura denotes done on behalf of, for the benefit, sake, or interest of someone: for.
Ura su sudok epir uruk emer-na renika.
Let's cook supper for the family.
  • uto denotes to or on the side of a person or thing toward the south when facing the rising sun: on, to-, -the right of.
Eń uto sa retoz sa ńamul-na asada.
You'll see the oven to the right of the house.
  • uʻa denotes change to, toward, or at an elevated place literally or figuratively: up, up to.
Su tikag uʻa sa dokem ńeʻanu.
The child climbed up the tree.
  • ye denotes causality: because of, at, by, for, in, of, on account of, by reason of, in consequence of, as a result of, out of, owing-, due -to, from, through, under, with.
Ye sa binel emer ez sa rutiń menapa.
Because of the rain, we stayed home.
  • yi denotes similarity or likeness: as like, similar to.
Sa 'ń tagar yi ya riṗgir dapayu.
Your hands smell like roses.
  • yo denotes interiority: in, within, inside.
Su min yo sa 'm rutiń ayadu.
The woman is in her house.
  • za denotes on or toward the exterior of: outside, without.
Su 'ser bab za sa lisap su tinir-na yapus selagu.
Their father stood outside the cave calling the boys.
  • zu denotes stationary position or location in time or space: at, in, on, to.
Es he su 's wolib zu sa ńupas selagu.
He and his wife stood at the door.