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See also: Kala lexicon & Affixes by use

These are the functional affixes used in Kala.

pa ta ka ma na nya sa ha tsa tla ua la ya a


from pala
na mokuyepak - 1s sleep-PST-ABIL-NEG - I was unable to sleep.
nam mue pana ke mauam anyapak - 1pl without rain O flower-PL see-ABIL-NEG - We cannot see the flowers without rain.
  • -pe marks "piece; part of ~" (part)
from peya
mita ke inape yatsi - dog O food-part chew - The dog is chewing the morsel.
  • -pu marks "clothing of/for ~" (wear)
from puku
naya tayo ke anapu nomo ka - wife 2sg.GEN O head-wear like Q - Does your wife like hats?
from opua
kam inapua - 3pl eat-PFV - They have eaten.
  • -pya marks the Attemptative (ATT)
from upya
neko ke panya matapya - cat O mouse kill-ATT - The cat is trying to kill the mouse.
ima ha inapyak - now 3s eat-ATT-NEG - She hasn't tried to eat yet.
  • -pye marks the Excessive (EXC)
from kupye
itanu tahapye - PROX-plate big-EXC - This plate is too big.
  • -pyo marks "disease (of ~); ill; sick" (ill)
from pyoki
ha ke tsinipyo yoha - 3sg O sugar-ill have - He has diabetes.
  • -pao marks "crooked; warped; unbalanced" (warp)
from payo
ke mita hayo anyapao yoha - O dog 3sg.GEN eye-warp have - Her dog has a crooked eye (Strabismus).


  • -mpa marks "many/much~" (many)
from mpa (originally from -m "plural" + -ha "augmentative")
yemitampa - DIST-dog-many - Those many dogs (over there).
  • -mpe marks the Limitative (LIM)
from mpe
tlanampe kala - people-LIM speak - Only people speak.
  • -mpo marks "bad; unfavorable; unpleasant" (bad)
from mala
ke naku nayo kehampo - O sister 1s.GEN body-bad - My sister is infirmed.
  • -mpu marks "~ formed/shaped" (shape)
from umpu
na'am ke panu tsakampu inaye - 1pl.EXCL O cake house-shape eat-PST - We ate a house-shaped cake.


from tlaka
mo ke umata hayo ka - place O horse-MASC 3s.GEN Q - Where's her stallion?
from teya
ke asi yetate - O salt give-PREC - Will you please pass me the salt?
simate - sit-PREC - Please, sit.
from tiha
tiueta'o - MUL-ten-two - duodecuple
  • -to marks "manner/method of ~" (way)
from to
yamato - mountain-way - mountaineering
muhito - environment-way - environmentalism
  • -tai "so-called" (so.called)
from ata
kamahitai - village-so.called - The so-called village.
indicates that the speaker thinks what he is referencing is not actually represented by the noun


  • -nta marks "relative; kin" (kin)
from nata
ntaku - sibling - sibling
ntaya - kin-marriage - spouse
This suffix is also used when gender is neutral, or ambivalent.


from nke
mita inak - dog eat-NEG - The dog doesn't eat.
ya simak - VOC sit-NEG - Don't sit.
This suffix is changes to -nke when preceding syllable contains /k/. See -nke
from ketsa
ha tsakahueke - 3s home-LOC-DUB - I guess he is at home. lit: He is at home, supposedly.
kam inyake - 3pl hunger-DUB - (It's doubtful that) they are hungry.
from ki
na ma'a enya anyaki - 1s with mirror see-REFL - I look at myself with a mirror.
This can also mark the pronoun. See -i
from tsuki
kiha'o - ORD-three - third / 3rd
  • -ko marks an Agent noun (AG)
from ko
taue kamyo tiyako - cousin.male 3pl.GEN bread-AG - Their cousin is a baker.
ke yamako tipua'u - O mountain-AG fall-PFV - The mountaineer has fallen.
This suffix is changes to -tlo when preceding syllable contains /k/. See -tlo
  • -kua marks "all of ~; every ~" (all)
from kua
mitakua ina ma moku - dog-all eat and sleep - All dogs eat and sleep.
from kya
inakya - eat-HORT - Let's eat!
  • -kyo marks "do ~ quickly" (quick) (This is a type of imperative.)
from kyolo
ua'ekyo - upward-quick - Get up!
kuama nam inakyo - always 1pl eat-quick - We always eat quickly.
  • -kyo marks "school of ~" (-ism) (school)
from hakyo
tanakyo - fight-school - dojo; martial arts training academy; etc
kuhakyo - cook-school - culinary-school; chef’s academy
This suffix is used to specify a location where students learn. This can also be used to indicate a school of thought, or ideology.
  • -kan marks "chief/leader of ~" (chief)
from kana
ta ke hakyokan unya ka - 2s O school-chief know Q - Do you know the headmaster?


from nke
ha akanke - 3s drive-NEG - She doesn't drive.
ya etla tsekanke - VOC P.4s pull-NEG - Don't pull it.
This suffix is only used when the preceding syllable contains /k/. See -k
from nkoso
na ke niye pukunko - 1s O undergarment wear-CONT - I am wearing underclothes.
from anku
kanku anya - 3pl.RECP see - They see each other.
This suffix is only used with plural pronouns. It corresponds to "each other."


from ma
nam ke mitam yoha - 1pl O dog-PL have - We have dogs.
This suffix changes to "-lo" when the preceding syllable contains a /m/, /mp/, and sometimes a /p/, also, when the word begins with a vowel.
  • -ma marks "time for ~" (time.for)
from ama
yomatli tsulama - tomorrow clebrate-time.for - Tomorrow is time for celebration.
  • -me marks the Reversative (REV)
from kume
ha ke nauam tlipime palayek - 3sg O rope-PL tie-REV be.able-PST-NEG - He was unable to untie the ropes.
This could also be ha ke nauam tlipimepayek
from mi (originally from -m "plural" + -hi "diminutive")
yemua mitami moku - yonder dog-PAU sleep - A few dogs are asleep over there.
  • -mo marks "place/location of/for ~" (place)
from mo
na ke inamo ayek - 1sg O eat-place past-NEG - I've not been to a restaurant.
from mula
nahi yotimu - girl play-INCH - The girl begins to play.
  • -mua marks "a lack of ~; be without ~" (lack)
from pamua
intahim inamua - PROX-child-PL food-lack - These children are without food.
  • -mue marks "man-made; artificail" (ART)
from ume
mo ke motsimuelo ka - place O bag-ART-PL Q - Where are the plastic bags?
from muya
tahi kamyo ena enomya - son 3pl.GEN P.1s anger-CAUS - Their son is annoying me.
  • -mye marks "redo ~; do ~ again" (redo)
from muya + -ye
ta ke ina kuhamye ka - 2s O food cook-redo Q - Are you reheating the food?
from myonta
ta ke hina simamyok - 2s O here sit-PERM-NEG - You are not allowed to sit here.


  • -n marks Adverb(ial)s (ADV)
from no
tsumun nam yokone - caution-ADV 1pl swim-SUG - We should swim cautiously.
Kala lacks morphological adverbs, verbs modified with the adverbial ending -n tend to precede the verb phrase they modify.
from naka
mo ke umana hayo ka - place O horse-FEM 3s.GEN Q - Where's his mare?
from neya
ta mokune - 2s sleep-PROP - You should sleep.
  • -ni marks "fine/pleasant/nice ~" (nice)
from niha
ha inanimyaye - 3s food-nice-CAUS-PST - He made nice food.
yomani - day-nice - Good day. / Hello.
from anu
ha inanu - 3s eat-HSY - She eats (I hear). / (It's said) She is eating.
from nua
tlaka ke apua tlatonua - man O song recite-FREQ - The man recites the song repetitively.
  • -nai marks "~ food" (food)
from ina
ke mitanai ka - O dog-food Q - Is there any dog food?


from anya
ke kana kupayenya - O chief die-PST-VIS - The chief died. and I saw it
  • -nyo marks "machine/tool/device for ~" (tool)
from mayo
ke amonyo tanyapua - O carry-tool break-PFV - The handle has been broken.
na ke ilanyo anya - 1s O fly-tool see - I see the plane.


  • -sa marks "room for/of ~" (room)
from sala
nahi mokusahue hayo - girl sleep-room-LOC 3s.GEN - The girl is in her bedroom.
  • -si marks "color of ~" (color)
from sahi
timasi ena kyopo - blood-color P.1s fright - The color of blood (dark red) frightens me.
ke senusi hayo ka - O hair-color 3s.GEN Q - What color is her hair?
  • -so marks "type/kind of ~" (type)
from so
ke itla mitaso ka - O this dog-type Q - What is this breed of dog?
  • -su marks "market/shop of ~" (shop)
from suku
mo tiyasu ka - place bread-shop Q - Where is the bakery?
  • -sue marks the Preparative (PREP)
from yaso
na inasue - 1s eat-PREP - I'm ready to eat.


from taha
ke tsakaha kamyo nyome - O house-AUG 3pl.GEN beige - Their mansion is beige.
This suffix is changes to -ka when preceding syllable contains /h/.
from heya
nahi na'amyo nya mase onyohe - daughter 1pl.EXCL.GEN for dance learn-NEC - Our daughter needs to learn to dance.
ta yalahek - 2s go-NEC-NEG - You don't need to go.
from ahi
na mitahi anyayek - 1s dog-DIM see-PST-NEG - I did not see the puppy.
This suffix is changes to -ki when preceding syllable contains /h/.
from toho
naka hinaho - woman be.here-ASS - The woman must be here. (I assume) (also used as "assertive")
  • -hu marks an Aggressive or Intensive (INT)
from kyohu
ha kapihu - 3s ugly-INT - He's hideous.
mita nayo inyahuye - dog 1s.GEN hunger-INT-PST - My dog was ravenous.
  • -hua marks "flower/plant ~" (flower)
from maua
ha ke yanahuam nomoha - 3s O yellow-flower like-AUG - She really likes daisies.
from hue
naye na tasa ke masa okyohue anyaye - while 1s hunt O deer clearing-LOC see-PST - While hunting, I saw a deer in a clearing.
takuya nayo tsakahuek - brother-in.law 1s.GEN house-LOC-NEG - My brother-in-law isn't home.
  • -hya marks "for/by animal" (ANI)
from haya
tsakahya - house-ANI - An animal pen/enclosure.
  • -hye marks Recent past tense (REC) (action just finished)
from aye + -hi
ota namyo akyahye - father 1pl.GEN wake-REC - Our father just woke.
  • -hyo marks "juice/liquid of ~" (juice)
from hyota
ha pomahyo nomo - 3s apple-juice like - She likes apple juice.
ha uakahyo inupak - 3s cow-juice drink-ABIL-NEG - He is lactose intolerant.


  • -tsa marks "damned/cursed ~" (damn)
from tsaya
na itantitsa nomok - 1s PROX-truck-damn enjoy-NEG - I don't like this damned truck!
  • -tse marks "appear; seem to ~" (seem)
from tse'e
ta sulitse - 2s tire-seem - You seem tired.
  • tsi- marks "angle; bend" (angle)
from atsi
tsiha'o - angle-three - triangle
tsiya'o - angle-five - pentagon
from kotsi
nahi nya katso ke punka tsametsi - girl for meal O fruit gather-EVID - The girl is collecting fruit for dinner.
  • -tso marks "middle; half" (half)
from tsoya
ke kunyetso ayaha - O moon-half pretty-AUG - The half-moon is really pretty.
  • -tsu marks "flesh; meat of ~" (meat)
from kutsu
ha ke manotsu inatli - 3s O chicken-meat eat-FUT - He's gonna eat some chicken.
  • -tsua marks "almost; nearly" (almost)
from tsua (sometimes tsu'a)
na'am kupayetsua - 1pl.EXCL die-PST-almmost - We almost died.
  • -tsue marks "~ slowly" (slow)
from tsipue
mita hayo inatsue - dog 3s.GEN eat-slow - Her dog eats slowly.


  • -tla marks "language/talk/lingo of ~" (talk)
from kala
ha ke tsayatla unyak - 3s O curse-talk know-NEG - He doesn't understand vulgarities.
from ele
na nahi yalatle anyatli - 1s girl go-REL see-FUT - I will see the girl who goes.
This suffix is only used when the preceding syllable contains /l/. See -le
from tatli
tlimita malo tala - COL-dog brown come - A pack of brown dogs is coming.
from atli
naka tahi tlepatli - woman boy teach-FUT - The woman will teach the boy.
  • -tlo marks an Agent noun (AG)
from ko
taku tayo tlokatlo - brother 2s.GEN lie-AG - Your brother is a liar!
This suffix is only used when the preceding syllable contains /k/. See -ko
from atli and ahi
na tlelatlai - 1s bathe-IMM - I'll bathe soon. (within the day)


  • -ua marks "study of; ~ study" (study)
from kuaha
ha ke kehaua onyotli - 3s O body-study learn-FUT - He will study biology.
from uatla
uamita malo - MED-dog brown - That brown dog (by you).
from ueha or ueyo
na inaue - 1s eat-DES - I want to eat. / I intend to eat.
kamena mehaueyek - 3pl-P.1s hit-DES-PST-NEG - They did not intend to hit me.


  • -la marks the Motive (MOT)
from yala
nam tahela - 1pl below-MOT - We're descending.
kam ua'elapua - 3pl above-MOT-PFV - They've ascended.
  • -la marks the Mutative (MUT)
from ela
na inyala - 1s hunger-MUT - I'm getting hungry.
from ula
ke kola hina ka - O AG.INDEF here Q - Is someone here?
ke mitala hinak - O dog-INDEF here-NEG - There aren't any dogs here.
from ele
See -tle
  • -li marks "each; every" (each)
from oli
mitali inapua - dog-each eat-PFV - Each dog has eaten.
from ma
See -m


  • -ya marks "in-law; non-blood relative" (in.law)
from tlaya
ha ke nakuya nayo - 3s O sister-in.law 1s.GEN - She is my sister-in-law.
from aye
naka mita anyaye - woman dog see-PST - The woman saw the dog.
from yetla
yemitampa - DIST-dog-many - Those many dogs (over there).
from yoha
kanku ke onta nayo itsa - 3pl.RECP O parent 1s.GEN love - My parents love each other.


  • e- marks the Patient (P) (on pronouns)
from eke
kameha mataye - 3pl-P.3s kill-PST - They killed him.
eta anya - P.2s see - You are seen.
e- is also used to mark the passive voice on pronominal constructions.
from ki
na'i tlelatli - 1s.REFL bathe-FUT - I will bathe myself.
ta'i sepanek - 2s.REFL hurt-PROP-NEG - You shouldn't hurt yourself.
This can also mark the verb. See -ki
from itla
imitami - PROX-dog-PAU - These few dogs (by me).
  • o- marks "honored ~" (honor)
from o
mo otsaka ka - place honor-house Q - Where is the honored house?


  1. The -u / u- is used to replace redundant syllables.