|Timeline and Universe:||theoretically this universe, future|
|Spoken:||Northwest and central Lhined|
|Total speakers:||~10 million- Lescealh, ~6 million - Polizeih|
|Writing system:||Own and Romanized Equivalent|
|Morphological type:||Agglutative (and sometimes isolating)|
|Basic word order:||VSO|
|Creator:||Humancadaver101 aka Schwhatever aka Buckfush530|
Faranit is the most prominent dialect of the Faranih people on the continent of Lhined on a currently undiscovered planet. The various colonizers traveled to this planet on the eve of a massive worldwide war on Earth. It is most closely linked to the Hindi, Quecha, and Hungarian colonizers, which attempted to colonize several regions directly on the western edge of the current range of the language.
- 1 Faraneit vs. Faranih vs. Faraneih
- 2 Phonology/Orthography (in IPA)
- 3 Phonology Chart
- 4 Syntax
- 5 Morphology
- 6 Slang
- 7 Stress and Pitch
- 8 Voice
- 9 Conjugation
- 10 Dialects
- 11 History and Culture
- 12 Faraneit Lexicon
- 13 Sound Changes which Created Faraneit
- 14 Faraneit Pronouns
- 15 Faraneit Number System
- 16 External Links
Faraneit vs. Faranih vs. Faraneih
- Faraneit -means only the language
- Faranih -originally meant only the ethnic group, but recently colloquially came to mean the language as well
- Faraneih -is a colloquial term for the ethnicity
Phonology/Orthography (in IPA)
- Consonants: /d x b f θ - ʒ k l ɭ m n p q ʀ s t v z ç/
- Romanized As: <d c b f fh h j k l lh m n p q r s t v z sc>
- <h> is included to buffer vowels (as no dipthongs are permitted) and the begining and ends of words. A corresponding figure is used in the Faraneit script.
- Vowels: /a e ɛ i ɪ ɔ o u ʊ/
- Archaic Romanization: <a ae e ei i o oe u ue>
- Modern Romanization: <a e ea i ei oa o u eu>
- Please Note, this page is currently in the modern form.
- syllable initial /p t k q/ are pronounced [pʰ tʰ kʰ qʰ]
- prior to /ɛ a ɔ o ʊ u/, /ç/ is pronounced [ʃ] (Poelisem Faranik - [ʃ] in all positions)
- word medial /θ/ is pronounced [ð]
- word medial non-compound /x/ is pronounced [ɣ]
- syllable terminal /x/ after /ɔ o u ʊ/ is pronounced [χ]
- terminal /l ɭ/ are pronounced [ɬ ɬ˞]
- Phonological Constraints: (C)V(C), no consonant clusters are permitted
|Stop||p b||t d||k||q|
|Fricative||f v||θ||s z||ʒ||ç||x|
Pronouns usually decline by case, but in certain forms use participles like nouns. Verbs conjugate based on tense (remote past/imperative, near past, present, future), mood (irrealis, realis, and in archaic dialects imperative), and person (first, second, and third). Pronouns decline for person(first, second, third, and fourth), number (singular and plural), case (nominative, accusitive, genitive, and in plural forms dative/ablative), and animacy/gender( in the third person singular). For nouns the dative/ablative is formed from participles and nominative and accusitive are assumed from context and word order.
- WORD ORDER
Faranit is almost inflexibly VSO and morphologically mixed between agglutination (semi-dvandvas, genitive forms, and main verbal constructions) and isolation (prepositional phrasing, non-incorporation of modifiers or pronouns).
Sojoah don hin. S o j oah don hin Strike PAST REAL 3P 3P.SING.ANI.NOM 1P.SING.ACC (S)He struck me.
Zah sinih velheib molein. Zah s i_ n eih velh eib molein. NEG strike FUT IRR 1P 1P.PLUR.EXC PLUR 2P.PLUR.ACC We would not (go and) strike you.
It remains V(S)O regardless of whether it is interrogative or even imperative.
Ketejeih nor zet, haneit? Ket e j eih nor zet haneit Remember PRES REAL 2P 2P.SING.NOM nothing true You remember nothing, right?
Zeleujeih moaleih nakir? Zel eu j eih moaleih nakir Steal IMP.PAST REAL 2P 2P.PLUR.NOM what You were stealing what?
Boaneicejeih Lhimah! Boaneic e j eih Lhimah Eat PRES REAL 2P Lhimah Eat Lhimah (a common name for girls)
Boaneicotoah doan Lhimah! Boaneic o t oah Lhimah Eat PAST IMPERATIVE 3P Lhimah (S)He should have eaten Lhimah!
OVS order is also present, but quite rare. It is used to give the object paramount importance, to a degree often deemed unnecessary.
Don boaneicotih! Don boaneic o t ih 3P.SING.ANI.ACC eat PAST IMPERATIVE 1P We should have eaten him/her!
All subordinate clauses are signalled with "cih". It roughly can meet the definitions of the English "that", both as a relative conjunction and a general conjunction.
When a relative clause's object is the main clause's object, the verb is conjugated for the subject, as expected.
Boaneicejeih nor jokeasc, ceih roajoah doan. eat.PRES.IND.2P 2P.SING.NOM butter, that have.PAST.IND.3P 3P.SING.ANI.NOM. You are eating the butter, that he had.
If the subject is the same, however, the pronoun or the noun is dropped, giving:
Boaneicejeih nor jokeasc, ceih roajeih. eat.PRES.IND.2P 2P.SING.NOM butter, that have.PAST.IND..2P. You are eating the butter, that had. (You are eating the butter, which you had).
The verb is not conjugated, however, when the relative clause's subject for the main clause's object.
Boaneicejeih nor jokeasc, ceih kej leveitom. eat.PRES.IND.2P 2P.SING.NOM butter, that be.PRES.IND_____ butter, butter. You are eating butter, that (the butter) "be" good. (You are eating butter, which is good).
Because the object of the first clause was the same as the subject in the second, the second verb is not conjugated.
- IF - THEN
Faraneit distinguishes between two forms of "if" -- scam and scap. Scap is equivalent to questioning what the results of reality being different would be. Scam is equivalent to questioning when what is true or real is uncertain. Scap is refered to as the contradictional if, and scam, the hypothetical if. As a result of their natures, scap is used more commonly with the past or present tense, and scam, almost exclusively with the present or future. There are instances, however, where scap and scam contrast.
Scap boaneicejeih dekein, feazeneih teibein. if.CON eat.PRES.REAL.1P 3P.INANI.ACC, understand.PRES.IRR.1P 3P.PLUR.ACC If I was eating it, I would understand them. OR If I (in general) ate it, I would understand them.
Thus, scap is used when the person does not eat it, or is not eating it.
Scam boaneicejeih dekein, feazeneih teibein. if.IRR eat.PRES.REAL.1P 3P.INANI.ACC, understand.PRES.IRR.1P 3P.PLUR.ACC If I eat it, I would/will understand them
Here, scam makes the meaning generic present, as it implies that if the speaker were to grab it and then eat it, they would then understand them. In short, it doesn't contradict reality, automatically. Rather, it may become true, but at the moment, is not necessarily so.
In order to say "only if" a variety of methods are possible, but the most succinct and common in the spoken language is to simply place the conjunction "jeid" prior to either scam or scap.
Negatives are placed behind verbs like adverbs and other modifiers (except geographic), including subordinate clauses. An example:
Boaneicojeih zah pasearean liteh hav lhaefh hev lhescealh fascejeadeis searom Eat.PAST.REAL.1P NEG REP evil 1P.SING.NOM DEM one lheascealh writing(s).3P.ANI.GEN odd I didn’t vilely repeatedly eat one of his/her odd writings from Lhescealh. Lit: Ate not repeatedly evilly I this one lhescealh writing-his/her odd
Evidently, modifiers stack. The only verbal modifier that can precede the verb is a negative marker and only then in archaic emphatically negative speech. Following a noun, first come negative markers, then aspectual adverbs, then other adverbs.
The noun phrase is more complex. Quantifiers and geographic modifiers always precede, while general adjectives follow. It should be noted that Faraneit does not distinguish properly between general adjectives and adverbs. If in the sample, liteh had followed fascejeadeis, even unaltered, it would have been grammatically correct, but have meant that the writing was evil.
Demonstratives, almost entirely represented by lhefh, which is both pronominal and adjectival, follow a more complex pattern. When the only modifier to the noun or genitive compound is the demonstrative, it follows the noun as if it was a general adjective, however, when other adjectives are present it must precede the noun phrase entirely.
Prepositional phrases follow unless in poetry or when heavily stressing that aspect. See prepositions for more.
Genitives fuse to the ending of the noun. Reference the section on Morphology for more.
DEIH = through, across DOAP = denotes action towards locatively, to FHEIS = within, inside of, between, at HIH = with, alongside HEUH = under, beneath NEIH = denotes action towards in forming dative case PIH = of, from (spacially) RAFH = under, below REAN = until REIH = above, ontop of, over SEIH = (spatially) forward, in front of, (temporally) after(wards) VEIT = denotes action from, used to form ablative forms ZEAR = denotes locative movement away from, from, yet (for past-in-future references) ZEIH = (spatially) behind, (temporally) prior/before SCEUH = with
These are the only prepositions found in any dialect of Faraneit, anywhere. Several are missing from Poleiseam Faraneik. Neih and veit use the nominative, while the others use the accusative. The object of the preposition follows the preposition.
Doap contrasts with neih in that it has a connotation of entrance, where as neih is more neutral and used more grammatically (to form the dative with nouns and singular pronouns).
Lhomojoah doan neih doan. Dance.PAST.REAL.3P 3P.SING.NOM to 3P.SING.NOM (S)He danced to him/her.
Lhomojoah doan doap don. Dance.PAST.REAL.3P 3P.SING.ACC (S)He danced towards him/her.
The former implies that the dancer began dancing and did not cease until very close to the other person, while the latter implies that the direction was not necessarily chosen because of that person, nor that the dancer went the entire distance to the other person.
This same contrast is found between zear and veit, as well.
Hih and sceuh are also contrasted but in proximity. Hih implies only a general closeness, while sceuh specifically means in direct contact.
Ketejeih hav mizeun hih keseib. Remember.PRES.REAL.1P 1P.SING.NOM ocean with keseih.PLUR I remember the ocean near the Keseib (settlements).
Ketejeih hav mizeun sceuh measceineafh. Remember.PRES.REAL.1P 1P.SING.NOM ocean with Measceineafh. I remember the ocean beside Measceineafh.
The first implies that the settlements are close to, but not directly along the shoreline, while the second implies the two share a thin border. It is similar to the distinction between “next to” and “right next to” in English, in that it only distinguishes degree.
Adjectival prepositional phrases follow the noun phrase they describe. Fronting is not unheard of but is seen as giving unnecessary weight to the phrase. The adverbial prepositions, however, can only follow the verb, but if demoted in meaning, can also follow the subject and even the object. Generally they follow the verb and general adverbs.
TEIH = for, because, so that (causative) VOAP = as, while, at the same time as HEFH = yet, either/or JEID = but, neither/nor VIR = and, as well
Each of these can link clauses and phrases, with the exception of vir, which only links clauses.
Zelejeih hav hab teih boaneicejeih. Steal.PRES.REAL.1P 1P.SING.NOM thing.PLUR so eat.PRES.REAL.1P I steal so that I (can) eat.
Zelejeih hav voap boaneicejeih. Steal.PRES.REAL.1P 1P.SING.NOM while eat.PRES.REAL.1P I pickpocket while I eat.
Zelejeih hav hefh boaneicejeih. Steal.PRES.REAL.1P 1P.SING.NOM yet eat.PRES.REAL.1P I pickpocket yet/but (I) eat.
Zelejeih hav jeid boaneicejeih. Steal.PRES.REAL.1P 1P.SING.NOM but eat.PRES.REAL.1P I pickpocket yet/but (I) eat.
(Hefh and jeid are used somewhat interchangeable, but hefh is used to suggest a stronger interference from the first/main clause with the action of the first, while jeid suggests simply that it is unexpected or unusual that the two interact as stated.)
Zelejeih hav vir boanicejeih. Steal.PRES.REAL.1P 1P.SING.NOM and eat.PRES.REAL.1P I pickpocket and (I) eat.
Additionally, jeid and hefh reduplicate to produce secondary meanings.
Boaneicijeih hav hefh hacaz hefh tealhom. Eat.FUT.REAL.1P 1P.SING.NOM PREP meat PREP fruit I will eat either meat or fruits.
Boaneicijeih hav jeid hefh hacaz hefh tealhom. Eat.FUT.REAL.1P 1P.SING.NOM PREP meat PREP fruits. I will eat neither meat nor fruits.
When the two combine, however, the message complicates.
Boaneicijeih hav hefh hacaz jeid tealhom. Eat.FUT.REAL.1P 1P.SING.NOM PREP meat PREP fruit I will eat (likely) meat but not fruits.
Boaneicijeih hav jeid hacaz hefh tealhom. Eat.PRES.REAL.1P 1P.SING.NOM PREP meat PREP fruit I will eat not meat but (likely) fruits.
- QUESTION FORMATION
A global rise is used to indicate a question. Frequently questions are viewed as more polite if posed in the irrealis. Insertion of zeihein (if the assumed answer is no) or haneit (if the assumed answer is yes) is used to form leading yes-no interrogative clauses.
Kuroajih hav dekein neih mokein, haneit? give.PAST.IND.1P I.NOM it.ACC DAT you.SING.ACC, correct? I gave it to you, right?
Kuroajeih nor dekein neih hav, zeihein? give.PAST.IND.2P you.SING.NOM it.ACC DAT me.NOM, incorrect? You gave it to me, or not?
Open ended interrogative sentences are formed by substituting an interrogative pronoun for the subject of object. Interrogative pronouns have lost their accusative counterparts and therefore rely on a strict adherence to word order to differentiate:
Neuscoajeih nor nakir? use.PAST.IND.2P you.SING.NOM which/what(.ACC)? You used which?
Doapoajoah nakir lhefh? cause.PAST.IND.2P which/what(.NOM) thus/this? What caused this?
Imperatives are formed similarly to many Indo-European languages with the omission of the subject.
Karoteijeih dakein do.FUT.IND.2P it.ACC (Go) do it
Faranit, however, accepts third person imperatives as forceful suggestions (as opposed to irrealis imperatives).
Karoteijoah dakein do.FUT.IND.3P it.ACC (He must go) do it
To create more gentle commands or suggestions, the imperative, in the irrealis mood, is also used.
Karoteineih dakein do.FUT.SUBJ.2P it.ACC (You should go) do it
This is also capably used in the third person.
Karoteinoah dakein do.FUT.SUBJ.3P it.ACC (He should go) do it
A few archaic dialects (along the western chapparel) retain an imperative mood where the subject can be omitted if so desired. The mood's infix is -d- and is regularly conjugated.
Karoteidoah doan dakein = karoteidoah dakein do.FUT.IMP.3P 3P.SING.ANI.NOM 3P.SING.INANI.ACC = do.FUT.IMP.3P 3P.SING.INANI.ACC He (must go) do it = (He must go) do it
- AGREEMENT IN COMPOUND PREDICATES
Another strange usage is that infinitives decline for tense and mood when a part of the predicate. For example-
Feuzeijihav haleij faraneit boascom learn.FUT.IND.1P.1P.SING speak.FUT.IND faranit proper I will learn to speak (future) proper faranit
Feuzoanihav haloan faraneit boascom learn.PAST.SUBJ.1P.1P.SING speak.PAST.SUBJ faranit proper I may have learned to (irrealis) have spoken (past) proper faranit.
Feuzeijoahav halej faraneit boascom learn.PAST.IND.1P.1P.SING speak.PRES.IND proper faranit I learned to speak (and have continued to) proper faranit.
Feuzeijoahav haleij faraneit boascom learn.PAST.IND.1P.1P.SING speak.FUT.IND faranit proper I learned to speak (and will continue to) proper faranit.
This is often used as a method to signify progressive past tenses, which either continue from the distant past (-eu-) to the recent past (-o-), either past to the present (-e-), or any non-future tense and the future (-i-).
- COMPARISONS WITH REJ
While comparisons can be constructed with either kej (to be) or rej (to have/to hold/to contain), rej is vastly preferred in speech and colloquial writing, but as a result, two very different systems of comparison are used contemporanously (at least in Standard Lescealh Faraneit, local dialects often no longer use one or the other).
A fundamental distinction is drawn between comparisons of equals, approximate equals, and inequals. For example:
Rejoah dekein (don) tebineareiz. have.PRES.REAL.3P 3P-S-INANI-NOM (same) size.GEN.3P-PLUR It's a large as they are.
Here, they are considered equals and a genitive construction is used.
Rejoah dekein don tebin neih tip. have.PRES.REAL.3P 3P-S-INANI-NOM same size DAT 3P-PLUR-NOM It's about as large as they are.
Rejoah dekein cabah tebin neih tip. have.PRES.REAL.3P 3P-S-INANI-NOM approximate size DAT 3P-PLUR-NOM It's approximately as large as they are.
In these two instances, however, a dative construction is used to imply that they are rough equals, not absolute ones.
Rejoah dekein sein tebin voap tip. have.PRES.REAL.3P 3P-S-INANI-NOM more size while 3P-PLUR-NOM It's bigger than they are.
Rejoah dekein fhean tebin voap tip. have.PRES.REAL.3P 3P-S-INANI-NOM less size while 3P-PLUR-NOM It's smaller than they are.
Here a contracted form of a second clause is used for unequals. The entire clause in full is-
Rejoah dekein sein tebin voap rejoah tip fhean tebin. have.PRES.REAL.3P 3P-S-INANI-NOM more size while have.PRES.REAL.3P 3P-PLUR-NOM less size. It's bigger while they are smaller.
More complex comparatives continue with rej, but usually invoke the verb beasceitej (to finish, to complete). For example:
Rejoah dekein her tebineabeasceitej. have.PRES.REAL.3P 3P-S-INANI-NOM good size.GEN.finish.PRES.REAL It's big enough (for something//to do something...)
Rejoah dekein reih tebineabeasceitejeaboaneicej. have.PRES.REAL.3P 3P-S-INANI over size.GEN.finish.PRES.REAL.GEN.eat.PRES.REAL It's too big to eat. (lit It has over the size of finishing eating.)
Zah rejeih haceabeasceitejeafeazej. NEG have.PRES.REAL.1P year(s).GEN.finish.PRES.REAL.GEN.writing.PRES.REAL I'm too young to write. (lit I don't have the years of finishing writing.)
When the complement involves finishing as its main verb, the verb is merely used again, outside of it's auxilary-like purpose:
Zah rejeih haceabeasceitejeabeasceitejeafeuzej. NEG have.PRES.REAL.1P year(s).GEN.finish.PRES.REAL.GEN.finish.PRES.REAL.GEN.study.PRES.REAL I'm too young to be finished studying/learning.
- OTHER COMPARATIVES
These essentially follow the rej-form comparatives in structure. For example:
Boaneicejeih tebineafheimeapejeaheaz. eat.PRES.REAL.1P size.GEN.harvest.PRES.REAL.GEN.1P-S-GEN I eat as much (stuff) as I harvest.
Boaneicejeih tebin neih fheimeapejeaheaz. eat.PRES.REAL.1P size DAT harvest.PRES.REAL.GEN.1P-S-GEN I eat about as much (stuff) as I harvest.
Boaneicejeih fhean tebin voap fheimeapejeaheaz. eat.PRES.REAL.1P less size while harvest.PRES.REAL.GEN.1P-S-GEN I eat less than how much I harvest.
- IRREGULAR VERBS
There are only a few irregular verbs in Faraneit which are typically only mildly distinct from the normal conjugation pattern. The most commonly cited irregular verbs are kej (to be), rej (to hold, to have), and scej (to fill up). More on this can be found under Faraneit Irregular Verbs.
- GENDER AND CLITICS
The animacy distinction is quite flexible and can be used to denote various aspects of the speakers perception. A popular example is the difference between,
Kejoam, hamet, heilein be.PRES.3P.INANI (blaze) short
Kejoan joaj, hamet, heilein be.PRES.3P.ANI presently (blaze) short
The use of the inanimate in the first stresses the static state of the fire as well as its theoretically harmless appearance. On the other hand, the animate gender and the use of the adverb joaj, presently, suggests a danger posed from the fire from its independent movement, in addition to the threat posed from a change in state. This is conventional usage with common objects that do not conform to the distinction, that inanimate objects are static and still, while animate objects are changing and move independently.
Religious beliefs also enter the equation. A Hakeih, and many other smaller sects always use animate pronouns nearly universally with animals, especially livestock. The Hakeih and the Harapah use animate pronouns with animals on an irregular basis, only when praising or sacrificing usually. The Polizeih, on the other hand, have merged the inanimate to a new level, using it commonly for insults and often to degrade women, however, this is more of an anthropological and ideological distinction than a linguistic one.
- COMPARATIVES WITH KEJ
These are much less interesting than the comparatives with rej, as they follow a uniform pattern:
Kejoam sein tebin ceih tip. be.PRES.REAL.3P.INANI more large REL 3P-PLUR-NOM It's bigger than they (are).
Obviously, the verb goes first. Then the subject (if it isn't clicitized or omitted). Then the descriptor (fhean - less, sein - more, don - as, etc). Then the modifier (in this case tebin, but meaning the adjective form, not the noun form - more on this later). Then the relative conjunction ceih. Then the compared body (tip in this case). The relative clause is optional, if understood.
Tebin, in some ways, is a bad example as it can function both as a noun (meaning size) and a modifier (meaning large), and therefore the same form is used for both kej and rej, while usually they use different forms. For example:
Kejoam sein fheirom cieh tip. be.PRES.REAL.3P.INANI more tall REL 3P-PLUR-NOM It's taller than they (are). (lit It's more tall than they)
Rejoah dekein sein fheireat voap tip. have.PRES.REAL.3P 3P-INANI-NOM more height while 3P-PLUR-NOM It's taller than they (are). (lit It has more height while they (don't))
Various examples of agglutination abound, including the syntax of possessives and listings.
poareasceaheaz poareasc-ea-heaz city-GEN-1P.SING my city
poareasceaheazeib poareasc-ea-heaz-eib city-GEN-1P.SING-PLUR my cities
poareasceavoazeis poareasc-ea-voazeis city-GEN-1P.PLUR our city
This is also true for more general possessives.
poareasceaheusc poareasc-ea-heusc city-GEN-man (the) man's city
poareasceaheusceib poareasc-ea-heusc-eib city-GEN-man-PLUR (the) man’s cities
To make the possessed antecedent plural, however, demonstratives are inserted.
lhev poareasceaheusc lhev poareasc-ea-heusc DEM.PLUR city-GEN-man (the) men’s city
lhev poareasceaheusceib lhev poareasc-ea-heusc-eib DEM.PLUR city-GEN-man-PLUR (the) men’s cities
To emphasis the possesion, the corresponding nominative pronoun is placed before the possessed noun in addition.
doan poareasceadeis doan poareasc-ea-deis (s)he city-GEN-3P.SING.ANI his city
For more information see Faraneit Genitive Constructions, which covers the differences between various dialects in greater detail.
A similar construction is used for forming lists. (Technically this is a dvandva)
Halejih hav faraneit-ei-teimeirih speak.PRES.REAL.1P 1P.SING.NOM faranit-CLITIC-etimri I speak faranit (and) etimri
Geographic modifiers (ex. English, Chinese, Australian) are formed from contextual placement. General form is to superimpose the place name before the noun to be modified. For example:
Polisah Fasir! The Poliseam Alphabet! literally: Polisah Alphabet!
The Poelisem dialect avoids this and has created a new class of adjectives in response. Place names terminal vowels are deleted and the ending –eam is attached.
Poliseam Fasir! The Poliseam Alphabet!
For more detail see Faraneit Dialectical Slang.
Stress and Pitch
Stress usually falls on the first syllable:
Deviations, however, are not difficult to find:
The Stress-Pitch system is very simplistic. Stressed accents have high pitch, while all others have low pitch.
fhean-OT LH HAN-ak-ealh-ein HLLL
When the onset of a stressed syllable, /b d/ are fortis like unvoiced stops, but remain voiced. Similarly, when the onset of an unstressed syllable, the voiceless stops are lenis like voiced stops, but remain voiceless.
/a/ is realized as slightly raised, nearly to /ɒ/ when unstressed.
In the Southeastern Lescealh Faraneit Dialect, /e o/ are realized as long when stressed. This is one of its more conservative features.
Passive voice is nonexistent, aside from the use of kej, to be, as a descriptor. This results in dependence on teareipeas the genderless, numberless fourth person, when the subject is unknown. Reflexive is formed from the accusitive form of the appropriate pronoun.
Root + E(present)/EI(future)/OA(recent past)/EU(distant past) + J(indicative)/N(conditional/subjunctive) + IH(1p)/EIH(2p)/OAH(3p and 4p)
Classical Faraneit has no remaining unbound verbal roots, as the tense and mood markers became mandatory on even verbal nouns and gerund-like constructions.
Faraneit is known for having few irregular verbs, which can be found in a separate article: Irregular Verbs in Faraneit.
The largest distinction is present between Lescealh Faraneit and Poleiseam Faraneik (the version of Faraneit supplanted into southern Malaba). Poleiseam Faraneik replaces the she/he-it pronoun system with a he-she/it organization, although this is more exemplary of their philosophical views on women. The most obvious difference, however, is the shift of all terminal /t/ becoming /k/. This did not affect internal or initial stops. For example:
Fhenot (Lescealh Faraneit) --> Fhenok (Poleiseam Faraneik)
There was a second sound change, in additon: a vowel chain shift set off by a small change originally. /ʊ/ shifted to /u/, because /u/ had become /y/. This prompted /o/ to become the parallel /ø/, while /ɔ/ shifted upward to fill the hole left by the disappearance of /o/
Additionally the consonant /ʃ/ shifted initially to where /ç/ had existed before, completing a process slowly occuring within Lescealh Faraneit.
Poleiseam Faraneik changed grammatically aswell. The superimposing system in Lescealh Faraneit was replaced by a specialized modifier ending attached to the place name. Instead of the convention adjective endings of -om, -ean, or -ein, Poleiseam Faraneik created a special marker of -eam for geographic modifiers (derived from heam meaning village or town). Poleiseam Faraneik maintained the unorthodox position of the adjective, nonetheless. For example:
In Lescealh they speak Lescealh Faraneit. In Poleisah they speak Poleiseam Faranik.
Another common feature of Poleiseam Faraneik is the merger of /l ɭ/ terminally, where both are analyzed as [ɬ].
A distinction is made, however, between Orthodox Lescealh Faraneit and Southeastern Lescealh Faraneit. Orthodox Lescealh Faraneit reduces /ʊ/ to [ə] in many positions, and compounds various endings. When a stop is followed by a "weak" vowel (/ɛ ɪ ɔ ʊ/) and then a terminal fricative, the entire ending is realized as a voicless affricate positioned to the location of the stop.
Southeastern Lescealh Faraneit also realizes V/ni/X as V/ɲɪ/X or terminally V/ni#/ as V/ɲ/. Furthermore all [ʃ ʒ] are realized as [s z].
History and Culture
The Faraneih culture is beleived to have arisen circa 1500 AC (after colonization), when a variety of refugees from the final collapse of the Temenucha civilization (derived from both Hindi and Quecha speakers) moved southward across the Kupeimeiceah desert and into the "mediterranean" coastal plain and absorbed into the colonizers from the collapsed Guscek colony of Hungarians, who had relocated to from the southern plains. The cultures creolized to some degree and expanded as far south as the Trovog peninsula (Teimeareitah in Faraneit).
The extinction of the indigenous, omnivore reptoids left the cavernous, food producing, hollow trunks of the puzil trees available, leading to their adoption as an emergency shelter (not large enough for more than three children, unfortunately), food source (edible roots available from the hollow area), wood, and companion to a variety of edible and medicinal mosses. By 2000 AC this arangement had given way to fullscale horticulture. The subsequent increase in population pushed the excess out of measceineafh (the forest of the mediterranean coastal plain) and east to the Lescealh, the hilly region seperating the humid subtropical savannahs-grasslands and mediterranean coastal chapparel. The region was largely uninhabited because its western border was the driest area of the chapparel and its northern and eastern border was outside of the main path of the monsoons, which passed over the grassland, leaving little rainfall, until unloading on Lescealh, because of its slightly higher elevation. The hills also contained a valuable domesticate: Amaranth.
Amaranth had feralized after colonization, allowing it to develope into a naturalized and highly productive grain. After arriving around 3000 AC a small scale agricultural package was created circa 3100 by combining Amaranth (aka fheaqut) and puzil and gathering various fruits and vegetables. By 3500 AC nopav, a leafy vegetable, voanabeap, a fiber crop, leirodeaz, a melon, had been domesticated along with several more localized crops and goats had been introduced from the east. By 4000 AC the wheel was developed and Heideiveiz, a spice, was introduced.
From 4300 AC onwards, the Faranih dominated trade between the Southeastern Cang-ur, Northeastern Malaba, and the Southeastern Etimri. Circa 4600 AC, the Polizeih, a militant fringe religious group, invaded southern Malaba and attempted to create a sacred theocratic nation, Poleisah, there under their rule. The Polizeih radicals steadily drifted to even more radical ideals, until circa 4650 AC declaring their patron god, Poleasc, the only true god and began actively persecuting polytheists and in 4700 threatening the Faranih heartland, Lescealh, which had remained polytheistic, with invasion. In response the most populous and productive region dominated by the Hakeih, devotees to Hakenah, the water goddess, banned together under the leadership of the militaristic Heireih, devotees to Heirealanah, goddess of vengence and storms. This new and successful relationship became the Harapah. Unfortunately this system proved no more noble than Poleisah and was fraught with internal corruption and a hierarchy supported by ruthless oppression of political opponents.
A later Polizeih invasion (circa 4750) was more successful and managed to install the Polizeih in power in several non-Harapah areas. The ballad of Lhealeateh, the Lhealeatimen, is the story of the driving of these occupying forces out of the city of Heajaz and the establishment of the Heajazareifh (circa 4760), a sacred state surrounding Heajaz, which denied access to certain groups as an official, very public form of disapproval. Historically, both the Harapah and the Polizeih have been denied entrance. After the invasion of Heajaz by the Harapah circa 4780, the predominately Hameadeih, Healeasceih, and Leaveazeih inhabitants relocated to the semi-arid mountains in the north-central Kupeimeiceah desert and founded Heajarein, meaning new Heajaz.
After conquering the Heajareifh and other minor states in Lescealh, the Harapah began to solidify its base by combining many aspects of the Hakeih and Heireih sects. Although generally successful, the merge drove many devout followers of both to radical extremism, seperatism, and in some cases warfare. The internal divisions quickly healed with the expulsion of the Hakeih seperatists into distant Etimri areas and the self-propelled relocation of the Heireih radicals into traditional Cang-Ur lands. In reality, however, this only exported the troubles elsewhere, particularly into the western Cang-Ur tribal regions, which were heavily depopulated of the indigenous inhabitants by the Heireih settlers. That conquered region mirrored the developement of Poleisah, the Polizeih stronghold in southern Malaba, especially in it's eventual dissolution into utter theocracy. The overlying societal stresses augmented the already dangerous deforestation in the region, which ultimately lead to a devestating collapse into anarchy and mass exodus into the eastern shrub, into which an estimated three million emigrated, only to succumb to starvation (circa 4950 AC).
By 7500 AC, ecological causes, particularly deforestation, led to significant declines in both the strongholds of the Harapah and Polizeih. Within the previous four hundred years, Malaban rebels would reconquer Poleisah and the Harapah empire would have splintered into thousands of independent city-states in a state of incessant warfare. Ironically, the relocated people of Heajarein would prosper in the Kupeimeiceah as the trade routes they relied on became increasingly profitable while the trade routes and supply lines into Lescealh increasingly decentegrated, leading to inordinate prices for silks and northern spices.
Sound Changes which Created Faraneit
Faraneit Number System
The Faraneit number system is base-twelve, originating in the Faraneih practice of counting the palms as well as the fingers.
|number||Lescealh Faraneit||Poleiseam Faraneik|
|5||Sureah (/suʁɛ/)||Suereah (/syʁɛ/)|
|6||Puket (/puket/)||Puekek (/pykek/)|
|7||Keut (/kʊt/)||Kuk (/kuk/)|
|9||Moz (/moz/)||Moz (/møz/)|