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This page provides an overview of the draqa (or, "draga", pron. '/t◌̪ɚ. æ. ɦæ/' ) language, and some of its lexical items. Draga is my own personal conlang, and is in daily use by a speakership of one. It is intended to useable by human beings, but I wanted to break a few universals in the process. The phonology comes from analysis of my personal random "babbling". I also wanted to pursue ways of thinking mostly alien to my native language (English) and culture (American/Black), and create a better vehicle for expressing certain personal, perhaps "mystic" experiences in everyday speech. The "lofty" goals, however, are relatively recent. Originally, it was just something fun to do.



draqa (draga) is a personal constructed language, "spoken" by an exile population who call their homeland Qhrya. Technically, "draqa" (with a 'q') refers to an ancient form of the language, and "draga" (with a 'g') to the modern language; however, the spelling "draqa" is often used for either. Even more ancient -.preceding draqa - is draga (pronounced /dra. ga/ and technically referred to as proto-draga), which evolved from dragat.

The history of the draga people is quite mysterious. Apparently, the civilization of Qhrya arose in the North American continent, contemporary with (but not related to) the second Atlantean civilization (~28,000 B.C.) Within 1.000 years of that cataclysm, Qhrya was completely sacked, leaving fewer than 2,000 souls to wander for almost 200 years. Finding no respite, apparently the nation astrally projected themselves en masse into a parallel reality, where they have continued to thrive. The prophecies say that eventually the nation will reincarnate into this world in the 20th, 21st and 22nd centuries, at first scattered across the continents but eventually re-unified into a small nation again.

The draga are a dream-travelling people, whose primary mode of long-distance (as well as inter-dimensional and temporal) travel is astral-projection. Hence, culturally and linguistically, they are easily adapted to "primitive", "high-tech" and even "psychic" environments.

Phonetic Inventory


labial dental alveolar palatal velar post-velar glottal
plosives: pʼ (p) t_ tʼtz ʈ cʼ(c) kʷ kʲ q ʔ
fricative: f (ʰɸ) (ð) s ʃ (ç) (x) ʜ ɦ
liquids: w l j
trills: ʙ̥ ʀ̥
nasals: m (n_) (n) ɲ
implosives: ɓ (ʘʷ) ǃ


i ʊ
ə(ʌ) ɚ

Orthography / Phonological Considerations

Transliteration of the draga language uses 25 characters of the Roman alphabet: a, b, c, d, e, f, g, h, i, j, k, l, m, ñ, o, p, q, r, s, t, u, w, x, y, z - and the single-quote ( ' ) symbol to represent the sounds. In addition, the acute accent is used to represent pitch-accenting: á í ú. Traditionally, draga is written in a native alphabetic script that is supplemented by many logographs which are used to represent the most frequently used particles and lexemes. For some unfathomable reason, there is also a rare transliteration scheme which utilizes the Coptic alphabet.


p [pʼ] or [p] ph [pʰ]
d [t_] initially ; [d_] or [ð] medially ; [ð] after 'ñ': ñd [n_ð]
t' [tʼ] t [tʰ] ty [ʈ]
c [cʼ] or [c] ch [cʰ]
q [q] qh [qʰ] kw [kʷ] ky [kʲ]
f [f], [ʰɸ] before 'w': fw [ʰɸw]
s [s] j [tʼz] or [tz] x [ʃ]
m [m]
ñ [ɲ], [n_] before 'd': ñd [n_ð]
w [w], [ʘʷ] (bilabial click) following initial syllabic 'm': mw [mʘʷ]
l [l]
y [j]
h [ʜ], [x] before 'l' or 'w', [ç] before 'y' g [ɦ] (voiced /h/)
b [ɓ] (bilabial implosive)
z [ǃ] (alveolar implosive, i.e. click)
p" [ʙ̥] (voiceless bilabial trill)
t" [r̥] (voiceless alveolar trill)
q" [ʀ̥] (voiceless post-velar trill)
' [ʔ] ; or abbreviated spelling of certain prefixes: x'-, h'-, f'-


  • ï, í, i /i/
  • á, a /æ/
  • ae /æeˑ/
  • e /əˑ/
  • ou /ʷɔˑ/
  • ú / ó, o /ʊ/
  • r, rr (ë) /ɚˑ/

Draga is a pitch-accented language:

  • i, a, e, o, r are intoned at median pitch. They are considered unaccented.
  • í, á, ë are intoned at high pitch - typically 3-5 whole tones above the median.
  • ï is intoned at very high pitch - typically 5 - 8 whole tones above the median.
  • ú is intoned with a high, falling pitch, while ó is intoned with a high pitch.
  • ae is obviously a dipthong, but is treated as an invididual vowel. It is intoned at median pitch.
  • ou is always intoned with a slightly long, low pitch - typically 3-5 whole tones below the median.


Some vowels can be found rhoticized:

  • ír, ir, ár, ar, aer, or

Special Cases:

  • ïr is intoned falling from very high pitch to median.
  • úor is intoned falling from high pitch to low pitch.
  • ra is intoned falling from high pitch to median.

Spelling Conventions

The following spellings are found interchangably in draga transliteration, ea and eu being the most commonly used:

  • io = iu = eu
  • ia = ea

Syllable and Word Structure

draga Syllables are formed as follows:

C1 = Any Consonsant, or †Cluster ; V = Any Vowel or Compound ; C2 = Any Final Consonant: ( f, m, w, p", s, c, x, ñ, q)

(C1) - (V) - (C2 |/ʔ/)
  • V (/ʔ/).
  • C2.
  • C1 - V (/ʔ/).
  • C1 - C2.
  • C1 - V - C2.

†Allowable Consonant Clusters: pw, py, phw, phy, phl, tw, tl, jw, zw, z', qhw, qhl, xw, xl (sl), fw/hw, hl, hy, gw, gy, ml, lw, ly, bw, by

draga Roots are typically 1-2 syllables in length, and generally begin with any sound but g /ɦ/. The phone e /ə/ is thus far unattested formally as a final vowel, and the phone ' /ʔ/ never ends a word.

Useful Expressions

a píawañ ciñ: Hello, Goodbye
a jawa: Thank you, Your welcome, Please, It's okay
mú wañ: How are you? What's up with ya?
ía phoi: I'm happy, doing well, in a good mood
ía phíw: I'm not doing so well
ía xapo: All's well, I'm chillin'
fo mía: Excuse me, May I?, Help!
a jwae: Yes
a sae: No
ía meqeña: I'm hungry
mú meqeña: Are you hungry?
mú fwae: Do you like it? Would you recommend it?
ía fwae: I like it
a hleu: How nice! Beautiful!
qhwúi! a jwae: Let's do it!
íaskyïaf: I don't know
íasfwae: I don't like it
ía ñamaxa-meu: I very much enjoy the meal
fei-ajawa:, ajawafei: Thank You Universe! (Almost like "Thanks be to God" or "Thank (you) God")
xe'a wañ mieqs dañ... Where can I find ...
xe'a wañ t'ou dañ... Which way to ...
xe'a wañ dañ fou: What's up with the cannabis - (could you pass it please?)

Grammar Notes


draga has two types of morphemes, Particles and Roots. Roots are generally "content" words, and include what would be Nouns, Verbs and Adjectives in English, even Adverbs. None of those distinctions are made in the draga language, and theoretically, any applicable Particle can be used with any Root. So, to say lyíañc "Home + My (My home)", skyi'c "Running + My (I run)", and phoiac "Joyful + My (I am happy)" - the same construction is used throughout. Of course, skyi'c could also mean "My running" or "My run"; and phoiac could mean "My joy" depending on context.

This context is based on a relationship between a Predicate and its Argument(s), which are the roles available to Roots in the draga language. A Predicate may or may not be modified, or juxtaposed, with one or multiple Arguments - and the relationship of these Roots (or phrases) to each other may or may not be made more explicit by some Particle. This is the general role of Particles in the draga language: to modify the meaning of a Root, or to clarify the relationships among Roots or phrases.

However, there is a special type of Particle in draga which is always essential. This is the Speech Act Particle (SAP), which is always the beginning of a sentence. The SAP may contain evidential, or mood information - or it may indicate that a question is being asked, a command given, etc. Often, an SAP may be the whole sentence all by itself.

Some basic SAPs that will be useful right away:

  • ía Introduces a subjective personal 1st person (me, my) experience: ía phoi: "I am happy, i.e. I experience joy."
  • fwoia Indicates that "I witness(ed) this personally": fwoia phoiaña: "I see that s/he is happy."
  • Is used to asked a 2nd person (you) question: mú phoi: "Are you happy?"
  • eia Is used when telling stories, or relating information one has overheard at some point, but not having experience it personally: eia phoiaña: "S/he was happy", "They say that s/he is happy."
  • es Is used to express a negative sentence: es phoiaña: "S/he is not happy

BTW, the punctuation mark ' : ' indicates the end of a draga sentence.


Definite Particles

There are two Definite Particles in draga, the weak and the strong definite particles. The weak particle acts like "the", "some", "this", etc. in referring to a specific instance of what you're talking about:

  • pha-lyían, lyían-paá Home, the home, this home, my home, etc.
  • pha-haña, haña-paá This / that / the human being
  • pha-síah, síah-paá The deer, etc.
  • pha-laex, laex-paá The drinking water
  • pha-skyi' , skyi' -paá Running, The run, this running, etc.

The weak (or Iconic) definite particle creates a word referencing an iconic or essential form of the concept at hand. Examples of this kind of thing in English would be: "The MAN", "Big Government", "Justice", "The Law", "God", "They", etc. Fittingly, of course, none of those particular examples are concepts that actually exist in the draga language:

  • mía-pa
  • súa-pa
  • xían-pa
  • syú-pa
  • hloiso-pa

Count Particles

Any draga Root can be prefixed with one of the number particles to indicate a count of up to six:

  • f'- one
  • ñ'- two
  • d'- three
  • w'- four
  • m'- five
  • xw'- six
  • tío- several, many
  • fma- very many, a multitude


  • f'síah "a single deer"
  • w'skyi' "four runs"
  • fmaphoi "many joys, joyous occasions, etc."

The Particle sei negates any Root it precedes:

  • seisíah "not a deer"
  • seiskyi' "not running"
  • seiphoi "not happy"

Distal Particles

sfi- -sfía Reflexive
tyígi - -tyigi Reciprocal
for- -fír Immediate ("Right here")
kwo- -qhwú Proximal ("Next to, nearby)
yálo- -yalo Peri-Proximal ("Right over there, close by")
báo- -baó Distal ("Over there, in the distance")
t'áo- -t'aó Absent ("Not here, out of view / earshot")

Examples: (aeaq "person", phoia "joy")

  • aeaq-sfía / sfi-aeaq "The person her/himself"
  • phoi-sfía / sfi-phoi "Self-joy, enjoy one's self"
  • aeaq-tyigi / tyígi-aeaq "Those reciprocating each other"
  • phoi-tyigi / tyígi-phoi "Enjoy each other, Give each other joy"
  • for-aeaq / aeaq-fír "This person here, me"
  • phoi-fír / for-phoi "This (immediate) joy"
  • t'áo-aeaq / aeaq-t'aó "Person who is not here"
  • phoi-t'aó / t'áo-phoi "Joy which is (perhaps figuratively) absent"


Personal Pronominal forms come in two flavors: Generic and Agency. The Generic form does not specify anything about the relationship between the pronominal (i.e. the "person") and the Predicate it is related to. The Agency form specifically indicates that the "person" has acted in some way with regard to the concept described by the Predicate. This agency is not necessarily volitional (intentional) or even animate.

Root Prefix (Generic) Generic Suffix Agency Suffix Person
xean xi- -(w)(e)c -xui 1st Person Exclusive
phaweiaqs wox- -weax -weiaqs 1st Person Inclusive
phamagyi mi- -magyi -mmo 2nd Person
phaen nir -ña -za *Referent (2nd or 3rd Person)
phayañ phadae -da -dae 3rd Person Animate/ Abstract
phakwoi phakwoi -kwoi -kwoi 3rd Person Inanimate
phafeas phafeas -feas -feas 4th Person (Obviate) Animate/ Abstract
phakwoiaf phakwoiaf -kwoiaf -kwoiaf 4th Person (Obviate) Inanimate

  • The Referent is the "person" under discussion, or the "main character", per se. In classic draga there was no specific Pronominal form for 2p direct address, and it's use is still relatively infrequent - primarily for clarity, emphasis or endearment. The Referent is a 3rd person form (animate, abstract or inanimate), whose reference can be "switched" to indicate a 2nd person, i.e. "S/he (which is you)."

  • The Generic and Agency forms refer to whether or not the pronominal suffix indicates a general relationship of cause or influence, e.g. síahec would refer to a deer that *I am associated with (in any given way), whereas síahaxoi would refer to a deer which *I have acted upon or influenced in some way.

Examples: (sbaí "surface, table", skyi' "running", phoia "joy", siha "green")

  • sbaí-c "My table" (That I own, or is related to me in some way)
  • sbaí-xoi "My table" (That I act upon in some way)
  • skyi'-weax "Our running", "We run/ran¨ or even ¨We were run¨
  • skyi'-weiaqs "Running that we do/did/are doing"
  • phoia-na "His/her joy", "S/he is happy"
  • siha-ña "It's green-ness", "It is green", "Her/your green (-ness) (-ing) (thing)", etc.
  • siha-za ¨The greening/greenness/etc. that s/he (or you) influence/act-upon¨, etc.


wañ is a Pronominal which is used in Interrogative statements, and means "which? what? where? how?,who? why?" etc. Its use will be discussed further on.

phawoi, paá

These particles are similar to Spanish "lo" , and refer to "the one under discussion" - often translatable to "that one, this one, him, her, it, etc." Its usage will also be explicated further on.


The Locatives are Particles that indicate location, motion and direction. However, their broad usage allows for simple creation of useful sentences:

Unbound Semi-bound Fully Bound
ie' at, in, on, to, toward, from
ya- -yaó toward
fwor-, ya- -tyíw at, in, on
phya- -pyír successfully to
swor- -sear unsuccessfully toward
chou- -tyou (originating) from
-fir in the general direction of
-teyou in a general direction away from

Examples: (lyían "home", kyïaf "understanding", phoi "joy")

  • ya-lyían "Toward home", "Going home"
  • kyíaf-sear "Try unsuccessfully to understand"
  • phoia-tyou "Originating from (a place of ) joy," e.g. within one'sself, etc.

Example Sentences:

  • ía yalyían: "I am going home."
  • mú phya-kyíaf: "Were you able to finally understand?"
  • fwoia phoia-teyou-ña: "I see that s/he is becoming less joyful."

Additional Locatives

Some other locative particles inlude:

  • mor-, Inside of
  • wos- On the border, surface, edge, at the entrace, etc.
  • sdá- Outside of
  • -jíla Through
  • -de'thew Throughout
  • -mieqs "At a particular location
  • -míesq "At a particular set of circumstance, situation, or place-time"

Special Cases

Compound Locatives

This set of locatives express relative position rather direction. They are combined forms of 2 parts:

  1. Heads: fwía- "Above", jíoq- "Below", daea- "Level with", qhow- "In front of", qhaw- "Behind", doi- "Next to"'
  1. Codas: -da- "Located", -ha- "Touching, Connected or Attached", -sm- "Not touching or attached, disconnected, separate from"

The combined forms appear as prefixes:

fwíada- jíoqda- daeada- qhowda- qhawda- doida-
fwíaha- jíoqha- daeaha- qhowha- qhawha- doiha-
fwíasm- jíoqsm- daeasm- qhowsm- qhawsm- doism-

Examples: (sbaí "surface, table")

  • fwíada-sbaí - "(Somewhere) above the top the table"
  • fwíaha-sbaí - "On top of the table"
  • fwíasm-sbaí - "Above the table (not touching it)"


The Genitives are the Particles that clarify the relationship between Roots. The structure used is Predicate - Genitive - Argument - where the Predicate is a Root, of which further information about it is given by the Argument , which is also a Root. The meaning would translate to "The X (Predicate) OF Y (Argument)". The Genitive, then, clarifies what type of OF is being referred to:

Primary Form Meaning
wa- Of (generic)
cor- Of (explicit) Agent ...
han- Associated with, Correlated with, Identified with
am- Portion, part of
ho- Attributed with, Filled with
mois- Composed of
wor- Functioning as, In the role of
than- (Of) Benificiary
t'ei- (Of) Benefactor

Examples: (skyi' "running", síah "deer", qhwol "writing, book", sío'gwoi "student", thinc "wall (freestanding)", píoñ "stone", ñama "food, meal" )

  • skyi' wa-síah - "Deer's running"
  • síah ho-skyi' - "Deer which is/are running"
  • qhwol hañnsío'gwoi - "A/the suden'ts book"
  • píoñ am-thinc - "Stone from a/the wall, Stone part of the wall"
  • thinc mois-píon - "Wall made of stone"
  • ñama thañ-xean - "Meal for me "
  • ñama t'ei-magyi - "Meal that you (2p) prepared (for someone)"
  • ñama than-xean t'eimagyi - "Meal that you prepare for me"

wa- / cor-

These Generic forms are often the basis for complete sentences:

  • fwoia skyi' wasíah: "I see deer running."
  • eia phoi wasíah: "(They say) the deer are happy."
  • mú sío'gwoi wamagyi: "Are you a student?"

Notice the distinction in meaning (as well as form) when using the non-Agency form of Generic Genetive as compared to the Agency form. This is the distinction that applies to Agency vs. Non-Agency across the board in the draga language:

(mía means "aid, facillitate, allow, give, etc.")

  • ía míac: "I help, etc. or, am helped, etc."
  • ía míac wasío'gwoi: "I help (a/the) student." or, "A/the student helps me" literally, "I experience aiding of student."
  • ía mía cor'sío'gwoi: "The student helps me." i.e. the student is the Agency of the aid

In case you might be wondering how to specify that it is "I" who helps the student, the best way to go would probabaly be: "ía mía thañsío'gwoi:"

Agency and the Senses

thañ- / t'ei-


This Particle means "(used) in the role of" or "as". However, its broad usage allows for a good deal of information to be expressed in a compact way:

  • ía thinc worhyeuc: "I use the wall as a seat."
  • eia píon worqhwol: "They say it's written on a stone.", literally, stone as book (i.e. any written media)
  • fwoia síah wornamaza: "I saw [them] making a meal of the deer.", i.e. deer as [referent's] meal

Genitives with Pronimals

Genitive and Locative transformation with dei



  • (pha-) ho-skyi' dei síah <== síah ho-skyi'
  • (pha-) wor-ñama dei síah <== síah wor-ñama
  • (pha-) han-sío'gwoi dei qhwol <== qhwol háñ -sío'gwoi


  • (pha-) yalyíañ dei sío'gwoi <== sío'gwoi (ho-) ya-lyíañ
  • (pha-) swor-kyíaf dei sío'gwoi <== sío'gwoi (ho-) swor-kyíaf
  • (pha) lyían-teyou dei xean <== xean (ho-) lyían-teyou

From these examples, you can also see that any complete Genitive or Locative construction may be treated as a Root in its own right - which can then also serve as either Predicate or Argument.

pha- + Particle

The Definite Particle pha- can be prefixed to of the above Particles to obtain a Root. You may have noticed that the Root forms of the Pronominals were formed this way (pha-yac, pha-xíán, pha-meí, pha-magyi, pha-yañ, pha-lor, pha-dae, pha-feas, pha-kwoi, pha-kwoiaf):

  • pha-sfíi
  • pha-tyigi
  • pha-fír
  • pha-qhwo
  • pha-yalo
  • pha-baó
  • pha-t'aó
  • pha-yaó
  • pha-tyíw
  • pha-sear
  • pha-tyou
  • pha-fir
  • pha-teyou
  • pha-mieqs
  • pha-míesq

  • pha-wos-kwae
  • pha-mor-kwae
  • pha-sdá-kwae
  • pha-jeuqda-kwae
  • pha-qhawsm-kwae

et cetera

Active Particles

There are several Particles which can be used to modify the meanings of Roots to make them refer to various manners of activity or action:

  • ïama- Approaching / arriving at a state
  • sama- Departure from a state
  • hi-, hieñ- Associated action or result
  • fía- Multiple manifestations grouped as a single instance; Done totally, completely, to the fullest extent
  • hío- Using


  • ïamaskyi' Starting to run, Coming into a state of running, etc.
  • ïamapíoñ Turn into stone
  • ïamakyïaf Coming to understand, know, etc.
  • samphoi Becoming unhappy
  • samsío'gwoi Quitting being a student
  • hiqhwol Read a book; write a boot, etc.
  • hiskyi' Run, really running, etc.
  • hiñama Eat a meal; Prepare a meal
  • fíañama Banquet, huge meal; A group of meals; Meals (we had together, etc.)
  • fíakyïaf Completely, thoroughly understand
  • fía-hi-ñama Totally devour
  • hío-pha-chaeq Using this/ that cutting implement
  • ía híokyïaf: "I [do it by] using [my] understanding / knowledge."


Root Level

hloi And; And / Or (Inclusive 'Or')
sloi Exclusive 'or'; Negative 'Or' ("nor")
xli Together with (inclusive emphasis)
xwoi Along with (exclusive emphasis)

  • fwoia síah hloi wúh: "I see deer and/or dogs. (wúh)"
  • fwoia síah sloi wúh: "I see either a deer or a dog."
  • es síah sloi wúh: "It's neither a deer nor a dog."
  • fwoia síah xli wúh: "I see a deer and dog together.
  • fwoia síah xwoi wúh: "I see a deer as well as a dog."

Phrasals: h' (hyá) and dañ

The phrasal Conjunctions hyá and dañ are extremely important in creating lengthier and more complex sentences in draga. They are used to join one phrase to another.

hyá has the meaning of "In addition, and also, etc." and continues to add information to the idea expressed in the previous phrase:

  • eia ca'wo yaxamlyíañ, hyá ïamasío'gwoi:
  • fwoia qhwol hansío'gwoidei thinctyíw, hyá worñama corsíah:
  • ía ïamapa'o, hyá ïamaca'wo, hyá ïamamadr, hyá ïamaphaex, hyá ïamaxoq, hyá ïamapa'o:

dañ has the meaning of "With regards to, about, concerning, etc.":

  • ía phoia dañ kyïafmagyi:
  • fwoia thaña t'eisío'gwui dañ qhwol hotheiaxoi:

Speech Act Particles

Any draqa sentence begins with a Speech Act Particle (SAP), often used in conjunction with a Qualifier. The SAPs fall into three types: Evidentials, Mood Indicators, and Speech Act Indicators. More than one SAP can also be used sometimes at the beginning of a sentence. A complete sentence often may consist of nothing but the Speech Act Particle:



1st Person Objective, i.e. "I experienced it (external perception)"


1st Person Visual. i.e. "I witnessed it"


1st Person Auditory, i.e. "It sounds to me like"


1st Person Subjective, i.e. "I experienced it (internal perception)"


1st Person Psionic i.e. "I know it from a dream, vision, intuition, etc."


,i.e. "I heard from someone who said s/he experienced it"


i.e. "I heard from someone who said s/he witnessed it"

(a') phx-a

,i.e. "I heard from someone unreliable who said s/he experienced it"


,i.e. "I heard from someone unreliable who said s/he witnessed it"

Mood Indicators


Opiniative (Probable) Mood


Opiniative (Negative Probability) Mood


Expectant Mood


1st Person Imperative Mood


Irrealis Mood


Dreaming (Psionic) Mood

Speech Act Indicators


Narrative Speech Act


Subjective (Non-Realis) Speech Act


Interrogative Speech Act

2nd Person Interrogative Speech Act

sei, es

Negative Statement or Negative Imperative Speech Act



Indicates the Evidential source


Topicalizing Particle

m, -magyi

Phrase Level Conjunctions

dañ "About, Regarding, With respect to, Concerning..."
ou "And correspondingly / correlatedly / provoking..."
pái "Intentionally provoking..."
la.qs.a "Unintentionally provoking..."
z'ou "And of increasing correlation... "
dasi "In response to...", "Motivated by... "
dada "Intending (that)...", "In order to..."
he'ae "And surprisingly..."
chúmae "And unsurprisingly..."
kwmaskwa, msqa "And then / simultaneously / simulfactively..."
m.yamwa "Otherwise... "
saáñ "Rather / Instead / But not... "
ñáwa "However..."
ñúwi "Although / Despite..."
m.miema "Except... "
haf "In comparison to... "


The draga number system is base-6. During the material height of the draga civilization, a base-30 system was devised and used for hundreds of years alongside the original base-6, and some vestiges can still be found, especially in the writing system and the calendar.

base-6 base-10 base-6 base-10
ifa 01 * pinky 1 íwa ñaxwae 24 16
aña 02 * add ring 2 amwa ñaxwae 25 17
dows 03 * add middle 3 doxwae 30 18
íwa 04 * add pointer 4 íxwae 40 24
amwa 05 * add thumb 5 maxwae 50 30
ihoa 10 * close fist 6 walo 1,00 36
hyawo 11 7 ifa walo 1,01 37
ofwo 12 8 ihoa walo 1,10 42
bií 13 9 walo aña 2,00 72
qhowei 14 10 walo dows 3,00 108
amwae 15 11 walo íwa 4,00 144
ñaxwae 20 12 walo amwa 5,00 180
ifa ñaxwae 21 13 walo ihoa 10,00 216
aña ñaxwae 22 14 wegwalo 1,00,00 1,296
dows ñaxwae 23 15 '

Although the numbers are essentially base 6, you will notice that the counting numbers run from 1-12 (1-20, base 6), and once the count has arrived past 36 (100 base 6) - it continues to use the 1 -12 count, and it uses groupings of 36's rather than 6's:

  • ifa walo (37), aña walo (38), dows walo (39), íwa walo (40), amwa walo (41), ihoa walo (42), ...
  • hyawo walo (43), ofwo walo (44), bií walo (45), qhowei walo (46), amwae walo (47), ñaxwae walo (48) ...
  • ifa ñaxwalo (=ñaxwae walo) (49) , ..., *amwamaxwalo (=amwamaxwae walo) (71) , walo aña (72)
  • note: mamaxwalo is generally preferred to amwamaxwalo

Numbers with Roots


  • síaha-ifa One deer
  • sohoi-ifa ñaxwalo Forty-nine (36+12+1) students
  • qhowa-walo aña Seventy-rwo (2*36) books
  • phoia-bií Nine joys, joyous occasions, etc.


Ordinals are formed with a Locative construction, so that "first" is literally "at one", "fourth" is literally "at four", etc.:

  • síaha (ho-) yor-ifa - First deer
  • síaha (ho-) ifa-tyear - First deer
  • yor-ifa dei síaha - ' 'First deer
  • ifa-tyear dei síaha ' - ' First deer

Basic numeric sentences

  • fwoia bií dañ síaha: I see nine deer.
  • a walo wui: There are thirty-six."
  • ía íwa dañ phoia: I was pleased on (those) four occaions, I have four pleasures, etc.

ala is a Root meaning "iterations, repitions, counts, occurrences, times, etc":

  • eia f'ala dañ síaha: There was (exactly) one deer."
  • ía pha-ala íwa dañ phoia: I was pleased on those four occassions.

añ dañ phïacaxou-háñpapeloxoi ("The Tower of Babel")

a phawoi peí -

eia fe'alatew dañ pïokyíax hosacatío dirxeña-háñmesis:

eia cada xr'kyïeñewapaá, hei hyañdoafbaí hohamorxiñdarxoi, h' ïamaphalyíañña:

eia pïotyigi, baí - "qhwúi! a xígwo, hei híoxaeq dañ phawoi, hei híopíoñ jwae, hei lofoña war cwae":

eia pïotyigi, baí - "qhwúi! a pehwo, hei xígwo dañ phïacalyañ xwoi phïaca ho-úaloxou":

h'baí - "ïamahíesda-skwaer dañ xeñaweiaqs: h'xweiña, fo phawoisieñ ou yamargya-de'tew ïamaxpíw-wix":

eia fwíatyoi YaHWaHoxoi, dada ïamakyïafadae dañ xígwo-phahaña hañ phïacalyañ hya phïaca-xou:

eia pïo YaHWaHoxoi, baí- "qoei! a-woi dañ haña":

h'baí - "añfe'alatew fwoia dañ phakyïeñewa: h' añfe'alatew fwoia dañ hyírxñ:

fwoia añpehwo hokwihayom, ou phyáoqo sei jïiwa dañ híewaphajorgaña":

baí - "fo yorjeuqdeixíañ, hei phapïoña xqemi, dada kyïafasieñ hañpïotyigi":

eia woi YaHWaHoxoi, pái fíaxpíwña yamargya-de'tew,

he'eia sehaáñ xr'phïacalyañ hopapoloxoi-xñaq, dasi ie yormieqspa xqemi-YaHWaHoxui dirhyírxñ,

ou mieqspachou ïamafíaxpíw xr'hañapa dei yarmargya-de'tew: