This page is edited by a Japanese-native-speaker. Please forgive me for that there may be incorrect English use.
Calcoradish is a language which is spoken in Republic of Calcoraish as its official language. This language is called "Calcoradetár[kalkoradeta:r]" in Calcoradish.
Calcoradish has about twenty consonants.
|Stop||p [p] / b [b]||t [t] / d [d]||c [k] / g [g]|
|Nasal||m [m]||n [n]|
|Fricative||f [f] / v [v]||þ [θ] / ð [ð]||s [s] / z [z]||ç [x] / ğ [ɣ]||h [h]|
In latin transcription, "c" is always pronounced [k], and "k" is never used. In loanword or foreign name, j[j], w[w], š[ʃ], ž[ʒ], č[tʃ] may be used.
Calcoradish has nine vowels. The vowel length is distinctive. But /ɔ/ always appear as a long vowel. And the distinction between the long vowel /i:/ and /e:/ is not clear in many dialect.
Long vowels are spelled with acute accent(For example, the spell "á" is pronounced [a:]).
|Close||i [i]||y [y]||u [u]|
|Close-mid||e [e]||o [o]|
|Open-mid||æ [ε]||ø [œ]|
|Close||( í [i:] )||ý [y:]||ú [u:]|
|Close-mid||é [e:]||ó [o:]|
|Open-mid||ǽ [ε:]||ǿ [œ:]||â [ɔ:]|
Some combination of two vowels are pronounced as diphthong.
- ei, ai, æi [εi]
- øi [œi]
- yi [ɥi]
- oi [ɔi]
- ui [ui]
- ae [aε]
- oe [ɔε]
- ue [uε]
- æu, eu [εu]
- øu [œu]
Noun classes(Grammatical gender)
Any nouns in Calcoradish are classified into two noun classes. There are "animal noun" and "non-animal noun" in Calcoradish. These distinction is needed when you use article, or personal pronoun. Nouns that indicates human, are classified into "animal noun".
Calcoradish noun has five cases, nominative, accusative, propositional-genitive, postpositional-genitive, and dative.
Nominative will be the subject in the sentence. Accusative, postpositional-genitive, and dative will be the object in the sentence. You must remember which case will be used as object to the verb. For example, the verb "odǽl"(to eat) needs accusative object. The verb "veþnǿl"(to love) needs postpositional-genitive object.
In Calcoradish, there is no distinction between definite articles and indefinite articles.
- na(+non-animal noun that bigins with consonants)
- ne(+non-animal noun that bigins with vowel)
- ne(+animal noun)
Form of verbs
Infinitives of verb have ending "-ǽl", "-ǿl" or "-úl". A verb which ends with -ǽl is called "Class I verb". A verb which ends with -ǿl is called "Class II verb". A verb which ends with -úl is called "Class III verb".
|Class I||-ǽl||cadǽl (to open), stǽl (to write)|
|Class II||-ǿl||grǿl (to obtain), dragǿl (to bring)|
|Class III||-úl||gardúl (to walk), corúl (to read)|
Verbs are conjugated to indicate tense, aspect, and mood. But there is no conjugation for grammatical person(like most of Indo-European languages).
Tenses and Aspects
There are two tenses, past tense and non-past tense(present tense). And there are three aspects, perfective and non-perfective.
They are indicated by conjugation of verb.
When the verb is past tense, at first, you make "past stem" by changing verb's ending.
|Infinitive||Past Stem I||Past Stem II|
After making past stem, you will add suffix that indicates aspects.
|Class I||I||II + -æi|
|Class II||I||II + -ui|
|Class III||I||II + -ui|
In this table, "I" represents "past stem I", and "II" represents "past stem II".
Attributive adjectives are put after nouns. The word order is [Noun + Adjective].
- Example: vorg adyl (means “fast car”. “vorg”=”car”(noun), “adyl”=”fast”(adjective))
But when the combination of noun and adjective is treated as a proper noun, adjectives precede nouns and the word order is [Adjective + Noun].
|druig||table, desk||tēburu(テーブル), tsukue(机)|
|lúd||way, road||michi(道), dōro(道路)|
(Written in Japanese. under construction)