The history of Terra Nova is quite similar to that of our Earth until the mid-1300s. At this point, the Italian states that are in our world called Lombardy, Liguria, Piedmont, and Valle d'Aosta, together with a bit of southern Switzerland and the French province of Rhone-Alps, declared their independence as the sovereign state of Carune. This sparked some difficulties internationally, including a war that briefly distracted Europe from its crusades in the Holy Land. Carune emerged victorious, and that seemed to be the end of that.
The next divergence is in the early 1500s, when European powers began their journeys to colonize Africa and the Americas. Carune, being ambitious, naturally set out to secure colonies in Africa. Traveling around the coast of Africa, Carune explorers reached a small archipelago off the African coast, the Futozi islands, inhabited by a peaceful tribe. It was perfect, and soon a thriving economy grew up around the "capital" village of Miyuzi (Meiuzium, in Carune). This would be Carune's only colony, but it served them well. A small archipelago in the Indian ocean called K'uanu would be colonized by the British, and these islands would later play an important role in world politics. The nation of Khombu was never colonized, but gained ties to some of the middle-eastern nations through European influence.
In 1903, as Europe became a battleground, Futozi declared its independence from Carune, and Carune was forced to let it go. However, Futozi remained closely affiliated with Carune, and, when World War I broke out, served as an important staging point for military operations in Africa. When this World War I ended, Carune became the voice of the smaller nations in the council that determined the fate of Germany, earning independence for Saudi Arabia, Khombu, and K'uanu. With these greatful countries as allies, Carune became a powerful voice in the League of Nations.
In 1939, when Germany declared war on Poland, Carune began to fear for itself. Sure enough, the armies of Nazi Germany soon marched into Italy, and Carune's government fled from Torine to Miyuzi. Resistance efforts in Carune were strong, and by the time Allied soldiers arrived in Carune, the Resistatum di Carune had already secured Zergattum, with the help of the Swiss government (who in the end declared war on Germany). A broken Europe after the war needed strong leadership, and as Carune's economy skyrocketed, it soon became a powerful force in its vicinity. Carune became a founding member of the United Nations, and secured a position on the UN Security Council. Futozi, Khombu, and K'uanu set about forming an African model of the United Nations, though the African Union would take a long time to become a full reality.
In 1975, Carune and Futozi co-launched a space station into orbit, and soon began training astronauts from such countries as Rwanda, Khombu, Vietnam, and Bangladesh. This show of international cooperation finally allowed the troubled nation of K'uanu entry into the UN, which it had been denied based on its government.
In 2001, September 11 shocked the international community. Carune and Futozi were some of the few countries to speak out against some of the actions the United States took after that day. In 2002, a Futozi was elected chairman of the African Union. When the United States entered Iraq, Carune, along with France and the African Union, began a trade boycott against it. In 2006, the United States formally declared its withdrawl from the United Nations, claiming that it was no longer bound by international law. International protest was shocking, and some countries, Khombu and China included, even proposed military action against the United States. But this was the last straw for the American people. The President of the United States was impeached and sentenced to a period of jail time, and emergency elections were held, observed by the UN. In 2007, the United States' new government began plans to withdraw from Iraq, and re-entered such important treaties as the United Nations and the Geneva Convention.