Tilde

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The first use of tilde, ◌͂, was in Ancient Greek, though in that context it's called circumflex. This diacritic was used for indicating pitch accent.[1] In medieval times scribes used tildes above letters to indicate omissions. It could stand for an omitted Mm or Nn, though it could also stand for whole sequences of letters. Ññ comes from a digraph, Nn nn, as the tilde is essentially the same as a small Nn. Vowels with tilde in Portuguese have a similar origin.[2]

Tilde in Unicode

Characters with Tilde
~ ˜ ​ ◌̃ Ã ã
U+007E U+02DC U+0303 ​ U+00C3 U+00E3 ​ U+1EAA U+1EAB U+1EB4 U+1EB5 U+1EBC U+1EBD U+1EC4 U+1EC5
Tilde Small Tilde Combining Tilde Latin Capital Letter A With Tilde Latin Small Letter A With Tilde Latin Capital Letter A With Circumflex And Tilde Latin Small Letter A With Circumflex And Tilde Latin Capital Letter A With Breve And Tilde Latin Small Letter A With Breve And Tilde Latin Capital Letter E With Tilde Latin Small Letter E With Tilde Latin Capital Letter E With Circumflex And Tilde Latin Small Letter E With Circumflex And Tilde
Note: May be confused with Combining Acute-Grave-Acute, ◌᷉ (U+1DC9); Swung Dash, ⁓ (U+2053); Tilde Operator, ∼ (U+223C); Reversed Tilde, ∽ (U+223D); or Fullwidth Tilde, ~ (U+FF5E).
Ĩ ĩ Ñ ñ Õ õ Ȭ ȭ
U+0128 U+0129 ​ U+00D1 U+00F1 U+00D5 U+00F5 U+022C U+022D U+1E4C U+1E4D U+1E4E U+1E4F U+1ED6
Latin Capital Letter I With Tilde Latin Small Letter I With Tilde Latin Capital Letter N With Tilde Latin Small Letter N With Tilde Latin Capital Letter O With Tilde Latin Small Letter O With Tilde Latin Capital Letter O With Tilde And Macron Latin Small Letter O With Tilde And Macron Latin Capital Letter O With Tilde And Acute Latin Small Letter O With Tilde And Acute Latin Capital Letter O With Tilde And Diaeresis Latin Small Letter O With Tilde And Diaeresis Latin Capital Letter O With Circumflex And Tilde
Ũ ũ
U+1ED7 U+1EE0 U+1EE1 U+0168 U+0169 U+1E78 U+1E79 U+1EEE U+1EEF U+1E7C U+1E7D U+1EF8 U+1EF9
Latin Small Letter O With Circumflex And Tilde Latin Capital Letter O With Horn And Tilde Latin Small Letter O With Horn And Tilde Latin Capital Letter U With Tilde Latin Small Letter U With Tilde Latin Capital Letter U With Tilde And Acute Latin Small Letter U With Tilde And Acute Latin Capital Letter U With Horn And Tilde Latin Small Letter U With Horn And Tilde Latin Capital Letter V With Tilde Latin Small Letter V With Tilde Latin Capital Letter Y With Tilde Latin Small Letter Y With Tilde

Tilde in Natlangs

Uses of Tilde
Use Language Letters Notes
Change of place of articulation Basque, Spanish Ññ /ɲ/ Stems from an older Nn nn in Spanish.[3] Basque borrowed the usage from Spanish.[4]
ISO 15919 romanization of Indic scripts Ññ /ɲ/ Ññ is used for transcribing the Indic diacritic anusvāra before palatal consonants.[5]
Malagasy Ññ /ŋ/ This letter may occasionally be seen used instead of N̈n̈. Ng ng may also be used.[6]
Moro Ññ /ɲ/ The orthography for Moro did not have capital letters originally.[7]
Glottalized vowel Vietnamese Ãã /aˀː˧˥/, Ẵẵ /aˀ˧˥/, Ẫẫ /əˀ˧˥/, Ẽẽ /ɛˀ˧˥/, Ễễ /eˀ˧˥/, Ĩĩ /iˀ˧˥/, Õõ /ɔˀ˧˥/, Ỗỗ /oˀ˧˥/, Ỡỡ /əˀː˧˥/, Ũũ /uˀ˧˥/, Ữữ /ɨˀ˧˥/, Ỹỹ /iˀ˧˥/ The tilde stands for mid rising tone interrupted by a glottal stop.[8] There are many exceptions to the phonemic values of these letters though.[9]
Nasalization Portuguese Ãã /ɐ̃/, Õõ /õ/ They stem from older Aᷠaᷠ, Oᷠoᷠ.[10]
Unrounded vowel Estonian Õõ /ɤ/
Other Livonian Õõ /ɨ/, Ȭȭ /ɨː/

Tilde in Conlangs

Uses of Tilde
Use Language Letters Notes
Change of place of articulation Quenya Ññ /ŋ/

Tilde in Phonetic Transcriptions

Uses of Tilde
Use Transcription system Notes
Nasalization International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA) Used for both nasalized vowels and nasalized consonants.

See Also

References

  1. Tilde, Pitch at Wikipedia.
  2. Tilde at Wikipedia.
  3. Tilde, Palatal n at Wikipedia.
  4. Ñ, Cross-linguistic usage at Wikipedia.
  5. ISO 15919, Comparison with UNRSGN and IAST at Wikipedia.
  6. Malagasy language, Diacritics at Wikipedia.
  7. Guest, Elizabeth. 1997. Moro Phonology.
  8. Vietnamese language, Language variation, Tones at Wikipedia.
  9. Vietnamese orthography, Pronunciation at Wikipedia.
  10. Tilde, Nasalization at Wikipedia.