Circumflex

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The circumflex comes from the Greek alphabet where it marked pitch. It was originally a combination of acute and grave accent.[1] Note that the circumflex is easily confused with the similar looking inverted breve ◌̑.

Circumflex in Unicode

Characters with Circumflex
^ ˆ ◌̂ Â â
U+005E U+02C6 U+0302 U+00C2 U+00E2 U+1EA4 U+1EA5 U+1EA6 U+1EA7 U+1EA8 U+1EA9 U+1EAA U+1EAB
Circumflex Accent Modifier Letter Circumflex Accent Combining Circumflex Accent Latin Capital Letter A With Circumflex Latin Small Letter A With Circumflex Latin Capital Letter A With Circumflex And Acute Latin Small Letter A With Circumflex And Acute Latin Capital Letter A With Circumflex And Grave Latin Small Letter A With Circumflex And Grave Latin Capital Letter A With Circumflex And Hook Above Latin Small Letter A With Circumflex And Hook Above Latin Capital Letter A With Circumflex And Tilde Latin Small Letter A With Circumflex And Tilde
Note: May be confused with Modifier Letter Up Arrowhead, ˄ (U+02C4); or Up Arrowhead, ⌃ (U+2303).
Ĉ ĉ Ê ê ế
U+1EAC U+1EAD U+0108 U+0109 U+00CA ​ U+00EA U+1EBE U+1EBF U+1EC0 U+1EC1 U+1EC2 U+1EC3 U+1EC4
Latin Capital Letter A With Circumflex And Dot Below Latin Small Letter A With Circumflex And Dot Below Latin Capital Letter C With Circumflex Latin Small Letter C With Circumflex ​ Latin Capital Letter E With Circumflex Latin Small Letter E With Circumflex Latin Capital Letter E With Circumflex And Acute Latin Small Letter E With Circumflex And Acute Latin Capital Letter E With Circumflex And Grave Latin Small Letter E With Circumflex And Grave Latin Capital Letter E With Circumflex And Hook Above Latin Small Letter E With Circumflex And Hook Above Latin Capital Letter E With Circumflex And Tilde
Ĝ ĝ Ĥ ĥ Î î Ĵ ĵ Ô ô
U+1EC5 U+1EC6 U+1EC7 U+011C U+011D U+0124 U+0125 U+00CE U+00EE U+0134 U+0135 U+00D4 U+00F4
Latin Small Letter E With Circumflex And Tilde Latin Capital Letter E With Circumflex And Dot Below Latin Small Letter E With Circumflex And Dot Below Latin Capital Letter G With Circumflex Latin Small Letter G With Circumflex Latin Capital Letter H With Circumflex Latin Small Letter H With Circumflex Latin Capital Letter I With Circumflex Latin Small Ltter I With Circumflex Latin Capital Letter J With Circumflex Latin Small Letter J With Circumflex Latin Capital Letter O With Circumflex Latin Small Letter O With Circumflex
Ŝ ŝ Û
U+1ED0 U+1ED1 U+1ED2 U+1ED3 U+1ED4 U+1ED5 U+1ED6 U+1ED7 U+1ED8 U+1ED9 U+015C U+015D U+00DB
Latin Capital Letter O With Circumflex And Acute Latin Small Letter O With Circumflex And Acute Latin Capital Letter O With Circumflex And Grave Latin Small Letter O With Circumflex And Grave Latin Capital Letter O With Circumflex And Hook Above Latin Small Letter O With Circumflex And Hook Above Latin Capital Letter O With Circumflex And Tilde Latin Small Letter O With Circumflex And Tilde Latin Capital Letter O With Circumflex And Dot Below Latin Small Letter O With Circumflex And Dot Below Latin Capital Letter S With Circumflex Latin Small Letter S With Circumflex Latin Capital Letter U With Circumflex
û Ŵ ŵ Ŷ ŷ
U+00FB ​ U+0174 U+0175 U+0176 U+0177 U+1E90 U+1E91
Latin Small Letter U With Circumflex Latin Capital Letter W With Circumflex Latin Small Letter W With Circumflex Latin Capital Letter Y With Circumflex Latin Small Letter Y With Circumflex Latin Capital Letter Z With Circumflex Latin Small Letter Z With Circumflex

Circumflex in Natlangs

Uses of Circumflex
Usage Language Letters Notes
Central vowel Moldovan, Romanian Ââ /ɨ/, Îî /ɨ/ Ââ and Îî both stand for the same sound, but Ââ is used word-internally, and Îî initially and finally. Exceptions are compound words and proper nouns.[2]
Diphthong Slovak Ôô /u̯o/
Long vowel Arabic (ISO 233 romanization) Ââ /aː/ This letter is only found in the sequence ʾÂ ʾâ which is used for transcribing آ /ʔaː/.[3][4]
Japanese (Nihon-siki romanization) Ââ /aː/, Êê /eː/, Îî /iː/, Ôô /oː/, Ûû /uː/ This is the official way of spelling the long vowels, but it is not always followed. See the note about Japanese on Macron.
Long vowel with low pitch Slovene (orthography with tonal accentuation) Ââ /àː/, Êê /ɛ̀ː/, Ệệ /èː/, Îî /ìː/, Ôô /ɔ̀ː/, Ộộ /òː/, Ûû /ùː/ Inverted breve may be used instead of circumflex. These letters are not used in the standard orthography of Slovene, but in language materials.[5]
Raised vowel Slovene (orthography with dynamic accentuation) Êê /ˈeː/, Ôô /ˈoː/ The circumflex marks that these vowel are stressed, long, and mid-close instead of mid-open. These letters are not used in the standard orthography of Slovene, but in language materials.[5]
Vietnamese Ââ /ə˧/, Ấấ /ə˧˥/, Ầầ /ə̤˨˩/, Ẩẩ /ə˧˩˧/, Ẫẫ /əˀ˧˥/, Ậậ /ə̰ʔ˧˨/, Êê /e˧/, Ếế /e˧˥/, Ềề /e̤˨˩/, Ểể /e˧˩˧/, Ễễ /eˀ˧˥/, Ệệ /ḛʔ˧˨/, Ôô /o˧/, Ốố /o˧˥/, Ồồ /o̤˨˩/, Ổổ /o˧˩˧/, Ỗỗ /oˀ˧˥/, Ộộ /o̰ʔ˧˨/ Generally, unaccented Aa, Ee, Oo stand for /aː, ɛ, ɔ/. There are many exceptions to the phonemic value of all these letters though.[6]
Rising tone Min Nan (Pe̍h-ōe-jī orthography) Ââ /a˨˦/, Âⁿ âⁿ /ã˨˦/, Êê /e˨˦/, Êⁿ êⁿ /ẽ˨˦/, Îî /i˨˦/, Îⁿ îⁿ /ĩ˨˦/, M̂m̂ /m̩˨˦/, N̂g n̂g /ŋ̍˨˦/, Ôô /ə˨˦/, Ôⁿ ôⁿ /ɔ̃˨˦/, Ô͘ô͘ /ɔ˨˦/, Ûû /u˨˦/, Ûⁿ ûⁿ /u˨˦/ There is much variation in the tones and vowel qualities between different dialects of Min Nan. The vowel qualities here seem to be an approximation between the dialects,[7] while the tones here are as they are pronounced in Taipei.[8]
Rising-falling (peaking) tone Min Dong (Fuzhou dialect, Foochow romanization) Ââ /a˨˦˨, ɑ˨˦˨/, Â̤â̤ /ɛ˨˦˨, a˨˦˨/, Êê /ɛi˨˦˨/, Ê̤ê̤ /œ˨˦˨/, Îî /i˨˦˨/, Ôô /ou˨˦˨/, Ô̤ô̤ /o˨˦˨, ɔ˨˦˨/, Ûû /u˨˦˨/, Ṳ̂ṳ̂ /y˨˦˨/ Note that the letters here that contain ◌̤ are not precomposed characters.
Other Malagasy Ââ /a/, Êê /e/, Ôô /o/ Â and Ê are single letter words in Malagasy. The circumflex on these words is not obligatory, and it does not really have any significance, as these letters are pronounced just the same unaccented. Ôô is distinguished from Oo which stands for /u/. Ôô is used only in some dialects, and in loan words, where it is not obligatory when not needed for disambiguation.[9]

Circumflex in Conlangs

Uses of Circumflex
Usage Language Creator Letters Notes
Alphabet extension Esperanto Ludwig Lazarus Zamenhof Ĥĥ /x/ Unaccented Hh stands for /h/.
Postalveolar consonant Esperanto Ludwig Lazarus Zamenhof Ĉĉ /t͡ʃ/, Ĝĝ /d͡ʒ/, Ĵĵ /ʒ/, Ŝŝ /ʃ/ The unaccented versions of these letters are: Cc /t͡s/, Gg /ɡ/, Jj /j/, Ss /s/, meaning that some of the sounds these letters represent do not only change their point, but also their manner, of articulation.
Stressed long vowel Liu (external romanization) Qwynegold Ââ /ˈaː/, Êê /ˈeː/, Îî /ˈiː/, Ôô /ˈoː/, Ûû /ˈuː/ In the native script, the corresponding diacritic would only be used when the syllable lacked an onset, because stress would otherwise be marked on the first consonant. But the romanization marks stress on vowels only, for simplicity's sake.

See Also

References

  1. Circumflex, Pitch at Wikipedia.
  2. Romanian alphabet, Special letters at Wikipedia.
  3. Pedersen, Thomas. 2008. Transliteration of Arabic.
  4. Arabic diacritics, Maddah at Wikipedia.
  5. 5.0 5.1 Slovene language, Prosody at Wikipedia.
  6. Vietnamese orthography, Pronunciation at Wikipedia.
  7. Pe̍h-ōe-jī, Current system at Wikipedia.
  8. Taiwanese Hokkien, Tones at Wikipedia.
  9. Malagasy language, Diacritics at Wikipedia.