Caron

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Caron is also known as háček or haček. It originated from dot above in Czech orthography.[1] Note that the caron is easily confused with the similar looking breve ˘, especially in small font sizes.

Caron in Unicode

Characters with Caron
ˇ ◌̌ Ǎ ǎ Č č Ď ď DŽ Dž dž Ě ě
U+02C7 U+030C U+01CD U+01CD U+010C U+010D U+010E U+010F U+01C4 U+01C5 U+01C6 U+011A U+011B
Caron Combining Caron Latin Letter Capital A With Caron Latin Letter Small A With Caron Latin Capital Letter C With Caron Latin Small Letter C With Caron Latin Capital Letter D With Caron Latin Small Letter D With Caron Latin Capital Letter Dz With Caron Latin Capital Letter D With Small Letter Z With Caron Latin Small Letter Dz With Caron Latin Capital Letter E With Caron Latin Small Letter E With Caron
Note: May be confused with Modifier Letter Down Arrowhead, ˅ (U+02C5). Note: The caron looks actually like an apostrophe placed to the right of the ascender of the d.
Ǧ ǧ Ȟ ȟ Ǐ ǐ ǰ Ǩ ǩ Ľ ľ Ň ň
U+01E6 U+01E7 U+021E U+021F U+01CF U+01D0 U+01F0 ​ U+01E8 U+01E9 U+013D U+013E U+0147 U+0148
Latin Capital Letter G With Caron Latin Small Letter G With Caron Latin Capital Letter H With Caron Latin Small Letter H With Caron Latin Capital Letter I With Caron Latin Small Letter I With Caron Latin Small Letter J With Caron Latin Capital Letter K With Caron Latin Small Letter K With Caron Latin Capital Letter L With Caron Latin Small Letter L With Caron Latin Capital Letter N With Caron Latin Small Letter N With Caron
Note: The caron looks actually like an apostrophe placed to the right of the ascender of the Ll.
Ǒ ǒ Ř ř Š š Ť ť Ǔ ǔ Ǚ
U+01D1 U+01D2 U+0158 U+0159 U+0160 U+0161 U+1E66 U+1E67 U+0164 U+0165 U+01D3 U+01D4 U+01D9
Latin Capital Letter O With Caron Latin Small Letter O With Caron Latin Capital Letter R With Caron Latin Small Letter R With Caron Latin Capital Letter S With Caron Latin Small Letter S With Caron Latin Capital Letter S With Caron And Dot Above Latin Small Letter S With Caron And Dot Above Latin Capital Letter T With Caron Latin Small Letter T With Caron Latin Capital Letter U With Caron Latin Small Letter U With Caron Latin Capital Letter U With Diaeresis And Caron
Note: The caron looks actually like an apostrophe placed to the right of the ascender of the t.
ǚ Ž ž Ǯ ǯ
U+01DA U+017D U+017E U+01EE U+01EF
Latin Small Letter U With Diaeresis And Caron Latin Capital Letter Z With Caron Latin Small Letter Z With Caron Latin Capital Letter Ezh With Caron Latin Small Letter Ezh With Caron

Caron in Natlangs

Uses of Caron
Usage Language Letters Notes
Change of manner of articulation Czech Řř /r̝/ This is a raised non-sonorant trill. Unaccented Rr stands for /r/.[2]
Falling-rising (dipping) tone Mandarin (Pinyin romanization) Ǎǎ /a˨˩˦/, Ěě /ə˨˩˦/, Ǐǐ /i˨˩˦/, Ǒǒ /ə˨˩˦/, Ǔǔ /u˨˩˦/, Ǚǚ /y˨˩˦/ Pinyin was created in the 1950s, and its tone marks were based on the Bopomofo phonetic notation.[3] Note that these tone values are based on the Beijing dialect.[4]
Palatal phoneme Czech Ďď /ɟ/, Ěě /(j)ɛ/, Ňň /ɲ/, Ťť /c/ Ěě stands for an /ɛ/ that makes a previous Dd, Nn, Tt be /ɟ, ɲ, c/, a previous Bb, Ff, Pp, Vv be /bj, fj, pj, vj/, and a previous Mm /mɲ/. This letter is not found in other positions.[5]
Slovak Ďď /ɟ/, Ľľ /ʎ/, Ňň /ɲ/, Ťť /c/ In Slovak handwriting ď, ľ and ť have an actual caron instead of an apostrophe.[6]
Postalveolar consonant Akkadian (DMG-umschrift transliteration), Ancient Egyptian (traditional transliteration) Šš /ʃ/ Because Akkadian[7] and Ancient Egyptian[8] are extinct languages, the exact pronunciation can't be known for sure; so the phonemic representation here might not be entirely accurate.
Arabic (DIN 31635 romanization, ISO/R 233 romanization) Čč /t͡ʃ/, Ǧǧ /d͡ʒ~ʒ~ɡ/, Šš /ʃ/, Žž /ʒ~zˤ/ Čč and Žž represent the letters چ and ز which are not Arabic letters, but can be used in Arabic texts for transcribing sounds found in other languages.[9][10]
Arabic (ISO 233 romanization) Ǧǧ /d͡ʒ~ʒ~ɡ/, Šš /ʃ/
Arabic (Hans Wehr romanization) ǧ /d͡ʒ~ʒ~ɡ/, š /ʃ/, ž /ʒ~zˤ/ ǧ was replaced by j in the fourth edition of this romanization scheme.[11] ž represents the letter ز which is not an Arabic letter, but can be used in Arabic texts for transcribing sounds found in other languages.[10] Hans Wehr romanization does not include capital letters.[11]
Czech, Latgalian, Latvian Čč /tʃ/, Šš /ʃ/, Žž /ʒ/ Unaccented Cc stands for /ts/ in Czech, Latvian and Latgalian.
Livonian Šš /ʃ/, Žž /ʒ/
North Sami (1979 orthography) Čč /tʃ/, Šš /ʃ/, Žž /dʒ/ Unaccented Cc stands for /ts/, and unaccented Zz for /dz/.
Slovak Čč /tʃ/, DŽdž /dʒ/, Šš /ʃ/, Žž /ʒ/
Uvular consonant Heiltsuk-Oowekyala (Heiltsuk dialect, official orthography and Rath's orthography) Ǧǧ /ɢ/, Ǧv ǧv /ɢʷ/, X̌x̌ /χ/, X̌v x̌v /χʷ/ Note that X̌x̌ is not a precomposed letter.

See Also

References

  1. Caron, Origin at Wikipedia.
  2. Czech language, Consonants at Wikipedia.
  3. Pinyin, History after 1949 at Wikipedia.
  4. Mandarin Chinese, Tones at Wikipedia.
  5. Czech orthography, Letter Ě at Wikipedia.
  6. Slovak language, Orthography at Wikipedia.
  7. Akkadian language, Phonetics and phonology at Wikipedia.
  8. Egyptian language, Phonology at Wikipedia.
  9. Che (Persian letter) at Wikipedia.
  10. 10.0 10.1 Že at Wikipedia.
  11. 11.0 11.1 Hans Wehr transliteration at Wikipedia.