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Novbasa (formerly known as Ardlang) is a constructed worldlang created by Elia Ansaloni in 2013. Its name is composed by the words nov ("new") and basa ("language"). Its main features are a regular phonetic inventory, a strict SVO sentence order and a vocabulary that aims to defy Eurocentrism without renouncing to widely known translations. While its main inspiration is Lingwa de Planeta, Novbasa has some traits in common with Sambahsa, like the use of proto-languages and a rather wide vocabulary base.

The main linguistic influences of Novbasa are Indo-European languages, Chinese (from which most of the isolating grammar is derived) and Arabic, but its a posteriori vocabulary is built considering many other languages, including Austronesian languages, Altaic languages, Swahili, Basque and Nahuatl. This approach is remarked by Novbasa's motto Ab hol dunya, pro hol dunya ("From the whole world, for the whole world").

As of 2014, a basic dictionary of Novbasa has been released, and some translations and lexicon are available on the Unilang forum and on this wiki.

Phonology and orthography


Latin a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z
Cyrillic a б ч д е ф г х и ж к л м н о п ѳ p c т у в ў ш й з
IPA a b ʧ d е/ɛ f g h/x i ʒ/ʤ k l m n о/ɔ p θ ɾ/r s t u v/w y ʃ j z

Note: q and w are used only in loanwords and foreign proper nouns.


Some letters can be pronounced in two different ways in order to make the pronunciation easier to the majority of speakers. For example, a Russian or a French speaker would find more natural to pronunce j as /ʒ/, while an English or an Hindi one would rather choose /ʤ/. Both are equally valid and mutually interchangeable. It should be noticed that ng is always pronounced as /ŋg/ and never as /ŋ/ (as it would be in English or Indonesian). N is pronunced as /ŋ/ before velar plosives.

The stress is always on the penultimate syllable.

In the diphtongs ao and eo, "o" is considered a semivowel and the accent never falls on it.


Generally, the only way to identify a word as a noun, adjective or verb is the context and the position in the phrase. For example, tuk may stand for "poison", "poisonous" or "to poison". However, a name can be identified by the presence of an article.


There are two determinative articles: al (singular) and i (plural). There is only one indeterminative article: un, which is only singular. Articles are required when it's necessary to clear the status of a noun as singular or plural, or when the noun can't be immediately identified in the phrase.


Nouns in Novbasa do not change for number or case. Some nouns have a masculine and a feminine form that can be obtained by adding the prefix man or fem.

tsula - fox (gender not specified)
man-tsula - male fox
fem-tsula - vixen

Few nouns have two different versions.

patro/matra - father/mother
brator/sestar - brother/sister


Adjectives always precede the noun they're related to.

un hvan dom - a yellow house
al xao kali kat - the small black cat


Adverbs may be identified by adding -di to an adjective.

garme (warm) → garme-di (warmly)

The particle is pronunced separately from the root, whose pronunciation is left unchanged.


Personal pronouns

Novbasa English
me I
tu you
hu/ta/he he/she/it
no we
vo you
le they

Possessive adjectives and pronouns are formed by adding y to the personal pronouns.

Novbasa English
mey I, mine
tuy your, yours
huy/tay/hey his/her, hers/its
noy our, ours
voy your, yours
ley their, theirs


Much like Esperanto, Novbasa organizes demonstrative and relative pronouns in a table.

("Each, every")
sa/to– mo– aon– ve– ne–
Individual –jen sajen/tojen
(this/that one)
(everyone, each one)
(no one)
Thing –vas savas/tovas
Time –vez savez/tovez
(this/that time)
Place –stan sastan/tostan*
Manner –kam sakam/tokam
(this/that way)
(anyhow, anyway)
(in every way)
(no way)
Reason –karan sakaran/tokaran
(for some reason)
(for any reason)
(for all reasons)
(for no reason)
Amount –kvanti sakvanti/tokvanti
(this/that much)
(any quantity)
(all of it)

* Adverbs sastan and tostan are rarely used. They are often replaced by the more practical je ("here") and la ("there").

The main difference with Esperanto is that "question" pronouns are not formed this way, and therefore are listed apart.

Novbasa English
ki who
ko what
kvan when
kver where
kom how
kvey why
kvanti how much


Much like in English, verbs in Novbasa change only for mood and tense but not for number and person. Apart from es ("to be"), all verbs are regular. The subject must always be expressed.

Tense Novbasa English
Infinitive bina to build
Present me bina I build
Present perfect me ha bina I have built
Past me li bina I built
Past perfect me li ha bina I had built
Future me yao bina I will build
Near future me vao bina I am going to build
Conditional me ud bina I would build
Past conditional me ud li bina I would have built
Imperative (ba) bina build!
Present Participle ra bina building
Past Participle (ge) bina built

The reflexive is formed by adding se before the verb and after eventual particles.

The passive is formed by coupling the particles with the past participle of the verb. In this case, ba cannot be dropped.


Es ("to be") is the only irregular verb.

Tense Novbasa English
Infinitive es to be
Present me es I am
Present perfect me ha es I have been
Past me bi I was
Past pefect me ha bi I had been
Future me yao es I will be
Near future me vao es I am going to be
Conditional me ud es I would be
Past conditional me ud bi I would have been
Imperative (ba) es be!
Present Participle ra es being
Past Participle bu been


Number Cardinal Number Cardinal
0 nul 11 dekun
1 un 20 dudek
2 du 21 dudekun
3 san 30 sandek
4 ca 40 cadek
5 pen 50 pendek
6 lyu 100 bak
7 sep 200 dubak
8 pa 237 dubaktrideksep
9 nav 1000 kil
10 dek 2000 dukil


Main article: Novbasa/Lexicon

Novbasa lexicon draws from the main language families of the world. The main source are Indo-European languages (around 60% of the current lexicon), but the core of everyday use terms includes many Afro-Asiatic and Sino-Tibetan terms.

Source languages

Virtually, any language can be a source for Novbasa. However, due to historical, geographic and/or cultural relevance and to the number of speakers, a restricted number of languages forms the main core. These languages are classified as it follows.

  • Indo-European: Latin, Greek, Spanish, Portuguese, French, Italian, English, German, Russian, Sanskrit, Hindi-Urdu, Bengali, Persian
  • Sino-Tibetan: Chinese
  • Afro-Asiatic: Arabic
  • Altaic: Japanese, Korean
  • Austronesian: Malay-Indonesian
  • Niger-Congo: Swahili

Minor sources include Nahuatl, Basque, Turkish, Tamil, Telugu, Finnish, Vietnamese, Irish and Armenian.

Novbasa also draws from proto-languages when the root is clear and widespread enough. The most used proto-language is Proto-Indo-European (PIE from now onwards). Few words are derived from Nostratic roots, like kerd ("heart"), from k̕ærd, or nem ("to take"), from nʲamo.

Selection criteria

Although the selection doesn't follow a specific path, some criteria are followed to choose a specific translation among the various languages.

  • Familarity: The main criteria for a word to be chosen is its diffusion.
    • Terms used on a worldwide scale have the priority. Examples: sport; chay (tea) from Chinese 茶 (chá); muzik ("music").
    • Words borrowed by many languages have a good chance of being chosen. Example: kitab (book) from Arabic كتاب‎ (kitāb) and borrowed by many languages, including Persian, Hindi, Indonesian, Malay, Hausa and Turkish.
  • Simplicity: When possible, the priority goes to words that are short and easy to pronounce.
  • Unambiguousness: Novbasa tries to eliminate the typical ambiguities of natural languages.
    • Each word should refer to only one concept. Example: "right" is translated as deks if referring to the direction, but is translated as pravo if referring to the legal term.
    • If an eligible word would be pronounced as another already existing one, it must be discarded.
  • Diversity: While searching for easily recognizable words, Novbasa tries to challenge biases like Eurocentrism. Words of everyday use are thus taken from various language families.
  • Relevance: A language can get the priority if it has a particularly meaningful cultural and/or historical relation with the term. Examples: soyuz ("union") from Russian, adab ("good manners") from Arabic, fob ("fear") from Greek, xamrog ("shamrock") from Irish, tao ("way") from Chinese.


Sample translations

Article 1 of Universal Declaration of Human Rights

Omni human janma azad va ekval in dignita va pravo. Le hav ratyon va lyanxin va deb akti naku in spirit de yondita.

Lord's Prayer

Noy Patro, ke es in akax
Tuy nam ba ge-fa santi
Tuy van-go ba lay
Tuy vol ba ge-fa
Kam in akax, so sur arda
Da hodi a no noy din pan
Va pardon a no noy utan
Kam no pardon le a noy utan-jen
Va ne dukti no in temptati
Lekin azad no ab mal

External links

[1]Novbasa on KonlangerZ
[2]Novbasa on Blogger