Voiceless postalveolar affricate

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Pulmonic Consonant
IPA: t͡ʃ or ʧ
X-SAMPA: t_S or tS (see text)
Kirshenbaum: tS
Place of Articulation: Postalveolar
Manner of Articulation: Affricate
Phonological features: [+consonantal]
[+delayed release]

The voiceless postalveolar affricate is a quite common sound cross-linguistically. It often arises from t before a high vowel or j. Its voiced equivalent is . It can also be ejective, tʃʼ.

In X-SAMPA it can be represented explicitly as [t_S], though for convenience it can also be represented as [tS]. The disjunctor hyphen (thus [t-S]) can be used when it is important to emphasize the separateness of the [t] and the [S].

Americanistic, Uralistic etc. linguistic traditions use the symbol č for this sound.

Note that in shallow transcription it is common to use /tʃ/ as a catch-all symbol for a number of different affricates, such as the voiceless retroflex affricate [tʂ], voiceless palato-alveolar affricate [tɕ], or even the voiceless palatal affricate [cç], if they do not contrast in the language in question with an actual postalveolar.

Postalveolar affricates in natlangs


Plain ch chin /tʃɪn/


Plain ち (chi) 父 /titi/ [t͡ɕit͡ɕi]

Note that this is one of the cases where the sound is actually not [tʃ].


Plain ch tōchtli /toːtʃtɬi/


Plain ch coche /kotʃe/


Plain ç çiçek /tʃitʃec/

Postalveolar affricates in conlangs


Plain č čuņ /tʃuŋ/
Aspirated čʰ čʰed /tʃʰed/
Ejective č’ qömč’oi /qœmtʃʼoi/

See Also