Verbs in Vrkhazhian

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Vrkhazhian verbs are called narībūm (singular narībum). Because Vrkhazhian is a triconsonantal root language, the fundamental part of the verb form is the transfix, a discontinuous affix inserted between a root, though they primarily only convey a verb's transitivity. There are only two tenses (future and non-future) with the future tense indicated by a prefix attached to the base form. Additionally, there are also two moods (indicative and imperative) although the indicative is unmarked. Lastly, verbs are also conjugated for person (first, second, and third) and number (singular and plural) which are indicated by suffixes.

When referring to a particular verb pattern, they are referred to by a derivation of the canonical (exemplary) verb root P-R-Ḫ (to speak, to say). For example, when referring to the verb pattern of the citation form of a verb, which is the first person nonfuture singular indicative, it is called paruḫna because that is the first person nonfuture singular indicative form of the verb.

Verb Patterns

Most verbs are typically conjugated in their full phonetic forms, known as "full verbs". However, many roots contain the radicals ⟨y⟩, ⟨w⟩, ⟨h⟩, and ⟨ḥ⟩ which lead to conjugations that are phonetically shortened or irregular. Such verbs are known as "weak verbs".

Verb Subject Suffixes
Feminine Masculine Neuter
1st Singular -na
2nd Singular -mu -mi -mas
3rd Singular -tu -ti -tas
1st Plural -ta
2nd Plural -mun -min -man
3rd Plural -tun -tin -tan
Relativized Verb Subject Suffixes
Feminine Masculine Neuter
1st Singular -nēze
2nd Singular -mēzu -mēzi -mēzes
3rd Singular -tēzu -tēzi -tēzes
1st Plural -tēze
2nd Plural -mēzun -mēzin -mēzen
3rd Plural -tēzun -tēzin -tēzen
Verb Object Suffixes
Feminine Masculine Neuter
1st Singular -(n)na
2nd Singular -(m)mu -(m)mi -(m)mas
3rd Singular -(k)ku -(k)ki -(k)kas
1st Plural -(t)ta
2nd Plural -(m)mun -(m)min -(m)man
3rd Plural -(k)kun -(k)kin -(k)kan

Thematic Vowels

Indicative Mood

Strong Verbs

P-R-Ḫ (speak, say)
nonfuture future I future II
Animate 1cs paruḫ-na ta-pruḫ-na na-pruḫ-na
2fs paruḫ-mu ta-pruḫ-mu na-pruḫ-mu
2ms paruḫ-mi ta-pruḫ-mi na-pruḫ-mi
3fs paruḫ-tu ta-pruḫ-tu na-pruḫ-tu
3ms paruḫ-ti ta-pruḫ-ti na-pruḫ-ti
1cp paruḫ-ta ta-pruḫ-ta na-pruḫ-ta
2fp paruḫ-mun ta-pruḫ-mun na-pruḫ-mun
2mp paruḫ-min ta-pruḫ-min na-pruḫ-min
3fp paruḫ-tun ta-pruḫ-tun na-pruḫ-tun
3mp paruḫ-tin ta-pruḫ-tin na-pruḫ-tin
nonfuture future I future II
Inanimate 2ns paruḫ-mas ta-pruḫ-mas na-pruḫ-mas
3ns paruḫ-tas ta-pruḫ-tas na-pruḫ-tas
2np paruḫ-man ta-pruḫ-man na-pruḫ-man
3np paruḫ-tan ta-pruḫ-tan na-pruḫ-tan
N-M-R (be bad, be immoral)
nonfuture future I future II
Animate 1cs namir-na ta-nmir-na na-nmir-na
2fs namir-mu ta-nmir-mu na-nmir-mu
2ms namir-mi ta-nmir-mi na-nmir-mi
3fs namir-tu ta-nmir-tu na-nmir-tu
3ms namir-ti ta-nmir-ti na-nmir-ti
1cp namir-ta ta-nmir-ta na-nmir-ta
2fp namir-mun ta-nmir-mun na-nmir-mun
2mp namir-min ta-nmir-min na-nmir-min
3fp namir-tun ta-nmir-tun na-nmir-tun
3mp namir-tin ta-nmir-tin na-nmir-tin
nonfuture future I future II
Inanimate 2ns namir-mas ta-nmir-mas na-nmir-mas
3ns namir-tas ta-nmir-tas na-nmir-tas
2np namir-man ta-nmir-man na-nmir-man
3np namir-tan ta-nmir-tan na-nmir-tan
R-B-D (guard, protect)
nonfuture future I future II
Animate 1cs rabad-na ta-rbad-na na-rbad-na
2fs rabad-mu ta-rbad-mu na-rbad-mu
2ms rabad-mi ta-rbad-mi na-rbad-mi
3fs rabat-tu ta-rbat-tu na-rbat-tu
3ms rabat-ti ta-rbat-ti na-rbat-ti
1cp rabat-ta ta-rbat-ta na-rbat-ta
2fp rabad-mun ta-rbad-mun na-rbad-mun
2mp rabad-min ta-rbad-min na-rbad-min
3fp rabat-tun ta-rbat-tun na-rbat-tun
3mp rabat-tin ta-rbat-tin na-rbat-tin
nonfuture future I future II
Inanimate 2ns rabad-mas ta-rbad-mas na-rbad-mas
3ns rabat-tas ta-rbat-tas na-rbat-tas
2np rabad-man ta-rbad-man na-rbad-man
3np rabat-tan ta-rbat-tan na-rbat-tan

Initial-Weak Verbs

The initial radical is either ⟨y⟩, ⟨w⟩, ⟨h⟩ or ⟨ḥ⟩ and becomes a long-vowel of a quality similar to its place of articulation in the future tense

I-y, u-class
Y-N-D (hunt, fish)
nonfuture future
Animate 1cs yanud-na nī-nud-na
2fs yanud-mu nī-nud-mu
2ms yanud-mi nī-nud-mi
3fs yanut-tu nī-nut-tu
3ms yanut-ti nī-nut-ti
1cp yanut-ta nī-nut-ta
2fp yanud-mun nī-nud-mun
2mp yanud-min nī-nud-min
3fp yanut-tun nī-nut-tun
3mp yanut-tin nī-nut-tin
nonfuture future
Inanimate 2ns yanud-mas nī-nud-mas
3ns yanut-tas nī-nut-tas
2np yanud-man nī-nud-man
3np yanut-tan nī-nut-tan
I-w, i-class
W-S-Ḫ (be faithful, be loyal)
nonfuture future
Animate 1cs wasiḫ-na nū-siḫ-na
2fs wasiḫ-mu nū-siḫ-mu
2ms wasiḫ-mi nū-siḫ-mi
3fs wasiḫ-tu nū-siḫ-tu
3ms wasiḫ-ti nū-siḫ-ti
1cp wasiḫ-ta nū-siḫ-ta
2fp wasiḫ-mun nū-siḫ-mun
2mp wasiḫ-min nū-siḫ-min
3fp wasiḫ-tun nū-siḫ-tun
3mp wasiḫ-tin nū-siḫ-tin
nonfuture future
Inanimate 2ns wasiḫ-mas nū-siḫ-mas
3ns wasiḫ-tas nū-siḫ-tas
2np wasiḫ-man nū-siḫ-man
3np wasiḫ-tan nū-siḫ-tan
I-h, a-class
H-L-D (fight, battle, oppose)
nonfuture future
Animate 1cs alad-na nā-lad-na
2fs alad-mu nā-lad-mu
2ms alad-mi nā-lad-mi
3fs alat-tu nā-lat-tu
3ms alat-ti nā-lat-ti
1cp alat-ta nā-lat-ta
2fp alad-mun nā-lad-mun
2mp alad-min nā-lad-min
3fp alat-tun nā-lat-tun
3mp alat-tin nā-lat-tin
nonfuture future
Animate 2ns alad-mas nā-lad-mas
3ns alat-tas nā-lat-tas
2np alad-man nā-lad-man
3np alat-tan nā-lat-tan
I-ḥ, e-class
Ḥ-L-R (smite)
nonfuture future
Animate 1cs eler-na nē-ler-na
2fs eler-mu nē-ler-mu
2ms eler-mi nē-ler-mi
3fs eler-tu nē-ler-tu
3ms eler-ti nē-ler-ti
1cp eler-ta nē-ler-ta
2fp eler-mun nē-ler-mun
2mp eler-min nē-ler-min
3fp eler-tun nē-ler-tun
3mp eler-tin nē-ler-tin
nonfuture future
Inanimate 2ns eler-mas nē-ler-mas
3ns eler-tas nē-ler-tas
2np eler-man nē-ler-man
3np eler-tan nē-ler-tan

Middle-Weak Verbs

The middle radical is either ⟨y⟩, ⟨w⟩, ⟨h⟩ or ⟨ḥ⟩ and becomes a long-vowel of a quality similar to its place of articulation. Because of this change, it is not possible to tell the theme vowel of the verb.

D-W-L (dig, reveal)
nonfuture future
Animate 1cs dūl-na na-dūl-na
2fs dūl-mu na-dūl-mu
2ms dūl-mi na-dūl-mi
3fs dūl-tu na-dūl-tu
3ms dūl-ti na-dūl-ti
1cp dūl-ta na-dūl-ta
2fp dūl-mun na-dūl-mun
2mp dūl-min na-dūl-min
3fp dūl-tun na-dūl-tun
3mp dūl-tin na-dūl-tin
nonfuture future
Inanimate 2ns dūl-mas na-dūl-mas
3ns dūl-tas na-dūl-tas
2np dūl-man na-dūl-man
3np dūl-tan na-dūl-tan
R-Y-B (plant [seeds], place)
nonfuture future
Animate 1cs rīb-na na-rīb-na
2fs rīb-mu na-rīb-mu
2ms rīb-mi na-rīb-mi
3fs rīb-tu na-rīb-tu
3ms rīb-ti na-rīb-ti
1cp rīb-ta na-rīb-ta
2fp rīb-mun na-rīb-mun
2mp rīb-min na-rīb-min
3fp rīb-tun na-rīb-tun
3mp rīb-tin na-rīb-tin
nonfuture future
Inanimate 2ns rīb-mas na-rīb-mas
3ns rīb-tas na-rīb-tas
2np rīb-man na-rīb-man
3np rīb-tan na-rīb-tan
S-H-B (kill, slay)
nonfuture future
Animate 1cs sāb-na na-sāb-na
2fs sāb-mu na-sāb-mu
2ms sāb-mi na-sāb-mi
3fs sāb-tu na-sāb-tu
3ms sāb-ti na-sāb-ti
1cp sāb-ta na-sāb-ta
2fp sāb-mun na-sāb-mun
2mp sāb-min na-sāb-min
3fp sāb-tun na-sāb-tun
3mp sāb-tin na-sāb-tin
nonfuture future
Inanimate 2ns sāb-mas na-sāb-mas
3ns sāb-tas na-sāb-tas
2np sāb-man na-sāb-man
3np sāb-tan na-sāb-tan
L-Ḥ-B (have, possess)
nonfuture future
Animate 1cs lēb-na ne-lēb-na
2fs lēb-mu ne-lēb-mu
2ms lēb-mi ne-lēb-mi
3fs lēb-tu ne-lēb-tu
3ms lēb-ti ne-lēb-ti
1cp lēb-ta ne-lēb-ta
2fp lēb-mun ne-lēb-mun
2mp lēb-min ne-lēb-min
3fp lēb-tun ne-lēb-tun
3mp lēb-tin ne-lēb-tin
nonfuture future
Inanimate 2ns lēb-mas ne-lēb-mas
3ns lēb-tas ne-lēb-tas
2np lēb-man ne-lēb-man
3np lēb-tan ne-lēb-tan

Final-Weak Verbs

The final radical is either ⟨y⟩, ⟨w⟩, ⟨h⟩ or ⟨ḥ⟩ and becomes a long-vowel of a quality similar to its place of articulation. The third person suffixes become -su(n) and -si(n) instead of -tu(n) and -ti(n). Like middle-weak verbs, it is not possible to tell the theme vowel of the verb.

N-D-W (to begin)
nonfuture future
Animate 1cs nadū-na na-ndū-na
2fs nadū-mu na-ndū-mu
2ms nadū-mi na-ndū-mi
3fs nadū-su na-ndū-su
3ms nadū-si na-ndū-si
1cp nadū-ta na-ndū-ta
2fp nadū-mun na-ndū-mun
2mp nadū-min na-ndū-min
3fp nadū-sun na-ndū-sun
3mp nadū-sin na-ndū-sin
nonfuture future
Inanimate 2ns nadū-mas na-ndū-mas
3ns nadū-sas na-ndū-sas
2np nadū-man na-ndū-man
3np nadū-san na-ndū-san
R-S-Y (be good, be moral)
nonfuture future
Animate 1cs rasī-na na-rsī-na
2fs rasī-mu na-rsī-mu
2ms rasī-mi na-rsī-mi
3fs rasī-su na-rsī-su
3ms rasī-si na-rsī-si
1cp rasī-ta na-rsī-ta
2fp rasī-mun na-rsī-mun
2mp rasī-min na-rsī-min
3fp rasī-sun na-rsī-sun
3mp rasī-sin na-rsī-sin
nonfuture future
Inanimate 2ns rasī-mas na-rsī-mas
3ns rasī-sas na-rsī-sas
2np rasī-man na-rsī-man
3np rasī-san na-rsī-san
Ḫ-Ś-H (be correct, be true)
nonfuture future
Animate 1cs ḫaśā-na na-ḫśā-na
2fs ḫaśā-mu na-ḫśā-mu
2ms ḫaśā-mi na-ḫśā-mi
3fs ḫaśā-su na-ḫśā-su
3ms ḫaśā-si na-ḫśā-si
1cp ḫaśā-ta na-ḫśā-ta
2fp ḫaśā-mun na-ḫśā-mun
2mp ḫaśā-min na-ḫśā-min
3fp ḫaśā-sun na-ḫśā-sun
3mp ḫaśā-sin na-ḫśā-sin
nonfuture future
Inanimate 2ns ḫaśā-mas na-ḫśā-mas
3ns ḫaśā-sas na-ḫśā-sas
2np ḫaśā-man na-ḫśā-man
3np ḫaśā-san na-ḫśā-san
K-M-Ḥ (get up, stand up, rise, wake up)
nonfuture future
Animate 1cs kemē-na ne-kmē-na
2fs kemē-mu ne-kmē-mu
2ms kemē-mi ne-kmē-mi
3fs kemē-su ne-kmē-su
3ms kemē-si ne-kmē-si
1cp kemē-ta ne-kmē-ta
2fp kemē-mun ne-kmē-mun
2mp kemē-min ne-kmē-min
3fp kemē-sun ne-kmē-sun
3mp kemē-sin ne-kmē-sin
nonfuture future
Inanimate 2ns kemē-mas ne-kmē-mas
3ns kemē-sas ne-kmē-sas
2np kemē-man ne-kmē-man
3np kemē-san ne-kmē-san

Directive Mood

P-R-Ḫ (speak, say)
nonfuture future
Animate 1cs parḫ-an-na na-parḫ-an-na
2fs parḫ-am-mu na-parḫ-am-mu
2ms parḫ-am-mi na-parḫ-am-mi
3fs parḫ-at-tu na-parḫ-at-tu
3ms parḫ-at-ti na-parḫ-at-ti
1cp parḫ-at-ta na-parḫ-at-ta
2fp parḫ-am-mun na-parḫ-am-mun
2mp parḫ-am-min na-parḫ-am-min
3fp parḫ-at-tun na-parḫ-at-tun
3mp parḫ-at-tin na-parḫ-at-tin
nonfuture future
Inanimate 2ns parḫ-am-mas na-parḫ-am-mas
3ns parḫ-at-tas na-parḫ-at-tas
2np parḫ-am-mas na-parḫ-am-mas
3np parḫ-at-tas na-parḫ-at-tas
N-M-R (be bad, be immoral)
nonfuture future
Animate 1cs namr-an-na na-namr-an-na
2fs namr-am-mu na-namr-am-mu
2ms namr-am-mi na-namr-am-mi
3fs namr-at-tu na-namr-at-tu
3ms namr-at-ti na-namr-at-ti
1cp namr-at-ta na-namr-at-ta
2fp namr-am-mun na-namr-am-mun
2mp namr-am-min na-namr-am-min
3fp namr-at-tun na-namr-at-tun
3mp namr-at-tin na-namr-at-tin
nonfuture future
Inanimate 2ns namr-am-mas na-namr-am-mas
3ns namr-at-tas na-namr-at-tas
2np namr-am-mas na-namr-am-mas
3np namr-at-tas na-namr-at-tas
R-B-D (guard, protect)
nonfuture future
Animate 1cs rabd-an-na na-rabd-an-na
2fs rabd-am-mu na-rabd-am-mu
2ms rabd-am-mi na-rabd-am-mi
3fs rabd-at-tu na-rabd-at-tu
3ms rabd-at-ti na-rabd-at-ti
1cp rabd-at-ta na-rabd-at-ta
2fp rabd-am-mun na-rabd-am-mun
2mp rabd-am-min na-rabd-am-min
3fp rabd-at-tun na-rabd-at-tun
3mp rabd-at-tin na-rabd-at-tin
nonfuture future
Inanimate 2ns rabd-am-mas na-rabd-am-mas
3ns rabd-at-tas na-rabd-at-tas
2np rabd-am-mas na-rabd-am-mas
3np rabd-at-tas na-rabd-at-tas

Extensions To the Verb

Causative Voice

T-P-R-Ḫ (speak to)
nonfuture future
1cs tapraḫ-na na-tapraḫ-na
2fs tapraḫ-mu na-tapraḫ-mu
2ms tapraḫ-mi na-tapraḫ-mi
3fs tapraḫ-tu na-tapraḫ-tu
3ms tapraḫ-ti na-tapraḫ-ti
1cp tapraḫ-ta na-tapraḫ-ta
2fp tapraḫ-mun na-tapraḫ-mun
2mp tapraḫ-min na-tapraḫ-min
3fp tapraḫ-tun na-tapraḫ-tun
3mp tapraḫ-tin na-tapraḫ-tin
T-N-M-R (spoil, corrupt)
nonfuture future
1cs tanmar-na na-tanmar-na
2fs tanmar-mu na-tanmar-mu
2ms tanmar-mi na-tanmar-mi
3fs tanmar-tu na-tanmar-tu
3ms tanmar-ti na-tanmar-ti
1cp tanmar-ta na-tanmar-ta
2fp tanmar-mun na-tanmar-mun
2mp tanmar-min na-tanmar-min
3fp tanmar-tun na-tanmar-tun
3mp tanmar-tin na-tanmar-tin
T-R-B-D (station, employ, assign)
nonfuture future
1cs tarbad-na na-tarbad-na
2fs tarbad-mu na-tarbad-mu
2ms tarbad-mi na-tarbad-mi
3fs tarbat-tu na-tarbat-tu
3ms tarbat-ti na-tarbat-ti
1cp tarbat-ta na-tarbat-ta
2fp tarbad-mun na-tarbad-mun
2mp tarbad-min na-tarbad-min
3fp tarbat-tun na-tarbat-tun
3mp tarbat-tin na-tarbat-tin

Applicative Voice

Vrkhazhian as a secundative language

Unlike most languages, Vrkhazhian has a secundative alignment with regards to ditransitive verbs. This means that the recipient of a verb is treated like the patient of a transitive verb rather than the theme.

Below is an example, in the active voice:

Kumma bēdās lêbetukkan.
Ku-mma bēd-ās ∅-lêb-e-tu-kkan
3fs-nom nfut-have\act-3fs
"She has some books."

In the applicative voice, an oblique (optional) element is promoted to primary object:

Kumma rēbis bēdās lêbebtukkan.
Ku-mma rēb-is bēd-ās ∅-lêbeb-tu-kkan
3fs-nom nfut-give\appl-3fs
"She gives a man some books."