Verbs in Vrkhazhian

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Vrkhazhian verbs are called ʾāṣṣarēsan (singular ʾāṣṣarēsa). Because Vrkhazhian is a triconsonantal root language, the fundamental part of the verb form is the transfix, a discontinuous affix inserted between a root. The verb only conjugates for three tenses (past, present, and future), two voices (active and passive), and two numbers (singular and plural).

When referring to a particular verb pattern, they are referred to by a derivation of the canonical (exemplary) verb ṣ-r-s (to throw, to say). For example, when referring to the verb pattern of the citation form of a verb, which is the active present singular, it is called ṣaras because that is the active present singular form of the verb.

Verb Patterns

Most verbs are typically conjugated in their full phonetic forms, known as "full verbs". However, many roots contain the radicals ⟨y⟩ and ⟨w⟩ which lead to conjugations that are phonetically shortened or irregular. Such verbs are known as the "fused verbs", the "short verbs", or the "cut verbs", depending on the position of the radical within the root.

ʾĀṣṣarēsan X̣aśēyśeyan (Triliteral Verbs)

ʾĀṣṣarēsan Śēǧǧāśan (Full Verbs)

ṣ-r-s (to throw, to say)
Active Singular Active Plural Translation Passive Singular Passive Plural Translation
Past nu-ṣras nu-ṣars-em threw, said ni-ṣres ni-ṣers-em was thrown, was said
Present ṣaras ṣars-em throws, says ṣares ṣers-em is thrown, is said
Future ṣarus ṣurs-em will throw, will say ṣaris ṣirs-em will be thrown, will be said

ʾĀṣṣarēsan Śēgśāgan (Fused Verbs)

The initial radical is either a ⟨y⟩ or ⟨w⟩ and the past tense prefix nu- simply becomes n- in the singular.

y-b-l (to smell, to taste)
Active Singular Active Plural Translation Passive Singular Passive Plural Translation
Past n-ībal nu-yabl-em smelled, tasted n-ībel ni-yebl-em was smelled, was tasted
Present yabal yabl-em smell,taste yabel yebl-em is smelled, is tasted
Future yabul yubl-em will smell, will taste yabil yibl-em will be smelled, will be tasted

ʾĀṣṣarēsan Lēssāyan (Short Verbs)

The middle radical is either a ⟨y⟩ or ⟨w⟩ and becomes the corresponding /i/ or /u/, respectively, when conjugated in the future tense.

d-w-l (to dig out, to remove, to reveal, to uncover)
Active Singular Active Plural Translation Passive Singular Passive Plural Translation
Past nu-dwal nu-dawl-em dug out, revealed ni-dwel ni-dewl-em was dug out, was revealed
Present dawal dawl-em dig out, reveal dawel dewl-em is dug out, is revealed
Future dūl dūl-em will dig out, will reveal dūl dūl-em will be dug out, will be revealed

ʾĀṣṣarēsan Nērrāṣ́an (Cut Verbs)

The final radical is either ⟨y⟩ or ⟨w⟩ and becomes elided while lengthening the preceding vowel.

n-š-y (to want, to desire)
Active Singular Active Plural Translation Passive Singular Passive Plural Translation
Past nu-nśā nu-naśy-em wanted, desired ni-nśē ni-neśy-em was wanted, was desired
Present naśā naśy-em want, desire naśē neśy-em is wanted, is desired
Future naśū nuśy-em will want, will desire naśī niśy-em will be wanted, will be desired

ʾĀṣṣarēsan Śidārśeyan (Biliteral Verbs)

There are a lot of verbal roots consisting of only two radicals.

d-n (to be heavy, to press down)
Active Singular Active Plural Translation Passive Singular Passive Plural Translation
Past nu-dān nu-dān-em was heavy, pressed down ni-dēn ni-dēn-em was pressed down
Present dān dān-em is heavy, presses down dēn dēn-em is pressed down
Future dūn dūn-em will be heavy, will press down dīn dīn-em will be pressed down

Extensions To the Verb

The Instrumental-Causative Applicative

ṣ-r-s (to throw, to say)
Active Singular Active Plural Translation Passive Singular Passive Plural Translation
Past nu-ṣras-śa nu-ṣars-a-śa-m made throw, made say ni-ṣres-śa ni-ṣers-a-śa-m was made to throw, was made to say
Present ṣaras-śa ṣars-a-śa-m makes throw, makes say ṣares-śa ṣers-a-śa-m is made to throw, is made to say
Future ṣarus-śa ṣurs-a-śa-m will make throw, will make say ṣaris-śa ṣirs-a-śa-m will be made to throw, will be made to say

The Dative-Locative Applicative

ṣ-r-s (to throw, to say)
Active Singular Active Plural Translation Passive Singular Passive Plural Translation
Past nu-ṣras-ku nu-ṣars-a-ku-m threw to, spoke to ni-ṣres-ku ni-ṣers-a-ku-m was thrown to, was spoken to
Present ṣaras-ku ṣars-a-ku-m throws to, speaks to ṣares-ku ṣers-a-ku-m is thrown to, is spoken to
Future ṣarus-ku ṣurs-a-ku-m will throw to, will speak to ṣaris-ku ṣirs-a-ku-m will be thrown to, will be spoken to

The Benefactive-Malefactive Applicative

ṣ-r-h (to throw, to say)
Active Singular Active Plural Translation Passive Singular Passive Plural Translation
Past nu-ṣras-di nu-ṣars-a-di-m threw for, spoke for ni-ṣres-di ni-ṣers-a-di-m was thrown for, was spoken for
Present ṣaras-di ṣars-a-di-m throws for, speaks for ṣares-di ṣers-a-di-m is thrown for, is spoken for
Future ṣarus-di ṣurs-a-di-m will throw for, will speak for ṣaris-di ṣirs-a-di-m will be thrown for, will be spoken for

Vrkhazhian as a secundative language

Unlike most languages, Vrkhazhian has a secundative alignment with regards to ditransitive verbs. This means that the recipient of a verb is treated like the patient of a transitive verb rather than the theme. The theme of the verb is indicated with the instrumental prefix sa-.

Below is an example, in the active voice:

Ḳūya ʾāwi bēdu pālku.
Ḳūya ʾāw-i bēd-u pāl-ku-∅
3fs.NOM man-OBL.MASC.SG book-OBL.FEM.SG give\ACT.PRES-APL-SG
"She gives the man a book."

In the passive voice, the recipient is promoted to subject, rather than the theme:

ʾĀwe bēdu pēlku.
ʾĀw-e bēd-u pēl-ku-∅
man-NOM.MASC.SG book-OBL.FEM.SG give\PASS.PRES-APL-SG
"The man is given a book."