User:Masako/sandbox

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Kala in various scripts

kalo lex

singular plural possessive
1st person wa
I; me
walo
we; us
wayo
my; mine; our(s)
2nd person ni
you
nilo
you (all)
niyo
your(s)
3rd person ko
he; she; him; her; it
kolo
they; them; those
koyo
their(s)

milapako ka

Animate
Active
Inanimate
Stative
Nouns -e / -i -a
Verbs -o / -u -a
Various -ue / -ye
-yo
-ua / -ya

tlika

tlika
nata (nta) tlaka (ta) naka (na)
nata
relative
tlaka
man; male
naka
woman; female
hya- hyanta
grandparent
hyata
grandfather
hyana
grandmother
o- onta
parent
ota
father
ona
mother
ue- uenta
parent's sibling
ueta
uncle
uena
aunt
-ku ntaku
sibling
taku
brother
naku
sister
-hi ntahi
child
tahi
son; boy
nahi
daughter; girl
-hya ntahya
grandchild
tahya
grandson
nahya
granddaughter
-ue ntaue
cousin
taue
male cousin
naue
female cousin
-hue ntahue
nibling
tahue
nephew
nahue
niece

pa'a

na'o ta'o ha'o
plosive
pana (rain)
pa ta ka
nasal
maua (flower)
ma na nya
affricate
tlatsa (fire)
tsa tla
continuant
honu (turtle)
sa ha la
semivowel
yasa (wind)
ua ya a

noun phrases

The basic noun phrase in Kala is PREPOSITION DETERMINER RELATIVE-CLAUSE NOUN DESCRIPTIVE-VERB. Depending on context, this is fairly predominant with a few exceptions

  • opinion-size-age-shape-color-origin-material-purpose Noun
  • shab - related to knowledge and awareness
shabra - v - to know; to be aware (of)
shabedek - v - to teach; instruct (to cause to know)
ashab - n - knowledge; awareness
shabda - n - library; school

ukum

Kala number English ordinal multiple fractional
na'o 1 one kina'o
first
tina'o
once
-
ueta'o 12 twelve kiueta'o
twelfth
tiueta'o
twelve times
iueta'o
a twelfth
yauema'o
yama'o
54 fifty four kiyama'o
fifty fourth
tiyama'o
54 times
iyama'o
a fifty fourth
nyetsa'o 106 one hundred (and) six kinyetsa'o
106th
tinyetsa'o
106 times
inyetsa'o
a 106th
katle'o 7000 seven thousand kikatle'o
seven thousandth
tikatle'o
7000 times
ikatle'o
1/7000

loca

Locative Verbs

There are a number of commonly used locative verbs: locative ("at") yin inessive ("in") nisa adessive ("on") supa allative ("to") yara ablative ("from", "off of") para elative ("out of") era illative ("into") inu These can be used in relative clauses, in SVC's, and as main verbs.

These are commonly combined with relational nouns, as follows:

Relational Nouns

Relational nouns are possessed by whatever they express a relationship with. These are a number of common used relational nouns: top ("head") kopa bottom ("buttocks") kintara front ("front") paru back ("back") ruka middle, center ("stomach") tumi through saru around ("round") run over ("hair") kara under ("foot") pota

genitive

singular plural
1 nai kai
2 tai ai
3 lai mai

{{col-begin}} {{col-break}} {{col-end}}

syl kalo

affix from use example gloss English
-hye aye + -hi
past + diminutive
recent past tense
(action just completed)
[REC]
ota namyo akyahye father 1pl.GEN wake-REC Our father just woke.

katekalo

k/g n t/d l/r m p/b s a y w
a
e
o -
u -
i -
k/g n t/d l/r m p/b s a y w
an
en
on -
un -
in -

anyomo

labial dental palatal velar glottal
stops /t/ t /k/ k - /kʷ/ kw
nasals /m/ m /n/ n /ɲ/ ny
approximants /w/ w /j/ y /h~ɦ/ h
ta ka kwa ma na nya ha wa ya a
te ke kwe me ne nye he we ye e
to ko mo no nyo ho yo o
  • t tt k kk kw m mm n nn ny h w y a à á e è é o ò ó

Unit Organization

  • Armada - Army, Air, and Naval forces as a whole.
Commanded by a council (between 2 and 5, usually) of Flag Officers, or Amirales. There tends to only ever be one Jeneral, except in times of war. Also, a Mestre Sarjento Xef (Chief Master Sergeant) acts as a Senior Enlisted Adviser for the entirety of the Armada.
  • Brigada - Brigade; Rejimento - Regiment [600 - 1000]
Commanded by a Brigador (sometimes translated as Commodore when discussing Naval operations) and a Mestre Sarjento Xef (Chief Master Sergeant) is the highest enlisted level of leadership within a Brigada.
  • Batalion - Battalion; Barco - Ship, Vessel [300 - 500]
Commanded by a Capitan and a Mestre Sarjento Xef (Chief Master Sergeant) is the highest enlisted level of leadership within these units.
  • Scuadron - Company, Troop, Battery; Barceta - Patrol Boat, Small Ship [100 - 300]
Commanded by a Comandor and a Mestre Sarjento (Master Sergeant) is the highest enlisted level of leadership within these units.
  • Ploton - Platoon [20 - 50]
Commanded by a Teninte and lead by a Sarjento.
  • Ecipo - Squad, Team, Detachment [5 - 10]
Lead by a Caporal.

hanmoya

a ai ya e ye o ao yo ua uai ue u i yao
k -
nk - - - - - - - - -
n -
t - - - - - - - -
nt - - - - - - - - - -
l - - - - - - - -
m -
p -
mp - - - - - - - - -
s - - - -
- -
ts - - - -
tl - - - - - - - -
h -

ak

ak yak ek yek ok yok uak uek uk ik
k - - - - - - - - - -
nk - - - - - - - - - -
n
t - - - - - -
nt - - - - - -
l - - - - - -
m
p
mp - - - - -
s - - -
-
ts - - -
tl - - - - - -
h

an

am

am yam em yem om yom uam uem um im
k
nk - - - - -
n - - - - - - - - - -
t - - - - - - - - - -
nt - - - - - - - - - -
l - - - - - - - - - -
m - - - - - - - - - -
p - - - - - - - - - -
mp - - - - - - - - - -
s - - - - - - - - - -
- - - - - - - - - - -
ts - - - - - - - - - -
tl - - - - - - - - - -
h - - - - - - - - - -

xx

ak yak ek yek ok yok uak uek uk ik
k - - - - - - - - - -
nk - - - - - - - - - -
n - - - - - - - - - -
t - - - - - - - - - -
nt - - - - - - - - - -
l - - - - - - - - - -
m - - - - - - - - - -
p - - - - - - - - - -
mp - - - - - - - - - -
s - - - - - - - - - -
- - - - - - - - - - -
ts - - - - - - - - - -
tl - - - - - - - - - -
h - - - - - - - - - -

Derivational morphology

  • Noun → adjective: Suffix: -un
  • Adjective → noun: Suffix: -iya
  • Noun → verb: Suffix: -ek / -ra
  • Verb → noun: Suffix: -a / a-
  • Verb → adjective: Suffix: -u
  • Adjective → adverb: Suffix: -ha / -ak
  • One who X's (e.g. paint → painter): Suffix: -in
  • Place where (e.g. wine → winery): Suffix: -da
  • Diminutive: Suffix: -ish
  • Augmentative: Suffix: -am

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subject/object

s/o - 1s 2s 3s 1p 2p 3p
1s -an - -anti -anu -anuk -anut -anum
2s -ti -eyan - -eyu -eyuk -eyut -eyum
3s -u -ilan -ati -ilu -iluk -ilut -ilum
1p -uk -ukan -ukti -uku - -ukut -ukum
2p -ut -utan -ute -utu -utuk - -utum
3p -um -uman -umti -umu -umuk -umut -

Semitic abjads

Abjads
Name Transliteration IPA Syriac Hebrew Arabic
alha a a / ʔ ܐ‬ א‬ ا‬
ba b b ܒ‬ ב‬ ب‬
gamla g ɡ / ɣ ܓ‬ ג‬‬ ج گ‬‬
dal d d / ð ܕ‬ ד‬‬ د ذ‬‬
ha h h / ɦ ܗ‬ ה‬‬ ه‬‬
wa w, u, o w / u: / o: ܘ‬ ו‬‬ و‬‬
zayin z z ܙ‬ ז‬‬‬ ز‬‬‬
khet kh ɦ / χ ܚ ח‬‬‬ ح خ‬‬
tet t t ܛ‬ ט‬ ط ظ‬‬
yad y, i j / i: / e: ܝ‬ י‬‬ ي‬
kapu k k / x ܟ‬ כ ך‬‬‬ ك‬‬‬
lam l l ܠ ל‬‬‬ ل‬‬‬
mem m m ܡ‬ מ ם‬‬ م‬‬
nun n n ܢ‬ נ ן‬‬ ن‬‬
samka s s ܣ‬ ס‬‬‬ س‬‬‬
eyin e e / ʔ ܥ‬ ע‬‬ ع غ‬‬‬
pe p p / f ܦ‬ פ ף‬‬ ف‬ پ‬‬
tsad ts ts ܨ‬ צ ץ‬‬ ص ض‬‬
qupa q ʔ / q ܩ‬ ק‬‬‬ ق‬‬‬
ra r ɾ / r ܪ‬ ר‬‬‬ ر‬‬‬
shin sh ʃ ܫ‬ ש‬‬ ش‬‬
ta t t ܬ‬ ת‬‬ ت ث‬‬

word gen kala

C=ptkmnshcxl
N=bdg
A=aeiou
W=12
Y=345
P=pkmnh
S=pkmnhsc
c|ts
x|tl
b|mp
d|nt
g|nk
1|ua
2|ue
3|ya
4|ye
5|yo
tu|ta
lu|la
CA
CACA
CANA
CAPY
CASW
CAW
CAY
NA
NACA
NAPY
NASW
NAW
NAY
PY
PYCA
PYNA
PYSW
SW
SWCA
SWNA
SWPY
WCA
WNA
YCA
YNA
cvc
A
ACA
ANA
APY
ASW
AW
AY
W
WCA
WNA
Y
YCA
YNA

tense

k

present past future
simple -e -i -o
perfect -le -li -lo
obligatory -se -so
immediate -ib
possible -go

Consonants

LabialsDentalsRetroflexPalatalsVelarsUvularGlottal
Plosivesp b t d k g ʔ
Fricativess z ʃ ʒ x ɣ h ɦ
Nasalsm n ɲ ŋ
Liquidsl r ɾ ɬ
Semivowelsw j ɰ

Vowels

FrontCentralBack
Highi u
Closee ɘ o
Lowa ɑ

case

Grammatical Cases
Name Suffix Example English Gloss
Nominative - amul the man (subject)
Accusative -wa / -u mulwa the man (object)
Dative bi- bimul for, to, on behalf of the man
Ablative -sha mulesha from the man
Genitive -ya / -ai mulya of the man
Locative -da muleda at, in, on the man
Instrumental/Comitative -ha / -ak mulha using/with the man
Grammatical Cases
Name Suffix Example English Gloss
Nominative - eqesh the house (subject)
Accusative -wa / -u eshwa the house (object)
Dative bi- biqesh for, to, on behalf of the house
Ablative -sha essha from the house
Genitive -ya / -ai eshai of the house
Locative -da eshda at, in, on the house
Instrumental/Comitative -ha / -ak eshak using/with the house

format

  • muku - /muːˈkʊ/
knife; blade; weapon; arms - "sword"

Morphosyntax

  • Simple declarative sentences usually have a subject-object-verb word order, though occasionally adverbs fall outside this paradigm and various particles can free-up word order. Kala has four grammatical persons — first, second, third, and obviative. The third person is used for proximate nouns, while obviates are non-present or demoted in comparison to a third person. Inanimate objects cannot be the proximate third person. Kala is an agglutinative language. It uses various affixes, mostly suffixes, to change the meaning and grammatical function of words.

Nouns are inflected for number.

animacy

All nouns are classified as either animate or inanimate. Generally it is easy to determine whether a noun will be animate, although some inherently inanimate objects such as...

Arguments of verbs are marked with a (patient marker) transitivity prefix/particle which must agree with the animacy of its arguments. Even in stories in which a grammatically inanimate object are markedly anthropomorphized, such as talking flowers, speakers will not use animate agreement markers with them.

verbs

The Kala verbal template contains a stem with several suffixes. The structure of the verb stem in Kala can be roughly broken down into the root, the medial, and the final. The root and final tend to be required elements. In Kala, the category of verb may also include words that would be categorized as adjectives or quantifiers in English.

Comparison

In Kala the concepts of comparative and superlative degree of an adjective (verb) are merged into a single form, the elative. How this form is understood or translated depends upon context and definiteness. In the absence of comparison, the elative conveys the notion of “greatest”, “supreme.”

  • tsaka hayo ke nayo tahaka
house 3s.GEN O 1s.GEN big-AUG
His house is bigger than mine.
  • iyapo ke tsaka tayo pakoha
PROX-building O home 2sg new-AUG
This building is newer than your home.
  • ke mauam tayo yanahu
O flower.PL 2s.GEN yellow-EXT
Your flowers are the most yellow.
  • mitala ke yetlam hikyahi
dog-INDEF O DIST-4pl old-DIM
Some dogs are less old (younger) than others.

When comparing the amount of involvement of several participants in a transitive verb, an appositional construction is used with competing subjects, and complement clauses are used with competing objects:

  • tsaneya ke ona pa’e naku hayo itsaha
Jane O mother other.than sister 3s.GEN love-AUG
Jane loves her mother more than her sister does.
  • imukuhi ke asua uahe tleno telaniha
PROX-blade-DIM O leather instead.of timber cut-nice-AUG
This knife cuts leather better than it cuts wood.

Indirect Objects

Kala verb phrases have only a single object slot. As a result, the recipient of a ditransitive clause needs to be introduced with the help of an adverbial preposition. The same strategy is also used to introduce other participants in oblique roles.

  • ka’e – to; toward [Dative]
  • ma’a – with; using [Instrumental] / with; together [Comitative]
  • mue – without; lacking [Abessive]
  • nya – for (the benefit of) [Benefactive] / by [Passive]
  • -hue – at; in; on [Locative]

Dative

Dative participants can be marked with ka’e (“toward; to”), nya (“for; by”), or be syntactically indicated.

  • ntahi ke ina ka’e mita yeta
child O food toward dog give
The child gives food to a dog.
  • katiko nya ntakum tsani
old-AG for sibling-PL tell.story
The old man recites a story for the siblings.
  • ikema nya ena enke
PROX-task for P.1s easy
This task is easy for me.
  • teki ke kama na’amyo tanyaye
enemy O village 1pl.EXCL.GEN destroy-PST
The enemies destroyed our village.

Instrumental

Instrumental participants can be marked with ma’a (“with; using”), nya (“for; by”), or be syntactically indicated.

  • ona ke ntahi ma’a tlimu nohya
mother O child with blanket wrap
The mother wraps the child in a blanket.
  • tsani nya ntaha moyapua
PROX-task for P.1s easy
The story has been written by the elder.

Comitative

Comitative participants are marked with the preposition ma’a (“with; together”), and anticomitative (or abessive) participants are marked with the preposition mue (“without”).

  • na ma’a amyako nayo ke masa tasa
1s with friend 1s.GEN O deer hunt
I'm hunting deer with my friend.
  • ha ke naha mue ta ka’elaye ka
3s O river without 2s toward-MVT Q
Did she go to the river without you?

Locative

Locative participants can be marked with a variety of adverbial prepositions, most typically -hue (“at; in; on”). See also: 5.1) Locative verbs.

  • taku nayo ke poti patlahue patsi
brother 1s.GEN O goat field-LOC herd
My brother is herding goats in the field.
  • nam tlatsahue masetli
1pl fire-LOC dance-FUT
We will dance near (at) the fire.


Semantic Fields and Pragmatics

Kala, like all languages relies on the relationship of meanings instead of meanings in isolation. Additionally, morphemes tend to have a range of meanings that exist on a spectrum. A morpheme often can only be defined by its relationship to other morphemes within an utterance, or to other words of a similar semantic field.

One example would be in discussing temperature. Of course there is a system of degrees, but that is a quantitative statement, a qualitative statement would be more relative and open to interpretation.

How to express temperature

English divides temperature into "hot, warm, cool, cold", while Kala has just sitsa, tlolo, and manka. However, these can be expanded to be more specific;

  • manka – cold
  • tlolo – cool; warm (mild)
  • sitsa – hot; heat

Using the augmentative -ha and the diminutive -hi adds even more nuance to expressing temperature. mankaha (or mankampa, mankahu) being the coldest, and sitsaha (or sitsampa, sitsahu) the hottest means that tloloha is closer to sitsahi and tlolohi is closer to mankahi. This means that tlolotso (mild-middle) is likely how someone would describe their ideal temperature.

  • ya iyoma kihua tlolotso!
VOC PROX-day fine.weather mild-middle
Oh, how today’s weather is so mild!

Of course, some meanings do exist in a binary state;

  • asa - alive / kupa - dead

Meanings may also be divided into non-linear semantic space — e.g. color, social classes, directions, parts of the body, time, geographical features.

Numbers

Kala uses a base 10 number system. The basic numbers are as follows:

Kala number English Kala number English Kala number English
ye'o 0 zero tsa'o 6 six nya'o 500 five hundred
na'o 1 one ka'o 7 seven tle'o 103 (one) thousand
ta'o 2 two pa'o 8 eight mue'o 104 ten thousand
ha'o 3 three sa'o 9 nine kye'o 105 (one) hundred thousand
ma'o 4 four ue'o 10 ten nte'o 106 (one) million
ya'o 5 five nye'o 100 (one) hundred hue'o 109 (one) billion

Forming Larger Numbers

  • uena'o - eleven / 11
  • taue'o - twenty / 20
  • nyeka'o - one hundred seven / 107
  • hanyetauetsa'o (long form) / hatatsa'o (short form) - three hundred twenty six / 326
  • tsatletauema'o - six thousand and twenty four / 6024

Long form numbers are used in formal situations, including financial transactions, especially involving large sums. Short form numbers are used in everyday speech and when calculating basic math.

Other Number Forms

Kala number English ordinal multiple fractional
na'o 1 one kina'o
first
tina'o
once
-
ueta'o 12 twelve kiueta'o
twelfth
tiueta'o
duodecuple
iueta'o
a twelfth
yauema'o
(yama'o)
54 fifty four kiyama'o
fifty fourth
tiyama'o
54 times
iyama'o
a fifty fourth
nyetsa'o 106 one hundred (and) six kinyetsa'o
106th
tinyetsa'o
106 times
inyetsa'o
a 106th
katle'o 7000 seven thousand kikatle'o
seven thousandth
tikatle'o
7000 times
ikatle'o
1/7000

Math Operations

Kala math is fairly basic and relies on particles and verbs to express functions. Notable is the use of the copular a to express the result of an equation.

Addition uses ma (and; also). There is no specific order to the numbers in the phrase/equation. Subtraction uses ma (and; also) and a negative form of the smaller integer. There is no specific order to the numbers in the phrase/equation.

  • ta’o ma ya’o ke ka’o a
two and five O seven COP
2 + 5 = 7
  • ka’o ma ta’ok ke ya’o a
seven and two-NEG O five COP
7 - 2 = 5

Multiplication uses ma (and; also) and a multiple form of one of the integers. There is no specific order to the numbers in the phrase/equation. Division uses ma (and; also) and a multiple-negative form of one of the integers. There is no specific order to the numbers in the phrase/equation.

  • ka’o ma tita’o ke uema’o a
seven and multiple-two O fourteen COP
7 x 2 = 14
  • hata’o ma tisa’ok ke ma’o a
thrity-two and multiple-eight-NEG O four COP
32 ÷ 8 = 4


Writing system

Kala conscripts are many and varied. Rather than multiple pages explaining each of them, this page serves as a working list with a consistent example across each script. The most commonly used script is the Hangul adaptation for Kala.

Han Moya

Han Moya is an adaptation of Hangul for writing Kala. It is written horizontally, in lines running from left to right. It can also be written vertically in columns.

consonants

  • ㄱㄲㄴㄷㄸㄹㅁㅂㅃㅅㅆㅇㅈㅉㅊㅋㅌㅍㅎ
k nk n t nt l m p mp s ns a ts nts ts` k` tl p` h
/k~g ᵑk~ⁿg n t~d ⁿt~ⁿd l~ɾ m p~b ᵐp~ᵐb s~ʃ ⁿs~ⁿʃ - ts~t͡ʃ ⁿts~ⁿt͡ʃ tsʰ~t͡ʃʰ kʰ t͡ɬ~tl pʰ h~ɦ/

The adaptations of doubled consonants are used word initially to indicate prenasalization. Medial occurrences of nasalized syllables are written across syllables.

Example:
  • 까바 - nkapa - alcohol; liquor / 단가 - tanka - eagle; hawk; falcon
  • 감바 - kampa - Cheers! / 쁘라 - mpula - lamp; lantern; light

vowels

  • ㅏ ᅶ ㅐ ㅑ ᅸ ㅓ ㅕ ㅗ ㅛ ㅜ ㅟ ㅠ ㅡ ㅣ
a ao ai ya yao e ye o ao yo ua uai ue u i
/a~a: aʊ̯ aɪ̯ ja~ʲa: jaʊ̯~ʲaʊ̯ e~ɛ je~ʲɛ o~o: jo~ʲo: wa~ʷa: waɪ̯~ʷaɪ̯ we~ʷe: u~u: i~ɪ/
  • This is pronounced /wa/ in Korean because of the order of the vowels; however, because obsolete jamo are difficult to type and look junky as images, in Kala, this is used for /aʊ̯/ when typing. It is rarely seen due to the diphthong itself being uncommon.

Examples

  • 어하 거 거하 가먀터 하요 마아 타감 뱌사하먀여
eha ke keha kamyatle hayo ma’a tlakam pyasahamyaye
[eːɦa kɛ keːɦa kamʲaːt͡ɬe haːjo maːʔa t͡ɬaːkam pʲaʃahamʲaːjɛ]
P.3s O body stun-REL 3s.POSS with man-PL be.popular-AUG-CAUS-PST
Her bewitching body made her very popular with men.

Examples

  • seko saye puani nahayo yalaye ma ke tsa’eto omoye
scorpion along bank river-GEN walk-PST and TOP across-way think-PST
A scorpion was walking along the bank of a river, wondering how to get to the other side.
  • haye seko ke tsola anyaye
sudden scorpion TOP fox see-PST
Suddenly, he saw a fox.
  • seko nya tsa’e naha amo ua’e muta tsolayo kanyoye
scorpion for across river carry on back fox-GEN ask-PST
He asked the fox to take him on his back across the river.
  • tsola kye ak na’eta amo yatli ta’ena kute nuesitli
fox IND.SP COP.NEG 1SG-P.2SG carry if.X.then.Y 2SG-P.1SG sting drown-FUT
The fox said, “No. If I do that, you’ll sting me, and I’ll drown.”
  • seko kye na’eta kute yatli nam nuesitli
scorpion IND.SP 1SG-P.2SG sting if.X.then.Y 1PL drown-FUT
The scorpion assured him, “If I do that, we’ll both drown.”
  • tsola pue omo nkataye
fox after think agree-PST
The fox thought about it and finally agreed.
  • ya seko ua’e muta tsolayo uayaye ma tsola yokomuye
VOC scorpion on back fox-GEN climb and fox swim-begin-PST
So the scorpion climbed up on his back, and the fox began to swim.
  • me tsa’etsohue nahayo seko ke tsola kuteye
however across-half-LOC river-GEN scorpion TOP fox sting-PST
But halfway across the river, the scorpion stung him.
  • tsola ike sunu ke sila hayo yeno ka’e seko muka kye nye ta’ena kuteye ka ima ta nuesitli
fox while poison TOP vein 3SG.POSS fill toward scorpion face IND.SP reason 2SG-P.1SG sting-PST Q now 2SG drown-FUT
As poison filled his veins, the fox turned to the scorpion and said, “Why did you do that? Now you’ll drown, too.”
  • seko kye na’i ke to nayo tlinapayek
scorpion IND.SP 1SG.REFL TOP way 1SG.POSS stop-able-PST.NEG
“I couldn’t help it,” said the scorpion. “It’s my nature.”

Lexicon

See also: Lexicon, Kala thematic lexicon, and Kala etymological lexicon.

A small sampling of Kala lexemes.

  • pa - although; even though; even if
  • pa'a - be well-ordered; regular; organized
  • pina - be clever; intelligent; wise
  • punka - fruit; fruit tree
  • mpana - wide; broad; extensive; vast; width
  • tanko - group; organization; team
  • tepe - conceal; cover; shield; shelter
  • tiku - extract; withdraw; pick-up
  • tona - tuna
  • ntela - interact; interplay; interrelated
  • kanyo - question; ask; raise a question
  • kemu - experience; undergo
  • kinyo - intervene; get involved
  • kona - dress; skirt
  • kunye - moon; lunar; satellite
  • kuya - green; foliage; verdant
  • nkanu - short [in height and from end edge]
  • makua - iron; press; smooth out
  • menka - cotton
  • mosukua - Moscow
  • mutla - be absolute; unconditional
  • napo - turnip
  • ne - indirect object particle
  • nota - lie; be in horizontal position; horizon
  • nyalo - call; number; telephone
  • sahe - across; opposite; other side
  • sipanya - Spain
  • sokyo - helium
  • suama - sew; seam; mend; stitch
  • hasu - conjecture; guess; supposition; assumption
  • hilo - plaza; public square
  • hueta - testicle
  • tsame - accumulate; collect; gather; cluster
  • tsemu - jam; marmalade
  • tsitli - farm; ranch
  • tsuto - be curly-haired
  • tlato - recite rhythmically; chant; intone
  • tlehe - esteemed; honest; candid; sincere
  • tlokua - everybody; everyone
  • ato - that way [over there]
  • atsa - disc; rotate; wheel
  • esue - fail; lose
  • ila - sail; fly; navigate
  • otso - wolf; lupine
  • ulo - crop rotation
  • uatli - inferior; of lower quality
  • uetsi - dispirited downcast [idiom]; in low spirits
  • yatso - ferment; brew; make honey; liquor
  • yopi - mail; post [office]

notes

  • intransitive has NO object / transitive has object

Locative verbs

Kala does not have prepositions (or postpositions) as a distinct part of speech. Instead, many locative verbs can be used as adpositionals, in which case they precede the noun they modify. In English, locations are indicated with adverbs and/or prepositions, this is not the case in Kala however. To express locative concepts in Kala, the following verbs/affixes are used:

The general locative (-hue) which is affixed to nouns (and occasionally verbs) to indicate the sense of “at; in; on”.

  • na tsakahue nayo
1s home-LOC 1s.GEN
I'm in my home. / I'm at home.

Here are some common verbs used as adpositions:

  • -hue – in; at; on (general locative)
  • nahe – within; inside
  • nyaue – out; outside of; exterior
  • ma’e – before; in front of
  • pue – behind; after; in back of
  • ua’e – above; over; on
  • tahe – below; under; beneath; bottom
  • ya’e – near; close to
  • uaye – away (from)
  • maye – between; among

The above are used as prepositions, but can also function strictly as verbs.

  • mita tahe yempa ina
dog under table eat
The dog is eating under the table.
  • mita ke yempa tahe
dog table be.under
The dog is under the table.


The suffix -la (from yala “go; walk; travel”) forms an allative (or motive) preposition, expressing movement in the indicated direction, stopping at the position indicated by the locative:

  • nahela topuinto bed
  • pahela ke ana tayoonto your head
  • tsayela tsakaup to the house

The locative/allative pair works like English on/onto, in/into, but in Kala this distinction is made for all locatives: you must distinguish between them:

  • pue’ela kuanugo behind a bush - (motion implied → allative)
  • pue kuanu komahide behind a bush - (no motion → locative)

Kala uses nouns to express more complex spatial relationships (these words are adverbs in English) this means that for example the word mokua should be interpreted as something like the everywhere or all places. So a phrase like mokua na'eta anya (meaning I see you everywhere) is literally I see you in all places. Likewise, yosohue na'eta anya means I see you at (the/my) left (area).

  • mokua – everywhere; all places
  • hina – here; hither
  • uana – there (near you)
  • yemua – there (over there)

The above nouns never take the -hue suffix.


extra

Adessive case adjacent location near/at/by the house location mita tsaka ya'e dog house near/by
Apudessive case location next to something next to the house location

Inessive case inside something inside the house location mita tsaka nahe dog house inside
Intrative case between something between the houses location mita tsaka-m maye dog house-pl between
Locative case location at/on/in the house location mita tsaka-hue dog at/on/in the house
Pertingent case in contact with something touching the house location

Subessive case under something under/below the house location mita tsaka tahe dog house under/below
Superessive case on the surface on (top of) the house location mita tsaka ua'e dog house on [top of]
Ablative case movement away from something away from the house motion from mita tsaka uaye-la dog house away-from
Delative case movement from the surface from (the top of) the house motion from

Egressive case marking the beginning of a movement or time beginning from the house motion from

Elative case out of something out of the house motion from mita tsaka uaye-la dog house out-of-go
Initiative case starting point of an action beginning from the house motion from

Allative case movement onto something onto the house motion to mita tsaka ua'e-la dog house on [top of]-go
Allative case movement to (the adjacency of) something / movement onto something to the house motion to mita tsaka ka'e-la dog house toward-go
Illative case movement into something into the house motion to mita tsaka nahe-la dog house into-go
Lative case movement to something to/into the house motion to

Sublative case movement onto the surface or below something on(to) the house / under the house motion to

Terminative case marking the end of a movement or time as far as the house motion to mita tsaka tsaye-la dog house up-to-go
Perlative case movement through or along through/along the house motion via

Prolative case movement using a surface or way by way of/through the house motion via

Prosecutive case across or along along the road motion via mita misa saye-la dog road along-go
Vialis case through or by by way of the house, through the house motion via

Ablative case all-round indirect case concerning the house relation

Aversive case avoiding or fear avoiding the house relation

Benefactive case for, for the benefit of, intended for for the house relation

Causal case because, because of because of the house relation

Causal-final case efficient or final cause for a house relation

Comitative case in company of something with the house relation

Dative case shows direction or recipient for/to the house relation

Distributive case distribution by piece per house relation

Distributive-temporal case how often something happens daily; on Sundays relation

Genitive case shows relationship, possession of the house relation

Ornative case endowment with something equipped with a house relation

Possessed case possession by something the house is owned by someone relation

Privative case lacking something without a house relation

Semblative case Similarity to something that tree is like a house relation

Sociative case along with something, together with something with the house relation

Partitive case used for amounts three (of the) houses semantic

Vocative case used for addressing someone, with or without a preposition Hey, father! O father! Father! semantic

Abessive case the lack of something without the house state

Adverbial case being as something as a house state

Comparative case similarity with something similar to the house state

Equative case comparison with something like the house state

Essive case temporary state of being as the house state

Essive-formal case marking a condition as a quality (a kind of shape) as a house state

Essive-modal case marking a condition as a quality (a way of being) as a house state

Exessive case marking a transition from a condition from being a house (i.e., "it stops being a house") state

Formal case marking a condition as a quality as a house state

Identical case showing that something is identical being the house state

Orientative case oriented towards something turned towards the house state

Revertive case backwards to something against the house state

Translative case change of a condition into another (turning) into a house state

Essive case specifying days and dates on Monday; on November 5th time

Temporal case specifying a time at seven [o'clock]; at midnight; at New Year's time

more

A huge storm is brewing over the sea. above pakyoha ua'e muana mulanko
He was wearing overalls on top of his other clothes. above
She leaned over the table to reach the salt. above
The clouds are above my head. above
The mountain casts a shadow over our house. above
The roof is above the ceiling. above
The sun rises over the earth. above
December comes after November. after / behind
I will come back in three days. after / behind
My back is behind my chest. after / behind
The equipment is behind a locked door. after / behind
The naughty boys hid behind the shed. after / behind
The snake disappeared behind the tree. after / behind
They will start drinking after sunset. after / behind
Turn right after the church. after / behind
We hear thunder after we see lightning. after / behind
Close your eyes against the light. against
He slips and falls against the wall. against
I am against the war. against
Swimming upstream is hard. against
The ancient Greeks fought against Persia. against
The ladder is against the fence. against
This camera is waterproof. against
You have acted against my wishes. against
According to the forecast, tomorrow will be even warmer. along
I walk along the street. along
The boy slides along the branch. along
The raft floated down the river. along
There's a spider crawling up my leg. along
Time travel is possible, according to this physicist. along
Around dawn, I heard your dog barking. around
I am about 50 years old. around
I can think of about a hundred reasons not to reveal my age. around
Ivy grows around the trunk. around
My hand is closed around my thumb. around
She wanders round the garden and smells the flowers. around
The campers sing songs around the fire. around
The concert began at about half past eight. around
The moon goes around the earth, and the earth goes around the sun. around
There is green paint around the windows. around
We intend to travel round the world on horseback. around
At least thirty people are waiting. at / to
At midnight, there will be fireworks. at / to
From Monday to Thursday is four days. at / to
He orders the soldiers to attack the fort. at / to
He painted his house white. at / to
He raises his eyes to the sky. at / to
He's resting at home. at / to
I am travelling to New York. at / to
I have to leave at four o'clock. at / to
I have visited this town before. at / to
I walk down the street, from one end to the other. at / to
I will not answer that question. at / to
I will serve the shrimp cold. at / to
I will teach you to speak the language. at / to
I'll meet you at the crossroads. at / to
Put your books away. at / to
Run in the house. at / to
Run into the house. at / to
Run to the house. at / to
See below. at / to
She finished the work at the start of the year. at / to
She gave a bone to the dog / She gave the dog a bone. at / to
Sudan is to the south of Egypt. at / to
Tell me your name. at / to
The boy added his name to the list. at / to
The cat jumps on the table. at / to
The cat jumps onto the table. at / to
The chair fell to bits. at / to
The diver went down. at / to
The dog runs forward. at / to
The ladder is leaning on the wall. at / to
The night is progressing towards dawn. at / to
The shape of Italy is similar to a leg. at / to
The ship is at sea. at / to
The wizard changed himself into a goat. at / to
They elected Maria (as) president. at / to
This pen belongs to me. at / to
We are sitting at the table. at / to
We can return later. at / to
We wish you a happy birthday. at / to
What happens if you don't conform to the rules? at / to
You annoy me from time to time. at / to
You can put your bag overhead. at / to
Your house is next to mine. at / to
Your idea seems absurd to me. at / to
You're standing too close to the edge. at / to
A dog is lying in front of the shop. before / front
I come before you to apologize. before / front
It's so dark that I can't see my hand in front of my eyes. before / front
January comes before February. before / front
My chest is in front of my back. before / front
The magazines are in front of the books. before / front
They intend to finish work before sunset. before / front
They put a pile of books in front of me. before / front
Turn left before the end of the street. before / front
We experience lightning before thunder. before / front
We have a lot of work ahead of us. before / front
We see lightning before we hear thunder. before / front
He was born between the wars. between
I usually wake up between seven and eight. between
LFN promotes communication between peoples. between
My head is between my ears. between
She travels between Paris and Madrid every week. between
The ball fell among the flowers. between
The Czech Republic is between Germany, Austria, Slovenia, and Poland. between
The table is between the chair and the wall. between
There will be a ten-minute interval between the two acts. between
What is the difference between a wall and a fence? between
You are among friends here. between
You have to pay between ten and twenty euros. between
(To be seen from) across the bridge is a wonderful view. beyond
The explorers journeyed beyond the mountains. beyond
The school is beyond the church. beyond
They rowed a dinghy across the lake. beyond
This task is beyond my talents. beyond
Hamlet is a play by Shakespeare. by
He was hit by a snowball. by
I am surprised by your reaction. by
I shall destroy the fence with a single kick. by
I travelled here by train. by
Roberto is my son-in-law. by
Switzerland is surrounded by other countries. by
The attack of/on the Trojans by the Greeks. (The Greeks attack the Trojans) by
The bottles are color-coded. by
The love of/for the mother. (The mother is loved) by
The mother's love. (The mother loves) by
The prisoner escaped by disguising himself as a door. by
This problem cannot be solved by negotiation. by
We discovered your secrets via our spies. by
Because you weren't there, I spoke on your behalf. for
Cups are used for drinking. for
For example, consider the whale. for
For that reason, I can't talk for long. for
He kicks the ball toward the goal. for
I bought it for a thousand euros. for
I voted for the proposal, but you voted against it. for
I will go to the shops for you. for
I won't delay you for more than a minute. for
I'm fighting for my life. for
I'm travelling (in order) to see the world. for
She wrote the book for her mother. for
Thank you for your postcard. for
The friends left for the coast. for
The journey will be dangerous for you. for
We are going to Colorado for a week. for
We work for money. for
You paid too much for that computer. for
You're dressed for an evening of dancing. for
Behave like an adult. like / as
He laughs like a hyena. like / as
I can jump as high as you. like / as
Yoghurt is like cream. like / as
Your heart is hard as stone. like / as
You've reached the same conclusion as me. like / as
A spider creeps from behind the clock. of / from
Do you like lamb? of / from
For his breakfast, he just drinks coffee. of / from
Give me a piece of cake, please. of / from
He is the world table-tennis champion. of / from
I am from New York. of / from
I have received a letter from the king. of / from
I have three boxes of books to sell. of / from
I like listening to the singing of the birds. of / from
I'm late because of a traffic jam. of / from
I'm traveling from Paris to London. of / from
Many years have passed since the war. of / from
My sunglasses are broken. of / from
She lent me an ugly-colored towel. of / from
She was impressed by the stillness of the forest. of / from
Since I was a child, I've wanted to stand on the moon. of / from
That is my brother's car. of / from
The belltower is to the right of the cathedral. of / from
The cat jumps off the chair. of / from
The leader was shouting from the front, but I couldn't hear. of / from
The monster came from below. of / from
The papers fell from the window. of / from
The result depends on the method used. of / from
The robber hides his face from the cameras. of / from
The seagull is a seabird. of / from
The sparrows climb from among the trees. of / from
The table is made of wood. of / from
The time has come to talk of many things. of / from
The tower is forty metres high. of / from
They added all the ingredients except the salt. of / from
They used sugar instead of salt. of / from
This bucket is full of fish. of / from
This will be your bedroom. of / from
Water differs from acid in its chemistry. of / from
We want to be free of you. of / from
We've been working since dawn. of / from
You forgot to apply the handbrake. of / from
A rock that falls onto the earth is called a meteorite. on / onto
Don't sit on the broken chair. on / onto
If you stand on the balcony, you can see the sea. on / onto
I'll hang this painting on the wall. on / onto
Is there life on Mars? on / onto
I've read many books on the subject. on / onto
My hat is on my head. on / onto
Put your cards on the table. on / onto
She put a thimble onto her finger. on / onto
The girl is crying over her lost doll. on / onto
The man kissed the woman on her cheek. on / onto
The play is about the war. on / onto
The tarmac on the road is melting in the heat. on / onto
Don't phone outside work hours. outside
He remembers nothing except for his name. outside
My shoe is outside my sock. outside
She lives outside the city. outside
The children ran outside the house. outside
There is no air outside the ship. outside
You are out of danger now. outside
My dog is more intelligent than me. than
That is much less interesting than this. than
There are more things in heaven and earth than are dreamt of in your philosophy. than
A lane leads through the fields to the lake. through
He sat in an armchair throughout the night. through
I look at the stars through the open window. through
The children ran through the village. through
The explosion could be heard throughout the city. through
The rain has found a way through my bag. through
The train goes from Milan to Rome via Bologna. through
They've stayed together through the years. through
Water flows through the pipes. through
Antelopes were resting under the trees. under
He wore a sweater under his jacket. under
I can't work under your rules. under
I have a parcel under my arm. under
The floor is below the ceiling. under
The real color of the ceiling is scarcely visible under this nasty paint. under
The snow crunches under my feet. under
The water went under the furniture. under
There's a table of sandwiches under the window. under
You appear to be under the influence of the wine. under
He works until midnight. up to / as far
He's visited every country from Andorra to Zambia. up to / as far
I am soaked to the skin. up to / as far
She accompanied me to my car. up to / as far
Study pages 25 to 42 (inclusive). up to / as far
The ground is covered in snow as far as the mountains. up to / as far
The price fell to just one euro. up to / as far
Until tomorrow / See you tomorrow! up to / as far
Wait until the summer. up to / as far
And with those words he disappeared. with / using
Compare this with yesterday's weather. with / using
Elena is a girl with red hair. with / using
Every day I get up with the sun. with / using
Everything changes with the passage of time. with / using
He bought a house with the money he inherited. with / using
His wife looks at him in amazement. with / using
I see the girl with her father. with / using
I write with a pen. with / using
Not many words start with X. with / using
She's given me a book with many photos. with / using
The horse kicks. with / using
The old man sits with a pipe in his mouth. with / using
The sugar has been mixed with salt. with / using
They are battling with the elements. with / using
They want to eat with us. with / using
We are drinking coffee with milk. with / using
We hear with our ears. with / using
We will fail even with your help. with / using
A good idea came into her head. within
Are we in agreement? within
Beethoven was born in 1770. within
Cats don't like being in water. within
He fell into the river. within
His fingers are stuck in the handle of a cup. within
I don't want to travel in this weather. within
I have some thoughts in my mind. within
I will repeat this in Greek. within
In addition, I see a new problem. within
In fact I see two problems. within
It started raining heavily while the reporter was talking. within
I've translated the article into French. within
My heart is in my chest. within
Put the rubbish in the bin. within
She wrote the book in three weeks. within
The building is on fire. within
The children are sitting in a circle. within
The plants are in pots. within
The prices are in euros. within
The sun is in the sky. within
We are in danger. within
We are passing into a new era. within
We are waiting in the car. within
We don't see the stars in the day. within
We spent an hour in conversation. within
We visited the museum in February. within
He fell asleep without meaning to. without
I shall decorate the entire house without help. without
I walked through the rain with no umbrella. without
The painting fell down for no apparent reason. without
The researcher left without discovering the answer. without
There's no smoke without fire. without
You are totally without mercy. without
Your wife likes her coffee without milk. without

Syntax

Simple sentences

Complex sentences

Clause coordination

Clause-level conjunctions such as ku "and", ua "or", or ehe "but, however" are placed clause-initially. Note that these conjunctions cannot be used to connect noun phrases.

  • tahi tohyo ku nahi pina
boy brave CL.CONJ girl intelligent
The boy is brave and the girl is intelligent.
  • ima kihu saman ehe pakyotlai
now weather sun-ADJ however storm-IMM
Now the weather is sunny, but a storm will come soon.

Coordination of noun phrases

Non-subject noun phrases are coordinated using the conjunction ma "and" (sometimes "with").

  • yomaye na ke tanka ma pato anya
day-PST 1sg O eagle CONJ duck see
I saw an eagle and a duck yesterday.
  • kinti ke tsaka kamyo ma'a yosu sapotle ma siuem muya
squirrel O house 3pl.POSS with moss soft-REL and leaf.PL make
The squirrels make their nest comfortable with soft moss and leaves.
  • ona ma ota kyosanku
mother and father fornicate-RECP
Mother and father have sex [with each other].
  • ta ma'a na ke molihuelatli
2sg with 1sg O forest-LOC-MOT-FUT
You and I will go to the forest together.

Noun phrases can be presented as alternatives to each other with the conjunction ua "or; other". This conjunction can be used with both subjects and non-subjects. The conjunction ue "(exclusive) either X or Y" is used to delimit other nouns from the conjunction phrase.

  • ta ke nasi ua poma inamyo
2sg O pear or apple eat-PERM
You may eat an apple or a pear.
  • tsola ue otso itsikua mataye
fox either.X.or.Y wolf PROX-bird kill-PST
It must have been a fox or a wolf that killed this bird.

Contrastive coordination of noun phrases ("but") is achieved with ehe "but; however" (or me more informally) if the noun phrases appear in subject position.

  • yomaye mita'u ehek mitana ke kutsu kapya
day-PST dog-MASC but-NEG O meat receive
The male dog but not the female dog received meat yesterday.
  • na itlaka mek inaka unya
1sg PROX-man but-NEG PROX-woman know
I know this man, but not this woman.

Complement clauses

Relative clauses

Relative clauses, i.e. subordinated clauses acting as an attribute to a noun phrase, are marked with the relativizer -tle (or -le if the last syllable has tl). A pronoun referring to the relativized noun is retained within the relative clause:

  • na ka naka amyatle pesoue
1sg O woman liked-REL meet-VOL
I want to meet a girl who is friendly.
  • naku nayo ke yakokua na tikuyetle inapua
sister 1sg.POSS O strawberry-all 1sg pick-PST-REL eat-PFV
My sister has eaten all the strawberries that I picked.
  • kam tananitle ke teki tlalitli
3pl fight-nice-REL O enemy defeat-FUT
They who fight well will defeat the enemy.

Evidentiality

affix from
direct participation (dir) - -
sensory perception (sens) - -
inferred from evidence (evid) - -
assumption; guess (ass) -ho toho
hearsay; fiction (rep) -tai ata


The first set of evidentiality markers indicated that the evidence was gained directly by the speaker via their senses. There were three such markers:

  • -xx-, which denotes that the speaker witnessed the action visually;
  • -xx-, which denotes that the speaker tasted or smelled the evidence and
  • -xx-, which denotes that the speaker felt or heard the evidence.

The second set of markers indicated that the evidence is secondhand and not directly derived from the speaker's experience. There were two such markers:

  • -xx-, which indicates that the information was received via hearsay and may or may not be accurate and
  • -xx-, which indicates that the speaker has no doubts about the information he has received.

The third set indicated that the information was not personally experienced but was inferred from indirect evidence. There were three of these markers:

  • -xx-, which indicated that there was physical evidence;
  • -xx-, which indicates that the information is general knowledge and
  • -xx-, which indicates that the information is inferred or assumed based on the speaker's past experience of similar situations.

kalama

  • t- - to be; exist
singular plural
1 wata kwata
2 nita inkata
3 ota kota

words

  • kalama - speak; talk; utter
  • kasa - house; home; abode, dwelling
  • kawi - coffee
  • kome - eat; consume
  • ko - he, she [3sg]
  • kute - listen; hear
  • le - past tense [PST]
  • lo - many (more than one) / -lo - plural [PL]
  • loka - place; location
  • ma - what; which
  • maka - do; make; cause
  • miyo - feline; cat; lion; tiger
  • ne - no; not; negative [NEG]
  • ni - you [2sg]
  • o - direct object [DO]
  • oma - mother; grand-
  • opa - father; grand-
  • sa - future tense [FUT]
  • sapa - know; understand
  • ta - be big; large; grand
  • tale - give; transfer; donate
  • wa - I, me [1sg]
  • waka - bovine; cattle; livestock
  • wite - see; look; watch; observe
  • yo - have; possess; hold / -yo - possessive; genitive
  • yu - (be) in; at; on; by; near

Amal grammar

  • en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Korean_grammar
  • en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Turkish_grammar#Parts_of_speech
  • en.wikibooks.org/wiki/Turkish/Word_Order
  • en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Persian_grammar#Verbs
  • en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lingua_Franca_Nova_grammar
  • en.wiktionary.org/wiki/Appendix:Turkish_monosyllabic_words
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c|sh
w[uúo]|wa

zanga

P=pbtdkgqh
N=mnńŋ
S=cćsśzź
L=lrłv
W=wy
V=aiuáíú
v|rr
w[uú]|wa
y[ií]|ya
PV
NV
SV
LV
WV
PWV
PVN
NVN
SVN

krit

C=ptkfzxbdgvq7hmnjslr
W=wy
V=aeoaeoaeoi
F=ptkmnjs
f|pp
z|tt
x|kk
v|gh
7|qq
j|ng
CV
CWV
CVF
CWVF
WVF
VF

xcvb

Object Verb
Noun Postposition
Genitive Noun
Subclause Verb
Verb Auxiliary
Clause Complementizer

--

   Subject Object Verb (SOV) Word order
   Postpositions (relationship words are located after the main word)
   Nouns are succeeded by their genitive markings.
   Nouns are succeeded by adjectives.

--

Nominative - NOM - x
Accusative - ACC - -n
Genitive - GEN - -yo
Dative - DAT - ??
Locative - LOC - -hue
Lative - LAT - ?? ("to some place")
Ablative - ABL - ?? ("from some place")
Instrumental - INS - ?? 
Terminative - TERM - ?? ("up to/until some place")
Vocative - VOC - ya
pi
po
pue
mpi
nte
nti
nto
ka
kue
kye
nka
nki
no
nue
nye
se
sua

lkjh

"I see. Yes, I tend to like my conlangs to have words with a fairly broad meaning, and at least with verbs this language promotes even broader semantic ranges because of the way the aorist and durative verb stems work (English tends to use different roots for these, whereas Ree Rɛɛ Kıbyaa treats them as two morphological forms of the same verb). However, the lumplang impression is also in part an accidental artifact of my personal work process. For example, whenever the core meaning of a conlang word is significantly different from the core meaning of the closest English translation equivalent, I list several English glosses in the dictionary which are meant to give an impression of where the core meaning of the conlang word actually is, but which do not imply that the conlang word actually covers all the main senses of these English words. Conversely, many words with a meaning much narrower than their English gloss don't get that specification when I write the lexicon, but only months or even years later when I first use the word in a text. Also, I generally try to cover a broad semantic range with the first 1000 words, and I don't really aim for much more than that in most of my conlangs, so words with very specific semantics tend to get left out anyway (but you can be assured they do exist in the language!)"

  • akana.conlang.org/wiki/%CA%94uulhemoo
  • akana.conlang.org/wiki/Kataputi
  • akana.conlang.org/wiki/%E2%B1%A2%C9%91ccekk%C9%94m%C9%94_l%C3%B9k#Case
  • xiaoma.info/compound.php?cp=%E4%BB%8B%E8%AF%8D&fhz=%E4%BB%8B%E8%AF%8D
  • lortho.conlang.org/refgram/refgram.pdf
C=tkqmnfwyhdgvcj
V=aàáeèéoòó
F=tkmnfwyh
q|kw
f|ny
d|tt
g|kk
v|mm
c|nn
j|nny
w[oòó]|wa


Adjectives

Kala does not have morphologically distinct adjectives. Stative verbs are the words that modify nouns in an predicative and often adjectival way. They often express a state like a quality or result. In the simplest form, the adjective simply appears after the noun, in verbal position. Many statements that would be phrased as adjectival predicates in English are preferably expressed with stative intransitive verbs in Kala, requiring no copula. (For simplicity, such verbs are glossed without “be”.) This leaves open to interpretation many phrases.

  • mita inya - dog hungry
    • The dog hungers.
    • The dog is hungry.
    • The hungry dog.
    • A hungry dog.
  • tsaka ketlahi - house red-DIM
    • The house is a little red.
    • The light-red house.
    • A pale red house.
  • taki saua - coat wet
    • The coat is wet.
    • The wet coat.
    • A wet coat.
  • umalo tahaku - horse-PL big-extreme
    • The horses are extremely large.
    • The very big horses.


Comparison

In Kala the concepts of comparative and superlative degree of an predicative adjective (verb) are merged into a single form, the elative. How this form is understood or translated depends upon context and definiteness. In the absence of comparison, the elative conveys the notion of “greatest”, “supreme.” The comparative is made by using the augmentative or diminutive ending on the verb.

  • tsaka hayo ke nayo tahaka
house 3sg.POSS O 1sg.POSS big-AUG
His house is bigger than mine.
  • ke mauam tayo yanaha
O flower.PL 2sg.POSS yellow-AUG
Your flowers are the most yellow.
  • iyapo ke tsaka tayo pakoha
PROX-building O home 2sg new-AUG
This building is newer than your home.


Equivalence

Equivalence is indicated with either kue (as, like), or mya (as...as).

  • tsaka hayo kue nayo ketla
house 3s.GEN as 1s.GEN be.red
His house is red like mine.
  • tsaka hayo mya nayo ketla
house 3s.GEN as.X.as 1s.GEN be.red
His house is as red as mine.


Like verbs, adjectives can be used as nouns. For example, aya means "beautiful", but ayako means "a beautiful one" or "a beauty." An adjective can be made into an abstract noun by adding -n (-ity, -ness, -ship, -hood). In this way aya becomes ayan, meaning "beauty". This can also be used with nouns: ona (mother) becomes onan (motherhood).

Relative

In a relative clause, the verb has the suffix -tle (or -le if the final syllable contains /tl/) added to it. The order of the words in relative clauses remains the same as in regular clauses. The use of participles in Kala is rather different than in English and at first sight is difficult to understand. This is mainly due to the fact that the relative pronouns who, what, which, where are not used in Kala as in English.

  • yalapa - to be able to walk produces: yalapatle - who/which/that can walk
  • yalapak - to not be able to walk produces: yalapanketle - who/which/that can't walk

This nominalizes the verb in some cases, and makes it possible for it to be either the subject or the object.

  • na ke tlaka nya inama talatle unya
1sg O man for eat-time come-REL know
I know the man who is coming to lunch.
  • ke naka patlole pako
O woman sweep-REL young
The woman who is sweeping is young.

The relative suffix is most often in the final position. In some cases, it may be followed by the negative -k.

  • itsaka na sutahuetle
PROX-house 1sg reside-LOC-REL
This is the house in which I live.
  • itsaka na sutahueyetlek
PROX-house 1sg reside-LOC-PST-REL-NEG
This is the house in which I did not live.


Adverbs

Adverbs tell us when, how, why or where the action happens. They modify a verb, a noun, an adjective, another adverb or a complete sentence. They also can provide us information about manner, quantity, frequency, time, or place. Kala does not have morphologically distinct adverbs. Adverbs can be formed from all adjectives (or stative verbs) by adding -n to the root. Since this rule is regular, it is not generally indicated in grammatical examples or in the lexicon.

  • aya - beautiful >> ayan - beautifully
  • tama - good >> taman - well
  • poyo - rich >> poyon - richly
  • tsipue - slow >> tsipuen - slowly (this can also be marked on the main verb with -tsue)
  • tlaki - fluent >> tlakin - fluently

Many adverbs (mostly temporal) do not derive from verbs:

  • yomaye - yesterday
  • iyoma - today
  • yomali - every day
  • kuama - always
  • ima - now

Temporal adverbs always precede the phrase they modify.

  • yomuali na ka'e hakyo yala
morning-each 1s to school go
I go to school every morning.

Other adverbials can be marked on the verb.

  • ona kamyo ma'a siku kupayetsua
mother 3pl.GEN with accident die-PST-almost
Their mother almost died in the accident.

Prepositions

Kala does not have prepositions (or postpositions) as a distinct part of speech. Instead, many locative verbs can be used as adpositionals, in which case they precede the noun they modify. There is one general locative (-hue) which is affixed to nouns (and occasionally verbs) to indicate the sense of “at; in; on”. Here are some common verbs used as adpositions:

  • pahe - against; touching
  • pa'e - apart from; other than; except for
  • paye - beyond; exceeding; farther than
  • pue - after; back; behind; rear
  • tahe - below; beneath; under
  • ka'e - to; towards; at [moving toward]
  • kaye - around; encircling; surrounding
  • mahe - around; approximate; close to
  • ma'a - with [accompanied by / furnished with]
  • ma'e - before; in front
  • maye - between; among
  • nahe - in [located inside of]; internal
  • nyaue - outside of; exterior to
  • sahe - across; opposite; other side
  • saye - along; following [a line]
  • hue / -hue - at [in the same location as] [LOC]
  • tsa'e - across; through
  • ua'e - above; over / on
  • uaye - from [moving out of or away from]
  • ya'e - near; close to
  • yomo - to the right of
  • yoso - to the left of


  • na ke ito yamahue anyapa
1sg O tree hill-LOC see-ABIL
I can see a tree on the hill.
  • ntahim nyaue tsaka yoti
child-PL outside.of house play
The children are playing outside of the house.

Many of these take the motive suffix -la.

  • mita ke tsaka nahelaye
dog O house go.into-PST
The dog went into the house.
  • taku nayo ke ito ua'ela
brother 1s.GEN O tree go.up
My brother is climbing the tree.

Particles

Conjunctions

Words and phrases may be coordinated in Kala with the following words:

  • pa - although; even though; even if
  • ku - and; also [clause level]
  • ma - and; also; too; as well
  • ehe / (me) - but; yet; however
  • impo - therefore; as a result; so; consequently; thus
  • ua - or; other; else
  • ue - either X or Y
  • uenke / (uek) - neither X nor Y
  • yatli - if X then Y
  • yema - both X and Y
  • yetli - if it were not; if not X then Y >> X yatli Y
  • ha'ena itsa ehe hinak
3s-P.1s love but be.here-NEG
She loves me but is not here.
  • aye na tala ku matsu
PST 1s come CONJ conquer
I came, I conquered.


Interjections

There are a few particles, usually appearing at the beginning of the sentence, with a pragmatic meaning. These typically precede phrases they modify.

morpheme indicates gloss example
a acknowledgement, agreement, or that one is listening yes; hm mm; yeah a ta inaue
Mm hmm...You want to eat.
e filler or pause during conversation uh, er, well e na uamek
Well, I'm not sure.
yali excuses jostling or interruptions excuse me yali itla tayo ka
Excuse me, is this yours?

Noun Phrase

The structure of a Kala noun phrase is relatively rigid. The order of NP components is:

Determiner(s) - Noun - (Modifiers)

Word Order

The basic structure of a Kala sentence is: AGENT--PATIENT--ACTION (or SOV)

The agent is the person or thing doing the action described by the verb; The patient is the recipient of that action. The importance of word order can be seen by comparing the following sentences:

  • mita tlaka anya
dog man see
The dog sees the man.
  • tlaka mita anya
man dog see
The man sees the dog.

In both sentences, the words are identical, the only way to know who is seeing whom is by the order of the words in the sentence.

The use of the object marker ke indicates the recipient of the action.

  • naka ke mita itsa
woman O dog love
The woman loves the dog.

Kala lacks morphological adjectives and instead uses predicative verbs.

  • ke tsaka taha
O house be.big
The big house / The house is big

Kala lacks morphological adverbs, verbs modified with the adverbial ending -n tend to precede the verb phrase they modify.

  • tsumun nam yokone
cautious-ADV 1pl swim-SUG
We should swim cautiously.

Kala lacks morphological prepositions and instead uses locational and relational verbs.

  • mita ke yempa tahe
dog O table be.under
The dog is under the table.

Clauses

Relative clauses (or adjective clauses) function like adjectives. Relative clauses follow the noun or noun phrase that they modify:

  • naka ke na itsatle te ameyo
woman O 1s love-REL from America
The woman (that) I love comes from America.
  • mayo ke na kitlayetle muyak
tool O 1s create-PST-REL do-NEG
The tool (that) I built doesn't function.
  • na ke ta yani unyak / na ke yani tayo unyak
1s O 2s mean know-NEG / 1s O meaning 2s.GEN know-NEG
I don't understand what you mean.

Subordinate clauses rely on conjunctions and other particles.

  • eya ta ke mpeka inaye yatli ta pasala
maybe 2s O toad eat-PST therefore 2s nauseous-become
If you ate the toad (which you might have), you might get sick.
  • naye na tasa ke masa okyohue anyaye
while 1s hunt O deer clearing-LOC see-PST
While hunting, I saw a deer in a clearing.

Questions

There are two types of questions: Polar, those which may be answered "yes" or "no," and those which require explanations as answers.

Polar Questions

Any statement can become a polar question by adding the interrogative particle ka at the end of the sentence.

  • mita ina
dog eat
The dog eats.
  • nta'i moku
baby sleep
The baby is sleeping. / The baby sleeps.
  • ta ke tlo'o anyaye
2SG O elephant see-PST
You saw the elephant.
  • tekatlo eta ke ya'a yetaye
heal-AG P.2SG O medicine give-PST
The doctor gave you the medicine.
  • mita ina ka
dog eat Q
Does the dog eat?
  • nta'i moku ka
baby sleep Q
Is the baby sleeping?
  • ta ke tlo'o anyaye ka
2SG O elephant see-PST Q
Did you see the elephant?
  • tekatlo eta ke ya'a yetaye ka
heal-AG P.2SG O medicine give-PST Q
Did the doctor give you the medicine?

Content questions

Questions that give a list of possible answers are formed like polar questions, with the conjunction ue ‘or’ introducing each alternative (which must appear in the form of a noun phrase).

  • ta ke nkapa ue maya inuue ka
2s O beer or.EXCL water drink-DES Q
Do you want to drink beer or water?
  • uala ta ke sinka mataye ue empa ma koma ka
truly 2s O lion kill-PST or.EXCL flee CONJ hide Q
Did you really kill the lion, or did you run away and hide?

Open content questions are most easily formed with the correlatives, such as ko ‘person’, mo ‘place’, to ‘manner’, etc. These correlatives always appear clause-initially:

  • ko ta ka
person 2ss Q
Who are you?
  • itla ka
this Q
What is this?
  • to kihu ka
manner weather Q
What's the weather like?

The other type contains a question word and is followed by ka:

kanyo
Kala gloss English
object ke mita ina ka O dog eat Q What does the dog eat?
person ko ina ka person eat Q Who eats?
possession koyo mita ina ka person-POSS dog eat Q Whose dog eats?
manner to mita ina ka manner dog eat Q How does the dog eat?
place mo mita ina ka place dog eat Q Where does the dog eat?
reason nye mita ina ka reason dog eat Q Why does the dog eat?
time ama mita ina ka time dog eat Q When does the dog eat?
amount uku mita ina ka amount dog eat Q How much/many does the dog eat?
which ula mita ina ka any dog eat Q Which dog eats?

Semantic fields and pragmatics

Writing system

Kala conscripts are many and varied. Rather than multiple pages explaining each of them, this page serves as a working list with a consistent example across each script. The most commonly used script is the Hangul adaptation for Kala.

Han Moya

Han Moya is an adaptation of Hangul for writing Kala. It is written horizontally, in lines running from left to right. It can also be written vertically in columns.

consonants

  • ㄱㄲㄴㄷㄸㄹㅁㅂㅃㅅㅆㅇㅈㅉㅊㅋㅌㅍㅎ
k nk n t nt l m p mp s ns a ts nts ts` k` tl p` h
/k~g ᵑk~ⁿg n t~d ⁿt~ⁿd l~ɾ m p~b ᵐp~ᵐb s~ʃ ⁿs~ⁿʃ - ts~t͡ʃ ⁿts~ⁿt͡ʃ tsʰ~t͡ʃʰ kʰ t͡ɬ~tl pʰ h~ɦ/

The adaptations of doubled consonants are used word initially to indicate prenasalization. Medial occurrences of nasalized syllables are written across syllables.

Example:
  • 까바 - nkapa - alcohol; liquor / 단가 - tanka - eagle; hawk; falcon
  • 감바 - kampa - Cheers! / 쁘라 - mpula - lamp; lantern; light

vowels

  • ㅏ ᅶ ㅐ ㅑ ᅸ ㅓ ㅕ ㅗ ㅛ ㅜ ㅟ ㅠ ㅡ ㅣ
a ao ai ya yao e ye o ao yo ua uai ue u i
/a~a: aʊ̯ aɪ̯ ja~ʲa: jaʊ̯~ʲaʊ̯ e~ɛ je~ʲɛ o~o: jo~ʲo: wa~ʷa: waɪ̯~ʷaɪ̯ we~ʷe: u~u: i~ɪ/
  • This is pronounced /wa/ in Korean because of the order of the vowels; however, because obsolete jamo are difficult to type and look junky as images, in Kala, this is used for /aʊ̯/ when typing. It is rarely seen due to the diphthong itself being uncommon.

Examples

  • 어하 거 거하 가먀터 하요 마아 타감 뱌사하먀여
eha ke keha kamyatle hayo ma’a tlakam pyasahamyaye
[eːɦa kɛ keːɦa kamʲaːt͡ɬe haːjo maːʔa t͡ɬaːkam pʲaʃahamʲaːjɛ]
P.3s O body stun-REL 3s.POSS with man-PL be.popular-AUG-CAUS-PST
Her bewitching body made her very popular with men.

Lexicon

references

  • akana.conlang.org/wiki/Ronc_Tyu
  • en.wikibooks.org/wiki/Na’vi
  • frathwiki.com/Kala
  • hungarianreference.com/
  • japaneselanguageguide.com/grammar/noun.asp
  • kinezika.info/pdf/ChineseEssentialGrammar.pdf
  • klingonwiki.net/En/Math
  • ossicone.com/conlangs/uskra
  • pomax.github.io/nrGrammar/
  • resources.allsetlearning.com/chinese/grammar/
  • rickmor.x10.mx/arabic_morphology.html
  • turkishlanguage.co.uk/
  • zompist.com/kitgram.html
  • zompist.com/wedei.html
  • languagesgulper.com/eng/Quechua.html

EVID

direct

These are both first hand evidentials.

  • -nya - visual evidence, the speaker witnessed the event
  • -nu - auditory evidence, the speaker heard the event

indirect

Second hand.

  • kye - reported speech; hearsay, the speaker received via hearsay and may or may not be accurate

Inferred or assumed.

  • -tsi - inferred based on physical evidence
  • -ho - assumed or asserted based on experience