Ronc Tyu text
Se twín nyu hic to. Ne ndza tò gyè pei uźec vei tyu gyòun dòu. Twín pyec ntào faen ntào faen binc, o dzó kein zúc zúc do ruoc krac. Ne brinc sruo.
Mbí kwá ngunc hśea pí zèc vei léi pa ihtrìc gèi. Myòu lo ngùo pyonc trae làe. Myéc źùn pa saen, o fou ngei lánc, han bwí gra dźi myòu.
Ne tòc ndzu pya xào śou-mó. Dyá tenc ne ráon myen mic ndźù pou duhrù soc wonc sa san ne. Ne ló mbrinc dàon htsí htsí, htlanc na twín nggù hrào nào binc yu zrou-mbì. Ne tsèa ndza pou duhrù suo rùc ro ndlíc ro nú ndáo gló ngoun diec yu trùc. Ne nàc kóan tóc fi tśi téc gao myùc bó yu ne. Kè yéi hihfyáon hunggòun wo ne, o wo diec wie fae lo ngwìn, o wo na ndáo gló wie fae hfyao hfyao lin kwé, o wo ki méc dyò dyò htroa, drenc ne ló ráon tswi blo śea ne téc śenc gibyonc.
Ndźei xòac kén gyào sa tùc soc myóa to ló ne, wo hac hac nú táo tsèa nyac nwa ki kyén.
English translation of Ronc Tyu text
Nobody noticed it. I successfully managed to sneak away from the moving crowd. The people continued to dance and sing in their ritual, walking away towards the sacred megalith. I hid myself and waited.
The sun disappeared in a herd of clouds like a red gemstone. The sky turned blue, dark, cold and clear. The stars were sparkling like embers, and after a short while the moon climbed up brightly in the sky.
I cautiously rose and stepped out of the shadow of my hiding-place. I needed to find the amulet quickly and give it to my sister. I needed to take my chance right now, while everyone else was away at the celebrations for the spring equinox. I easily managed to find the amulet among the magical herbs and all the other strange things in the shaman's box. I took it and covered it in my cupped hands. But then I hurried too much and stumbled, and the box tipped over, and all the strange things fell out and got scattered all over the floor, and there was a very loud noise, so I had to run away quickly and hide in the dark night.
Out of all the tasks that my sister ever gave to me, every single other one was much easier than this.
English translation of previous text
- (Bokisig, by brblues)
With nobody seeing me, I sneaked away from the swirling mass. They left, and I disappeared as a red dot in the herd of clouds somewhere far away, turning blue, becoming dark, and when they faded, I left the path.
At first, it was sparkling cold white like a star. With half an hour passing, only the moon outside rose in the sky.
I needed to collect them into my cupped pair of hands, and because I needed to give them to my sister, I needed to go to the party. It was easy to steal a full pile of things from the aristocrat's box, but the pile of things fell to the ground, and got scattered all over the dancefloor. Therefore I had to flee away into the sheltering night.
My sister gave me many easier tasks.
|blo||v.it+||depart, leave, go away (from 3rd person inanimate)|
|brinc||v.it||be secret, be confidential, be hidden|
|dàon||v.it||dare, venture, take a chance|
|diec||PL dac||n.i||box, case|
|do||v.it+||come, approach (towards 3rd person inanimate)|
|drac||ATTR krac||v.it||be holy, be sacred, be magical|
|dyá||v.aux||it is required; should (impersonal verb, indicates deontic necessity)|
|dyò||v.it||be loud, make noise|
|dzó||pron||the same one (animate)|
|dźi||v.it+||come, approach (towards 3rd person animate)|
|faen||v.tr||sing (always used with a (dummy) object)|
|fou||ATTR gwou||v.it||pass, move on, go forward; (as a coverb) for a certain period of time|
|fyao||PASS hfyao||v.tr||pour (of liquids), strew (of granular masses), scatter (of collections or ensembles)|
|gao||pp.n||in the middle of|
|gra||v.it||climb, go up|
|gyào||pron||(relative pronoun, inanimate)|
|gyè||v.it||move sideways, shift one's position|
|hac||qu||each (member of a collection)|
|hfyáon||PASS hihfyáon||v.it||rush, hurry, do sth. hastily|
|hic||v.tr||realize, notice, become aware of|
|htlanc||cj / pp.v||while, during (a relatively short timeframe)|
|htroa||ATTR gò||v.it||lose, fail; (in SVC with negative connotations) very|
|kè||cj||but, however (used with clauses)|
|kén||SGV kyén||n.i.coll||task, mission, quest, project|
|kein||v.it+||depart, leave, go away (from speaker)|
|kòun||ATTR gyòun||v.it||move around, go (nowhere in particular), roam, wander|
|kwá||v.it||go down, descend|
|kwé||SGV kyé||n.i.coll||ground, floor|
|làe||v.it||be calm, be clear, be sunny (of weather)|
|lánc||SGV línc||n.a.coll||time (SGV: moment, situation)|
|ló||pp.v||for, to (dative)|
|mbrinc||v.it||be brave, be courageous|
|méc||SGV myéc||n.i.coll.poss||events, instances, occurrences, repetitions|
|mó||ATTR bó||v.tr||cover, protect|
|myóa||v.tr||order, command, instruct|
|na||qu||all (of many)|
|nàc||v.tr||choose, take, use|
|nào||v.tr||perform, celebrate (a ceremony)|
|ndlíc||n.a.coll||magical herbs, drugs|
|ndza||v.it||be successful, hit the target; (in SVC) manage to|
|ndzu||v.it||rise, get up|
|ndźei||v.tr||know, be acquainted with (cf. French connaître); (as a coverb) after, since|
|ndźí||pron||(3rd person animate plural)|
|ne||pron||(1st person singular)|
|ngei||qu||a little, a small amount of (used with collective noun phrases)|
|nggù||v.it||be absent, be distant, be far away|
|ngunc||v.it||fade, wither, disappear|
|ngùo||v.it||be blue, be green|
|nòu||ATTR dòu||v.it||go downstream, follow the flow|
|ntào||v.tr||dance (always used with a (dummy) object)|
|nú||det||the other one(s)|
|nyac||v.it||win, be victorious; (in SVC) very|
|nyu||v.tr||see; (as a coverb) before, until|
|o||cj||and, also (used with clauses)|
|pei||v.it+||depart, leave, go away (from 3rd person animate)|
|pí||v.tr||go between, pass through|
|pwae||ATTR gèi||v.it||be red|
|pya||v.tr||go out of, exit|
|pyec||v.it||keep happening, continue|
|pyonc||ATTR gibyonc||v.it||be black, be dark|
|ráon||v.it||be fast, be quick|
|ro||cj||or (repeated before each alternative)|
|rùc||pp.n||through, between, among, surrounded by|
|sa||PL swá||n.a||sister, parallel cousin (female)|
|saen||SGV śin||n.a.coll||embers, sparks|
|san||pp.n||socially related to|
|se||qu||no, none (of many)|
|soc||v.tr||give; (in SVC) cause, bring about|
|sruo||v.it||wait, stay still, do nothing|
|suo||pp.v||at, on (static locative)|
|śea||PASS hśea||v.tr||hide, conceal|
|táo||PL ndáo||n.i||thing, item|
|téc||pp.v||at, near, around (dynamic locative)|
|to||pron||(3rd person inanimate singular/collective)|
|tó||ATTR gló||v.it||be significant, have a hidden meaning|
|tò||v.it||be calm, be silent (of people and animals)|
|tóc||v.tr||take away, remove|
|tòc||v.it||watch out, be vigilant|
|trae||v.it||be cold (of weather)|
|tsèa||v.it||be simple, be easy|
|tswi||v.it||jump, leap, move abruptly|
|tśi||pron||(3rd person animate singular)|
|tùc||v.tr||know how to do sth. (cf. French savoir); (in SVC) have done sth. before|
|tyu||SGV tśou||n.a.coll||villagers, sedentary people (also used as an ethnonym for the speakers of Ronc Tyu)|
|uźec||n.a.coll||crowd, large group (of people)|
|vei||pp.n||coming from; made of|
|wo||pp.v||with, by, using (can also mark an inanimate or nonvolitional agent)|
|wonc||pp.v||for the benefit of|
|xòac||qu||the entirety of, all (of a collection)|
|xu||SGV xào||n.i.coll.poss||shadow, shade|
|yéi||adv||then, next (in the past)|
|yu||pp.n||of, belonging to, associated with|
|zèc||n.a.coll||herd (of animals)|
- Nouns can be animate or inanimate, countable or collective, and optionally or obligatorily possessed.
- Countable nouns refer to single entities, and may inflect for plural number. Plural forms that occur in this text are given in the wordlist.
- Collective nouns refer to a collection of items by default, and may inflect for singulative number if only one single member of the collection is referenced. Singulative forms that occur in this text are given in the wordlist. A few collective nouns form their singulatives periphrastically with a separate particle.
- Obligatorily possessed nouns (which may be further characterized by an attributive verb) must be followed immediately by their possessor, without any explicit marking. Optionally possessed nouns form possessive phrases with a preposition.
- Compound nouns can be formed head-initially. Both nominal and verbal roots may be used in the modifier position of such compounds.
Pronouns and determiners
- Pronouns make more number distinctions than nouns, having dedicated forms also for dual, paucal, and collective referents.
- Demonstratives and quantifiers are placed before the noun. If both are present, the meaning is usually definite/specific if the demonstrative comes first (e.g. "these two..."), and partitive if the quantifier comes first (e.g. "two of these...").
- Non-numeral quantifiers may be reduplicated for an intensified meaning, e.g. ni "many" > ni ni "a really large number of".
- Ronc Tyu distinguishes between two types of prepositions: Adnominal prepositions (pp.n) refer only to noun phrases (e.g. "the tree on the hill"), whereas adverbial prepositions (pp.v) always refer to the clause (e.g. "I'm standing on the hill"). Adnominal prepositions may be nested within an adverbial prepositional phrase.
- Adnominal prepositions may be reduplicated for an intensified meaning, e.g. runc "near, beside" > runc runc "very close to".
- Verbs inflect for passive voice and for the attributive (a kind of participle, which makes up for the fact that Ronc Tyu does not have a lexical class of adjectives). All passive and attributive forms that occur in this text are given in the wordlist.
- Reduplicating a verb root indicates habitual, iterative, or continuative aspect, or sometimes an intensified meaning. In some cases, a serial verb construction consisting of two or more verbs can be reduplicated as a whole.
- The basic word order is SVO, with occasional exceptions (for example, there's VS(O) in existential statements, passive sentences, and certain types of questions).
- Phrases are typically head-initial, with modifiers following their heads.
- Ronc Tyu frequently uses serial verb constructions (SVC) consisting of two or more verbs to describe complex actions and situations, with the component verbs typically appearing in the chronological order of subevents. Some common collocations have a slightly idiomatic meaning, but all SVC in this text should be fairly transparent. Many SVC, even longer ones, are best translated into English as a single verb, for instance ndzu kein tyòu yenc do, lit. "rise, leave, eat, sleep, and arrive at" = "travel to".
- Some types of SVC can also serve a grammatical purpose, for example describing cause-event relationships or adding modal or aspectual information.
- Most SVC have the shape NP₁ V V (V) (NP₂), with all verbs sharing the same subject NP₁ (and, where relevant, the same object NP₂).
- Another common type of SVC has the shape NP₁ V (V) NP₂ V (V) (NP₃), where the middle noun phrase NP₂ simultaneously functions as the object of the verb(s) before it and as the subject of the verb(s) after it. However, such switch-function SVCs are not used in this text.
- Certain verbs can also be used as coverbs, functioning in a way similar to adpositions or conjunctions, introducing oblique arguments or subclauses.
- Relative clauses always contain an overt pronoun referring to the relativized element within the relative clause (i.e. they follow a pronoun-retention strategy).
- Comparative constructions are formed with a verbal "exceed"-strategy.
- Subjectless verbs (which can be morphologically passive) followed by a complementizer are sometimes used to make impersonal general statements.
- When used as the subject of a transitive verb, inanimate noun phrases must be marked with the instrumental preposition wo "with, by, using".
- Animate subjects may be similarly marked with the preposition wo "with, by, using"; this typically indicates a (relative) lack of volition or control. Under certain circumstances, this can go along with unexpected morphological passivization of an intransitive verb, which signifies an accidental adversative meaning ("I did sth. accidentally to my own disadvantage").
- Some words lexically require unusual syntactic constructions; this has been noted in the wordlist where relevant.
A more elaborate grammatical description of Ronc Tyu can be found at http://akana.conlang.org/wiki/Ronc_Tyu