Ronc Tyu text
Ki línc mumbùn nyac. Nyu nrènc, hunc ndzu kein zúc zúc do ruoc runc sáe rae yaon. Trà sru yéi poun poun màc yu ndzì ko, kè wèi kù hru, myòu trae làe o dzó pec tác kàc tè tè léi.
Hunc tò pùn suo sáe o dzó gyè ruzruo ngòc yunc myen nyu láo myéc. Ndzì tsáo ndźei dwá trén tsèi gyào twín yèanc, trén tsèi gyào ndźi lùo lùo zrin trá ndáo tó, o trén tsèi gyào ndźí ndźù pwì pou mba myéc bùn źùn bwí nwa xòac nú myéc.
English translation of Ronc Tyu text
This moment was very much perfect. Before sunrise, the elders got up and walked to the megalith at the shore of the lake. There was a single cloud high above their village, but apart from that the sky was cold and clear and completely free of clouds.
The elders quietly stood at the shore and looked up to the stars. They were wise and understood why people were sad, why they kept worrying whether things might have a hidden meaning, and why they were trying to find out which star was the brightest one.
English translation of previous text
- (Silvish, by Dormouse559)
It was the good moment.
The good men were walking near a house next to the lake.
There was no cloud that morning.
They see some big clouds over their village.
The man stands near the window in order to see the brightest star.
That man, the good man;
they understand their sadness
and for which reason he distracts himself with the brightest star.
|bùn||pron||(relative pronoun, animate)|
|do||v.it+||come, approach (towards 3rd person inanimate)|
|dzó||pron||the same one (animate)|
|gyào||pron||(relative pronoun, inanimate)|
|gyè||v.it||move sideways, shift one's position|
|hru||n.i||detail, characteristic feature|
|kè||cj||but, however (used with clauses)|
|kein||v.it+||depart, leave, go away (from speaker)|
|ko||adv||only, merely, barely, just, simply|
|kòun||v.it||move around, go (nowhere in particular), roam, wander|
|làe||v.it||be calm, be clear, be sunny (of weather)|
|lánc||SGV línc||n.a.coll||time (SGV: moment, situation)|
|láo||v.tr||watch, look at|
|lùo||v.tr||be worried about|
|mbùn||v.it||be good, do well|
|mumbùn||v.it||be very good, be perfect, do really well|
|ndzì||pron||(3rd person animate paucal/collective pronoun)|
|ndzu||v.it||rise, get up|
|ndźei||v.tr||know, be acquainted with (cf. French connaître)|
|ndźí||pron||(3rd person animate plural pronoun)|
|nrènc||n.a.coll||sunrise, daybreak, early morning|
|nú||det||the other one(s)|
|nyac||v.it||win, be victorious; (when used in a SVC) very|
|nyu||v.tr||see; (when used as a coverb) before|
|o||cj||and, also (used with clauses)|
|pec||v.aux||not, be not|
|poun||pp.n||over, above, on top of|
|pùn||v.it||stand, be upright|
|pwì||v.tr||try, attempt, strive|
|rae||pp.n||at the edge of (but still within the relevant area)|
|runc||pp.n||near, beside, close to|
|ruzruo||v.tr||lift, raise (can only be used within SVC)|
|sáe||n.i.coll||shores (of a river or lake)|
|sran||COLL hunc||n.a||elder, experienced person (suppletive "plural" takes collective agreement)|
|sru||det||(indefinite determiner, animate)|
|suo||pp.v||at, on (static locative)|
|tác||v.tr||have, hold, own, possess|
|táo||PL ndáo||n.i||thing, item|
|tè||qu||any (of many)|
|tò||v.it||be calm, be silent (of people and animals)|
|trá||adv||(question particle, used with VS word order)|
|trà||v.it||exist (used with VS word order)|
|trae||v.it||be cold (of weather)|
|trén||det||which? (interrogative inanimate)|
|tsèi||n.i||reason, explanation, motivation|
|wèi||pp.n||outside of; apart from; without|
|xòac||qu||the entirety of, all (of a collection)|
|yu||pp.n||of, belonging to, associated with|
|yunc||v.it||be awake, be alert, pay attention, concentrate|
|zrin||cj||(complementizer, hypothetical; indicates speculative information)|
- Nouns can be animate or inanimate, countable or collective, and optionally or obligatorily possessed.
- Countable nouns refer to single entities, and may inflect for plural number. Plural forms which occur in this text are given in the wordlist.
- Collective nouns refer to a collection of items by default, and may inflect for singulative number if only one single member of the collection is referenced. Singulative forms which occur in this text are given in the wordlist. A few collective nouns form their singulatives periphrastically with a separate particle.
- Obligatorily possessed nouns must be followed immediately by their possessor, without any explicit marking. Optionally possessed nouns form possessive phrases with a preposition.
Pronouns and Determiners
- Pronouns make more number distinctions than nouns, having dedicated forms also for dual, paucal, and collective referents.
- Non-numeral quantifiers may be reduplicated for an intensified meaning, e.g. ni "many" > ni ni "a really large number of".
- Ronc Tyu distinguishes between two types of prepositions: Adnominal prepositions (pp.n) refer only to noun phrases (e.g. "the tree on the hill"), whereas adverbial prepositions (pp.v) always refer to the clause (e.g. "I'm standing on the hill"). Adnominal prepositions may be nested within an adverbial prepositional phrase.
- Adnominal prepositions may be reduplicated for an intensified meaning, e.g. runc "near, beside" > runc runc "very close to".
- Verbs inflect for passive voice and for the attributive (a kind of participle, which makes up for the fact that Ronc Tyu does not have a lexical class of adjectives). However, there are no passive or attributive verb forms in this text.
- Reduplicating a verb root indicates habitual, iterative, or continuative aspect.
- The basic word order is SVO, with occasional exceptions (for example, there's VS(O) in existential statements and passive sentences).
- Phrases are typically head-initial, with modifiers following their heads.
- Ronc Tyu frequently uses serial verb constructions (SVC) consisting of two or more verbs to describe complex actions and situations, with the component verbs typically appearing in the chronological order of subevents. Some common collocations have a slightly idiomatic meaning, but all SVC in this text should be fairly transparent.
- Some types of SVC can also serve a grammatical purpose, for example describing cause-event relationships or adding modal or aspectual information.
- Most SVC have the shape NP₁ V V (V) (NP₂), with all verbs sharing the same subject NP₁ (and, where relevant, the same object NP₂).
- Another type of SVC has the shape NP₁ V (V) NP₂ V (V) (NP₃), where the middle noun phrase NP₂ simultaneously functions as the object of the verb(s) before it and as the subject of the verb(s) after it.
- Certain verbs can also be used as coverbs, functioning in a way similar to adpositions or conjunctions, introducing oblique arguments or subclauses.
- Polar indirect questions and polar interrogative content clauses are formed as a normal polar yes-no-question within a complement clause.
- Adverbial indirect questions and adverbial interrogative content clauses are formed using a combination of a special interrogative determiner plus a relative clause.
- A few words lexically require unusual syntactic constructions; this has been noted in the wordlist where relevant.
A more elaborate grammatical description of Ronc Tyu can be found at http://akana.conlang.org/wiki/Ronc_Tyu