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Proto-Subumpamese (~1700) to Kava (3138)

This branch originated in eastern Subumpam, but migrated by sea to a western area beginning in the year 2371 and was soon pushed out of its original homeland.

The consonant inventory was

Rounded bilabials:    pʷ  bʷ          w 
Bilabials:            p   b   m                   
Alveolars:            t   d   n   s   l             
Postalveolars:        č   ǯ   ň   š   ł           
Palatals:             ć               y
Prevelars:            c̀        
Velars:               k   ġ   ŋ   x   g
Labiovelars:          kʷ  ġʷ      xʷ  gʷ
Uvulars:              q           h              
Rounded uvulars:      qʷ          hʷ 

  1. The schwas ə ə̄ shifted to u ū.
  2. The mid vowels e o rotated to i ə.
  3. The high vowel i shifted to ə if touching a /q/ in either direction.
  4. Primordial hʷ w shifted to f v.
  5. All labialized consonants shift to bilabials.
  6. The lateral approximant l shifted to w.
  7. The postalveolar affricates č ǯ ň š ł became c ʒ n s l unconditionally.
  8. The palatals ć c̀ became č .
  9. The voiceless uvular stop q changed to k when syllable-final.
  10. Word-final č became s. čk čq etc > čč. Any other syllable-final č assimilates to the following consonant.
  11. Any heterorganic stop/aff after a stop turned into a fricative.
  12. The affricates c ʒ changed to s z when not after a high tone.
  13. Voiced stops became voiceless when occurring before a high tone.

Thus the final consonant inventory was

Bilabials:            p   b   m   f   v   w         
Alveolars:            t   d   n   s       l  (c) (ʒ)             
Palataloids:          č                   y            
Velars:               k   ġ   ŋ   x   g
Uvulars:              q           h