Religions of Teppala
The religious beliefs of the people of Teppala are fairly similar from place to place, despite civilizations at endpoints of the planet being separated by more than 50000 years. Most people on Teppala belong to one of the Gold religions, which were created from a fusion of the native Repilian beliefs with those of immigrants from the islands of Laba. These two religious complexes were themselves very similar despite having diverged nearly 30000 years ago.
Believers in the Ridiamic religions (also called Ridia) are positive polytheists. They believe in the same gods, and that those gods cooperate with each other. Thus, wars are not fought in the name of a deity, even when two human cultures have chosen to devote themselves to two different gods, because each acknowledges that the other's main deity is real.
- 1 Overview
- 2 Supreme deities
- 3 Minor named spirits
- 3.1 Yîna
- 3.1.1 Nunepa
- 3.1.2 Omyomya
- 3.1.3 Ugiku
- 3.1.4 Deyi
- 3.1.5 Ganiguta
- 3.1.6 Bebufo
- 3.1.7 Hintaya
- 3.1.8 Nihamunda
- 3.1.9 Uki
- 3.1.10 Vaha
- 3.1.11 Kigaba
- 3.1.12 Nihava
- 3.1.13 Gynagi
- 3.1.14 Neyuki
- 3.1.15 Gypis
- 3.1.16 Kxesh
- 3.1.17 Kehhi
- 3.1.18 Taha
- 3.1.19 Yobogu
- 3.1.20 Potikil
- 3.1.21 Hihupa
- 3.1.22 Bagito
- 3.1.23 Tamepowo
- 3.1.24 Nofo
- 3.1.25 Yulefu
- 3.1.26 Gaduga
- 3.1.27 Ompamba
- 3.1.28 Baneya
- 3.1.29 Nuhati
- 3.1.30 Fempampavi
- 3.1.31 Kagas
- 3.2 Group VII
- 3.1 Yîna
- 4 Primary named spirits
- 4.1 Babel
- 4.2 Nobbomba
- 4.3 Satsa
- 4.4 Šusup
- 4.5 Mobbenampy
- 4.6 Pannumba
- 4.7 Plammumpa
- 4.8 Laspatena
- 4.9 Tima
- 4.10 Mopi
- 4.11 Arwaba
- 4.12 Babrema
- 4.13 Džamma
- 4.14 Kažve
- 4.15 Sappsa
- 4.16 Saenna
- 4.17 Saemma
- 4.18 Kanma
- 4.19 Nabap
- 4.20 Pambu
- 4.21 Satap
- 4.22 Sažbana
- 4.23 Žatša
- 4.24 Plasa
- 4.25 Nassa
- 4.26 Suna
- 4.27 Wililuvu
- 4.28 Surnu
- 4.29 Naffe
- 5 Other spirits
- 5.1 Animal spirits
- 5.2 Free spirits
- 5.3 Emblems
- 5.3.1 Mapa
- 5.3.2 Ten
- 5.3.3 Anana
- 5.3.4 Ae
- 5.3.5 Hì
- 5.3.6 U
- 5.3.7 Lipi
- 5.3.8 Kukuaehu
- 5.3.9 Hopato
- 5.3.10 Kehhi
- 5.3.11 Upinu
- 5.3.12 Telan
- 5.3.13 Uhu
- 5.3.14 Pa
- 5.3.15 Eho
- 5.3.16 Aha
- 5.3.17 Puma
- 5.3.18 Patiponum
- 5.3.19 Ḳù
- 5.3.20 Nìha
- 5.3.21 Hʷìha
- 5.3.22 Wŏfo
- 5.3.23 Yohàḳa
- 5.3.24 Yŏfo
- 5.3.25 Kèu
- 5.3.26 Nʷòdʷu
- 5.3.27 Tʷĕla
- 5.4 Gapōs
- 5.5 Wind spirits
- 5.6 Wide-eyed Angels
- 5.7 Tree spirits
- 6 Reincarnation
- 7 Rituals
- 8 Cleanliness and filth
- 9 Mythology
- 10 other info
- 11 Notes
Lack of sin
Ridian religions could be said to have a childlike moral outlook with no concept of sin. All that brings happiness is good. Since the gods are omnipotent and invincible, no human deeds will ever bring harm or benefit to the gods, and humans' only responsibility is to each other, whereby they are free to make their own laws.
Instead of a list of sins to avoid, Ridians learn a list of ways to protect themselves and their family members from evil spirits and the dangers of the natural world, while maintaining spiritual purity and winning the protection of the savior, #Malamen.
All Ridian religions believe in an eternal afterlife, with either eternal absolute bliss or eternal absolute punishment for all humans and animals.
With salvation, one is granted eternal happiness. All who are saved are equal; everyone is at the top, in the state of maximum possible bliss. The path to salvation is not to avoid sin, or even to do good deeds, but to maintain spiritual purity, and win the favor of the savior, #Malamen.
The Ridian equivalent of Hell is served out on earth in a state of hereditary slavery. Disowned by the savior #Malamen, these people and their children are only allowed to worship #Yuni and #Kwatena, who may at times provide temporary relief from their torment but will not free them from slavery.
Many who believe they are in Heaven are in fact in Hell; the reality of their situation is revealed to them only slowly and with careful attention; they take no pleasure in what others enjoy and only appear outwardly to be saved.
Similarly, there exists a false punishment where people who are saved believe that they are not, but these people do not worship with the Ridians.
Blasphemy and spiritual disguise
The spirit of #Malamen guides believers during prayer and daily life, and those who commit acts of blasphemy, such as mispronouncing a word during prayer, are revealed as spiritual impostors and therefore unable to receive salvation. Their punishment, like others who are damned, is slavery to be served out immediately on earth.
An accidental mispronunciation from a longstanding priest is not considered to be blasphemy; spiritual impostors are uncovered by their persistent inability to perform the proper prayers and other means of communicating with the gods. One who mispronounces a name only occasionally may be suspect, but to avoid a long or difficult prayer or speak incoherently to hide one's words is considered spiritual disguise, and this really does indicate a damned soul. A priest who refuses to lead a prayer is therefore ejected from the community and may be enslaved.
Crimes of property damage, where a human being is harmed without benefiting the perpetrator, are sometimes said to be committed in the name of #Kolagas, and therefore equated with or likened to blasphemy. This varies from priest to priest.
All Ridian religions believe in reincarnation, and that the same soul is at any given time reincarnated in multiple bodies. Ghosts are spirits seen in bare form; however there is no connection between death of a body and a ghost because that person's spirit is already incarnated in another body.
There is no distinction between spirit and soul.
Because favor from the gods cannot be bought, there is no culturally acceptable use of sacrifice. Anyone committing a sacrifice of any kind will be treated as if they had destroyed property belonging to someone else.
In this list, the names under the Translingual column are taken from different stages of different languages, and thus often match none of the other columns. Note that even within a language, it is common for one deity to have many names. Languages can spread across many religions, and in some cases, practitioners of one religion will prefer a different name for the same deity than other religions speaking the same language. The three primary figures are all female, but #Yuni is a god of many forms and can appear as male.
The three goddesses known as Màlamen, Kʷărena, and Yŭni are all omnipotent. But one belief taught early in childhood is that, while Yŭni is all-powerful, Kwărena's powers are even greater than Yuni's, and Màlamen's are even greater still.
Mappamensam is the goddess of pregnancy and childbirth, and is worshipped in all Ridiamic religions. Some religions, such as that of Thaoa, have become monotheistic with Mappa as the supreme being.
|Translingual||Tapilula||Gold||Khulls||Proto-Moonshine||Bābākiam||Poswa||Pabappa||Thaoa||Proto-Subumpamese||Old Andanese||Late Andanese||Notes|
The names Saaha and Palli are much older than the others, and can be traced back to the Mumba language, where they appeared as Mabasan and Pyahalyi respectively. Thus, the much later Khulls/Moonshine name Pālyi is a reborrowing by scholars who had studied early history. The name Mabasan is not cognate to Mappamensam and its relatives, despite its superficial resemblance; even the m- is not cognate.
The Kolafis name can be extended with the suffix -òwo; this causes the reappearance of the lost -h from the main name.
Note that the names Sàga and Fahà, and their descendants, are reflexes of the full name Fàga-Hà with syncope of the medial vowel.
Only those with a clear mind can pray to Malamen, because she responds immediately to the prayer and only one with a clear mind will hear her and carry on a conversation.
Kʷarĕna is the creator of the universe, and controls the sun, moon, stars, and planets. She is the goddess of abortion, disease, and death; including death in early childhood. She cooperates with Màlamen rather than fighting against her; Màlamen and Kʷarena choose which children will live and which will die. Diseases caused by Kwatena are cancer, death by old age, and other internal diseases; she is not associated with external disease causing agents such as pathogens.
Kwatena is the mother of a class of spirits called the yîna. The yîna have bodies and are invincible and immortal, but not omnipotent. They include many beings with human names. The yîna have eternal bodies, but female yîna can conceive and bear children with or without the help of a male. They protect humans from various dangers and provide temporary material benefits to those they favor. They do not have clear minds, however, and thus often fight each other and attack humans.
Kwatena also controls the sun and moon, which are seen as immortal and supernatural, and thus out of the realm of Yuni.
Kʷarĕna is worshipped as the supreme deity by a cluster of religions, including the Raspara, which formed around the year 4200 but have few remaining followers. These people do not think of Kʷarĕna as evil, but simply as very difficult to please. They believe that Kwatena is benevolent to all humans, since she created the world and everything in it, but humans' mixed motives create evil and suffering. Natural evil, being part of the life cycle, is not blamed on mixed motives but humans' desire for worldly pleasures. Some misfortunes are attributed to angels.
Short term needs are worded in prayers to Kwatena, not Malamen. Kwatena does not give an immediate verbal response. The word for this type of prayer is different from the other.
The Mum- part of the name Mumpuni is likely cognate to the first M- in #Maptamum, not to the final -mum. Note that Enodab and Baeno are the same name. Must replace the E in Enora with a cog of Ugiku.
|Translingual||Tapilula||Gold||Khulls||Proto-Moonshine||Bābākiam||Poswa||Pabappa||Thaoa||Proto-Sub.||Old Andanese||Late Andanese||Notes|
The #Yina have other names for Enora, such as:
- Tama / Tamha / Hama / Hamha
Akama, Akana, Caa, Capaa, Hacaka, Hahapa, Kacala, Kaha, Kalaa, Kalava, Kikaka, Laka, Mavakala all mean "God" (Enōra ... because those are Enōra's words) ... mavaka is "worship". However, other names are compounds consisting of the byname of an angel (one or two syllables, not her full name) and that angel's word for (object of) worship.
Yuni is a goddess with the ability to control people's behavior and change her own form. She is often depicted as a small child, even as a boy, but can also take other forms, including animals and trees. Associated with the color purple, the rarest color in nature.
All animals worship Yuni. Children and those of low mental capacity also worship Yuni, as she expects her worshippers to follow their animal instincts rather than attempting complex moral judgments.
Yuni controls the èpa, medical spirits who cure disease. She also controls spirits that cause harm to those who have been rejected by Màlamen. Both of these spirits are invisible and are #free spirits, existing in their bare form, rather than spirits with a body like humans, trees, and other visible creatures.
Worshipping Yuni is the same as worshipping nature as a whole, with the components of nature as her children. One interpretation of tree worship is that the worshippers are worshipping a part of Yuni; another is that they are worshipping the trees' own god, an avatar of #Enora.
|Translingual||Tapilula||Gold||Khulls||Proto-Moonshine||Bābākiam||Poswa||Pabappa||Thaoa||Proto-Subumpamese||Old Andanese||Late Andanese||Notes|
Minor named spirits
The yîna have limited supernatural powers, but are immortal and invincible. They have limited powers over humans, and can be helpful or harmful. These spirits all worship #Kwatena, and are considered her subjects. They can be called angels but in many ways are more similar to classical fairies.
Most angels are female; there are only five males among the dozens of females. Female angels can become pregnant with or without a male; thus some angels have two parents and others have one. Souls reappear cyclically, so the number of souls stays the same, and each yina is called by their soul's name, so the number of names also stays the same. Each soul is always separated by at least three generations (including through marriage) before reappearing. Most female angels have multiple children, and many have multiple modes of reproduction, carrying children from a husband, a wife, and of their own origin.
With each generation of humans, the depictions of each generation of angels change from babies to adolescents to adults, some of whom will be pregnant with the angels of the next generation. Angels are replaced in depiction when their younger namesake reaches adolescence; however, worshippers sometimes depict an entire "family" of angels of the same name.
Individual angels are capable of controlling large natural phenomena such as thunderstorms, and are depicted with large statues. Ridians believe that even these large statues are much smaller than the angels' true size, and when humans are depicted alongside the angels, they are usually very small; however, angels have the power to appear in compact human bodies when communicating with humans. Ridians often depict the angels as having irregular or changeable sizes in proportion to their presence in a given area; for example, the angel #Gynagi is associated with forests, and in a forest where she is believed to be closely watching, she will often be depicted towering over other angels who in turn are far larger than humans. At other times, the humans will be depicted as babies, all identical in appearance. This reflects the belief that a human may in the future become an angel, and that the souls of humans and of angels are of the same lineage. However, this belief is not integral to the religion.
Since the angels are immortal, their population is slowly increasing; however, each new angel born inherits the characteristics of their soul, and therefore two angels with the same name behave as one being, and humans think of angels as a stable class. The chain of births repeats; thus, for example, #Yulefu always gives birth to #Omyomya.
The yîna are immortal and invincible, but battle amongst each other and can bind and curse each other as well as humans. Some are rebellious against the other angels, including other rebels.
Angels are responsible for the weather; however, Ridian culture sees weather as consisting of storms and various natural disasters; a sunny day is considered to be a day without weather. This is because the sun is not within the realm of the angels. Angels can create temperature changes as they create storms, but they are not responsible for the seasonal cycle caused by the planet's rotation, or for the different climates found in different areas of the planet. Therefore, a team of angels can make a snowstorm in winter, but in summer the same action would create a heavy rainstorm.
Voiced stops here spell the pharyngealized voiceless stops.
Nunepa (Nunĕpa ♀) Coordinates and oversees the actions of the others. Rival of #Kehhi and #Dayi. Associated with mountains, glaciers, and winter weather. Commands supreme authority in politics but usually defers to #Omyomya in battle. Often cooperates with Omyomya, #Nihamunda, and #Hintaya; talks primarily to other female angels, often in an advisory role.
Nunepa is proud of herself, even of her faults. She often backs down on her promises, but her power keeps those she betrayed coming back for more. She is sympathetic towards those in need, however, and often comforts humans who are dying and cannot be cured. Active both during the day and at night.
Also known as Magăni, Manelam (Manə̆la ) and Gohʷòmo. Pabappa adds /pipsa/. The hwomo part means "heart". Often depicted wearing purple and green.
Omyomya (Ombòmba ♀) Has a wide variety of supernatural powers and a strong protective role. A winner in battle and powerful in politics, but avoids conflict with other angels. As a confident leader, she lets many other angels follow and imitate her. Omyomya is independently powerful, and often can fend off a crowd of other angels by herself, and then defeat them with an elemental attack. She can create glaciers and small storms, and use the whole sky as a weapon by drawing its energy. Her womb protects others from danger and can provide life to one in need. Associated with butterflies and rivers. Often appears at the front of a crowd.
Despite her strength, Omyomya prefers to fight as part of a team. She chooses strong targets and is responsible for many victories. Depicted with a wide, mischievous smile. Capable and willing to harm humans who get in her way. On rare occasions, she breaks her own rules and attacks innocent humans whom other angels refuse to defend.
Brave and courageous. Prays silently. Knowledgeable, capable of quick answers to questions but fond of telling lies. Curious and always ready to learn. Associated with money and sports, and with continuous motion in dancing.
Associated with the moon. Comforts babies with diseases and birth defects.
Obedient, yet stubborn and politically powerful when forced into conflict. Often the target of attacks by other angels too weak to attack Omyomya, he is frequently found hiding behind her in battle. Known for provoking female angels to attack him, only to hide behind other female angels for protection.
Often depicted suspicious and hostile; similar to Bagito.
Also known as Okamanìa (Hʷomonìḳo), Hìḳa, and Kolagas (Kùtʷe-Gàha).
Deyi (Deyìga ♀️) Rebellious, but a powerful ally. Associated with soap, chemicals, and poisons. Among the most powerful of all angels. Rival of #Nunepa and #Kehhi. A sturdy fighter who loves with open arms and protects weaker allies, and takes the blame for others' crimes. Generous, kind, and always willing to help out. Known for simple-minded loyalty to her allies and openness to friendship with her rivals. Easily frustrated by defeat.
Capable of nonverbal persuasion and the creation of charms and other magical objects; Dayi created the knife that #Omyomya used to attack #Ugiku. Known for creating large natural phenomena independently and for wrecking battleships.
Also known as Banala (Mbanăla ), Bapto (Bapə̆to), and Hehi (Hèhi). Name should contain /mn/.
Ganiguta (Ganigùta ♀) Associated with abortion.  Does not give birth.
Known for seeking out conflicts, Ganiguta often fights battles alone against a crowd, and yet emerges victorious. She knows the strengths and weaknesses of other angels and the proper way to fight. She is immune to poison and many binding spells and often attacks angels whose strengths she can easily ignore. She prefers female angels, and will rarely talk to males.
Associated with mountains and windy weather, and sometimes also with cold, but prefers chemicals to weather. Organizes multiparty attacks on other angels. Capable of controlling the elements and launching natural disasters. Often found near rivers. Known for testing the strength of her allies in battle and putting them through rigorous trials. Fond of rhythmic music and continuous motion in dancing. Prays to Enora using the Kʷătena name.
Depicted wearing soft clothes. Associated with money. Also known as Găyo and Tòha. Analogical contraction of her name in the Gold language family creates descendant forms with only two syllables: Žava, Ani, Gankwa.
Bebufo (Bebùhʷo ♂) Often appears in disguise. Obedient; shies from conflict and is of little benefit in battle, but will fight to the end if pressed. When victorious, willing to share the spoils with allies. Often starts fights with both male and female angels, alternately rebellious and loyal.
Dislikes rebels; claims no alliance with any other angel. A loud, friendly figure often the center of attention. Playful at peace, and usually surrounded by female angels.
Often interacts with humans. Prefers to attack strong targets; never harms humans even indirectly.
Also known as Dova (Dʷobàgə), Ǝdəbòwo, Aloto (Alo-tʷò ), Puspa (Pùhapo), and Yofoka (Yohʷòka); Pabappa adds popim to this name.
Hintaya (Hihanàya ♀) Depicted with red hair. Has conflicting emotions: likes violence, but afraid to start fights for fear of defeat. Outgoing and sociable, but timid and prefers to follow a leader, usually #Omyomya or #Nunepa. When alone, Hintaya becomes stubborn and ignores advice from most other angels. Seeks allies in conflicts, and remains loyal to those protectors in future conflicts. Yet, when facing a loss, Hintaya is prone to switch to the winning side, betraying her allies and protectors, only to become the first target of those whom she betrayed.
Commonly follows #Nihamunda. Capable of weak elemental storms. Associated with bees and honey, with industry, and with sports, fitness, and good health. Often depicted with large statues.
Has many alternate names, such as Mṅ-i-nù, Mṅdŭga, Hănʷe, and Nàgo, the last meaning "honeybee".
Nihamenda (Nihamṅda ♀) Known for mood swings; can be on fire with happiness and quickly become violently angry. Hates disguises. Associated with war and chaos, and the ability to survive chaos. Creates poisons and plagues. Communicates with foreign languages and telepathy; often speaking both telepathically and verbally in tandem. Associated with sports. Does not participate in weather. Associated with islands and isolated habitats.
Relies on intuitive knowledge. Protects the weak; often depicted physically blocking her enemies. (Pabappa adds palsa- which means both "cloud" and "to block, secure"; however, the "cloud" meaning is secondary). Ready to fight in any situation, but prone to appearing too late, when enemies are ready to pounce. Depicted with dark hair.
Associated with stars and planets. Commonly seen with #Hintaya.
Also known as Yoyàha. Pabappa adds muppi.
Uki (Ùḳi ♀ ) Depicted as tall. Outgoing; rarely seen alone. Moody and temperamental; easily angered, often on others' behalf, but quick to forgive. Not a strong warrior; often avoids offensive battles. Associated with sports.
Uki is the twin sister of #Vaha; her name means "Eye" and appears within the names of many other female angels. She has no commonly used alternate names.
Mother of many.
Vaha (Wohàkạ ♀ ) Shy. Very powerful. Twin sister of Uki; also very tall and of similar appearance. Associated with cold water and floods. Also known as Hùla; often depicted pregnant.
Sympathizes with the weak; often opposes the victors of lopsided conflicts. Associated with money. Often found underwater. 
Pabappa adds /piap/, "upside down ".
Kigaba (Kigăba ♀ ) Associated with weather; very powerful, often seen in battle. Sociable, and often seen in crowds, but not involved in personal relations or politics. Also known as Mensagu (Mṅ-h-ăgu). Pabappa adds /pupim/.
Nihava (Nihabàgə ♂) Known as "life in death". Depicted with dark hair; intelligent, often seeing and solving problems ahead of time. Picks battles carefully; loyal but cautious towards danger. Prefers to let others speak for him; often surrounded by a dozen female angels, of which just one acts on his behalf. Knowledgeable but unable to give good advice. Friendly with #Yuni. Associated with the ocean.
Associated with aloof behavior, often ignoring others. Unpredictable; has many options, like Nunepa.
Also known as Muhihùta or Myhuta, Halalpam, and Emon. the E is the same as Enora's.
Gynagi (Gənàgi ♀) Rebellious, energetic, and very strong; likes to play games and follow others around. Outgoing and widely recognized. Usually found on the winning side in battle, often at the front line. Known for creativeness and verbal influence. Depicted with curly hair. Associated with wood and forests.
Also known as Mùta and Yifadahi (Yihʷədăhi).
Neyuki (Ney-ùḳi ♀) Associated with comets and the moon; guarantor of the Moonshine nation. Depicted with very feminine features. Usually seen with other females, rarely with males. Capable of cold weather spells and a healing spell involving her womb. Often seen in rivers.
Clear-minded, always ready to give forthright advice; impossible to embarrass. Protects the weak and provides sanctuary. Always prepared for attacks. A hard worker who works willingly.
Associated with military expeditions and athletics; sometimes depicted with sharp weapons. Fond of large meals of meat and milk.
Also known as Petʷŏno . Depicted with strong feminine features; often naked or wearing white; sometimes holding a map or jumping over tall obstacles. Mother of many.
Gypis (Gəpìha ♀) Rebellious; depicted with dark hair. Intelligent and wise, often gives advice to others. Often seen following others around. Loyal to her allies; particularly close to #Gynagi. Also known as Mpehàḳi ("mermaid") and Telō. Associated with the ocean, severe storms, "fever" (various meanings), volcanoes, sports, and sometimes, like Vaha, with money. Fond of heavy spring rains and early-blooming flowers. A source of comfort in frightening times. Comforts humans with poor health, particularly the disabled. Associated with soap.
Enjoys play and noncompetitive sports. Often volunteers to help others, without asking for compensation. Associated with hunting.
Often depicted full-figured with large statues; protector of the weak. Sometimes depicted with sheep.
Kxesh (Ḳăhi ♀). Associated with summer rains. Enjoys violence; usually picks the winning side. Commands human obedience but defers to other angels. Fights humans from a kneeling position and commonly crushes an opponent by pressing with her thighs or knees. Often depicted wiping the smeared remnants of an opposing army.
Associated with sports. Excited when happy.
Also known as Gŏtwe and Ukundu (Ùḳ-ṅlu ♀); leader of prayers. Depicted as tall, usually wearing a skirt.
Associated with lightning and summer rains. Skilled with binding spells and disguise. Often communicates with humans. Associated with sports and frogs, and sometimes with wildcats.
Depicted eating a poison and suffering no harm. Often depicted pregnant, and as a queen.
Also known as Gomanani (Gomanàni) and Manora (Manèya ♀). Name not related to #Kxesh; both the tone and the initial consonant are different, and the names remain distinct even in languages that lose these phonemic contrasts.
Taha (Tăha ♂) Associated with summer weather, particularly humid weather. Creative and smart; fond of art and decoration, both his and others'. Rebellious by nature, but loyal to those who have fought on his side. Known for bravery and willingness to take the hits in a difficult battle.
Taha can magnify the powers of other angels, and is entirely resistant to binding spells. He can rescue allies, protect himself, and defeat an enemy all at once by reflecting a binding spell back at the spellcaster. Consort of #Gomanani; he is stronger than she is but she has more political power.
Often depicted jumping. Also known as Byhys (Mbəhùhi) and Nemran (Ŋə̆mya).
Yobogu (Yo-bʷ-ŏgu ♀) Known as the light of the eye of Enōra; the focus of other angels' attention and that of humans. Among the most powerful of all angels, and also the best known.
Other names: Pham, Yapam.
Potikil (Pʷŏtiḳìla ♀) Associated with the ocean and smooth hilly terrain; depicted wearing a bikini or bathing suit. Rebellious; supporter of conflicts for their own sake, and often involved in stressful situations. Lies frequently. Often a target of binding spells from other angels. Has many unique powers; considers herself a queen due to the gravity of her influence on other angels. Rather than challenging the leadership of #Nunepa, she finds ways in which she is stronger and draws followers away from Nunepa.
Associated with poetry and misspelled words. Fond of large meals.
Hihupa (Hihigùpa ♀) On fire; jumping with joy. A hero who solves problems and rescues those in danger. Skilled at breaking curses and binding spells.
Depicted with red hair.
Bagito (Mbagĭtʷo ♀) Associated with peace and intimate relations, known for acting independently. Often depicted suspicious and hostile, but ready for battle.
Tamepowo (Tàme-pòwo ♀) Associated with peace and intimate relations. Depicted with very large statues.  A dominating figure who commands attention and respect from other angels. Often communicates with #Omyomya. Immune to binding spells; always free. Capable of ice and water spells. Associated with fitness, including masculinity; draws her powers from the planet. Sometimes depicted with fishlike traits, similar to mermaids.
Tamepowo punished #Ugiku when he attempted to rebel against his wife #Omyomya, but later rebelled and attacked the reconciled couple. Associated with abortion; does not give birth. Leads prayers; obedient and well ordered.
Nofo (Nòhʷo ♀ ) A hard worker. Associated with money and knowledge. Capable of binding spells but prefers physical combat, often involving meteors.
Fond of insulting her friends. Known to lie frequently. Finds beauty in death. Talks only to a few female angels, never to males. Capable of love, but rarely shows it. Has many enemies, but is quick to forgive when wronged.
Often found in fresh water; enjoys swimming in lakes, rivers, and springs in wild areas. Known for upending ships.
Depicted with large statues and very feminine features. Red-haired. Fond of deer. Sometimes depicted pregnant. Associated with planets.
Yulefu (Yŭlehʷu ♀) Often depicted pregnant; mother of #Omyomya. Typically the largest statue when many are represented in one area.
Ompamba (Wompămba ♀ ) Depicted with a skirt; also known as Aweman. Typifies and exaggerates feminine traits while retaining her distinct personality; avoids battles with potential rivals.
Baneya (Mbanĕya ♂) Ally and close companion of #Hehi; historically known as Haneram. Very loyal, sometimes becoming a rebel by refusing a peace agreement between an ally and an enemy. Also known as Mepa.
Fempampavi (Hʷompampòwi ♀) Very aggressive; always willing to fight in a battle.
Notes: Female angels named after planets disappeared; #Nihamunda is associated with the inner planets.
- Namen (Namṅ ♀) ... Happy, kind; often depicted raising both hands. Associated with flower blossoms.
- Mendani (Mṅgăni ♀ ) note that /ṅg/ might be [nd]
- Gani (Găni ♀) Has a calm demeanor. Her name appears within the names of several other female angels. Associated with "industry" (Pabappa pabum) and thunderstorms.
- Ukimen (Ùḳi-mṅ♀ ) (1) (??)
- Ukimen (Ùḳi-mṅ♀ ) Uḳipàlu (/ p ~ ucici/)
- Menuki (Mṅùḳi ♀) associated with severe pain; not related to Ukimn (/pamensa ~ kaipuci/)
- Yiti (Yiti ♀) Depicted as very large; associated with severe pain (/mensubbam ~ kamaciha/)
- Mendu (Mṅlu ♀)  Always helpful in trying times, even to her enemies. (/mensamanna ~ kaicilalai/)
- əpṁhùḳa ♂ / Hamabib, a hedgehog. Not all of the angels are human, and animals all have names too. However, humans mostly interface with the angels that are in human form.
Primary named spirits
These spirits are the judges of the spirit world; they decide the fate of humans and other beings. Therefore, they have supreme power. Because of this, they have no humanlike personality traits, and therefore humans interface with them as a group, and speak less often about them than about the less powerful #Yîna. These are the names of the souls; as with the yîna, they are incarnated in multiple bodies at all times, and many believers include the #priests on earth as incarnations of these spirits. Note that the spirits are not guaranteed salvation; they are as fallible as the yîna and humans are. But collectively, they enact the will of Màlamen. They can be called archangels.
Each archangel controls an individual soul, and controls the births (incarnations) of that soul, and the spiritual orientation thereof. Thus they choose which souls are adopted by Malamen and which are cast out, and they can change a person at any time. Thus worshippers change from being saved to not being saved at the whim of the archangels, and it is not always related to the worshippers' behavior. A rejected soul may be born, in the future, into a member of the Zenith tribe, and therefore can be enslaved.
These names are in Poswa.
Each species of animal has their own gods; it is up to theologians and philosophers to decide whether these gods are separate entities or avatars of the three human gods Yuni, Enora, and Malamen. Trees and other plants also have gods, as does every soul, including free spirits (see below). Humans do not have names for these gods.
Free spirits lack bodies and supernatural powers, and are neither worshipped nor given names. All are under the control of #Yuni and may be considered as her counterpart to the #Yîna of Kwatena. The designation as free is to show that they appear in bare form, not to imply they are in a superior state to humans or angels. Since Yuni can take any form, she often appears with the free spirits, but she controls the spirits rather than embodying them.
Free spirits have natural powers rather than supernatural, and are amoral, capable of good and evil but prefering neither.
Because they have only natural powers, they cannot harm a believer's soul, and Malamen's worshippers are said to be immune to the attacks of the spirits, apart from those believers in the kuma state (disgrace). While Malamen will not protect her believers from disease, a disease will typically have a shorter and less painful course in a believer than in one who is in disgrace or has been rejected by Malamen. This is because, without Malamen, even the very force of nature is dangerous and quickly overwhelms a person's body; see #Gapōs.
The gàhʷo are often called emblem spirits or emblems because they are invisible and can only be depicted symbolically. Contact between a human and an emblem results in what appears to be a magic spell, but in fact the gàhʷo are expressions of #Yuni's natural powers.
(Angry Womb): Bothers the person by infecting their spirit, decreasing all their abilities. This magic cannot be blocked. This is not related to #Omyomya's womb magic.
(Tooth): Enhances most magics, both coming and going. Some magics dull ten's power.
A poisonous plant and its seed.
(Zero): Kills the target; can break through all magics.
(Tube): Blocks some magics, though most can break through. This magic itself, however, is hard to block.
(Separation): Completely freezes the person, although it doesn't always work.
(Magic Hat): Another version of mappa which is extremely irritating and can immobilize someone.
Same as Ae, though this magic can in some cases be blocked.
(Slavery): Revives a dead person as a slave; this magic cannot be blocked. Can only be used by those who use Ae. When used in isolation, causes pain but no mental abnormalities.
(Horn): Drains energy; spreads from person to person. This magic is tough to block.
(Cold Wind): The cold wind of upinu removes a sorcerer's magical ability, and wears off only very slowly.
(Halo): Multiplies energy rapidly but dulls target's ability to cast spells. This magic never wears off unless destroyed by another magic.
Same as #Ae, but can be blocked. Also, this spell can spread out and attack the caster.
(Sleep): Cancels all magics. This spell is transcendent, like #Ae, and cannot be blocked.
Like #Pa, but blockable.
(Wake): Wakes up a person who is asleep, otherwise no effect. This magic can sometimes be blocked, and experts can always block it.
(Limit): Allows someone to store up great amounts of energy, which otherwise their body would have to get rid of. This magic cannot be blocked.
(Adrenaline): Speeds up a person.
(Bite): cuts deeply into a person's body, causing them to bleed to death unless the bleeding is stopped with another magic. Medicine cannot stop this magic. This magic can replicate itself quickly.
(Horn): this is very similar to the Tawan 'kihi' magic, but for the imps it cures all magics that anyone can cast at any time. This is the ultimate defensive magic and it cannot be penetrated by any magic.
(Filth): corrupts a person so that they can no longer function properly. This magic can prevent someone from casting curifying magics such as Papim, but it cannot actually penetrate the magics.
(Hot Water): this magic is like the 'Mapa' that the Tawans use; it can be blocked very easily, however.
(Cold Hand): this magic can penetrate a human body, like Pisipsi, but unlike tekto, it actually thrives on the human body and will move on to kill more people after the first target has been killed.
(Hot Hand): this magic is used to destroy, temporarily, a person's ability to cast cure magics. The person can still attack with hurt magics.
(Knife): this magic cuts into a person's body, but can do no more than this. It is fairly easy to learn and to use, however.
(Pyramid): this magic is like Pappap, except that it doesn't cause bleeding; it infects the brain like Sapyasa, and causes the person to seize themselves and become helpless.
(Cloth): this magic can convert some hurt magics into cure ones, or at least mostly block them. This magic itself is hard to block, as well.
This is the "IBB/kila" curse ... a force of nature that affects those in a state of disgrace, or who have been disowned by Màlamen. People here try to survive but because they do not have the holy spirit of #Màlamen they become weaker each day as their salvation slips away. Thus, there is not just one Gapōs ... they are innumerable, but behave as one. Thus this noun has no plural.
As Gapōs gains influence over a person, they become physically weaker and are injured by ordinary objects, both manmade and natural. These natural spirits are not evil; they cause pain because the sufferer is being consumed by nature due to Malamen's abandonment. Each misfortune that befalls a person is due to Gapōs taking a bite from a person's body; when the entire body is consumed, salvation becomes impossible.
Since Gapōs can only attack those whom Màlamen has rejected, they act only under Malamen's control, and prayer to Màlamen cannot relieve a sufferer of their pain. Rather, their torment is the beginning of an eternal chain of punishment to be served out by reincarnation into future bodies of the innumerable damned.
Gapōs is not the cause of any disease, but can make a disease more severe. Likewise, Gapōs does not have control over life and death, but can cause a person to age more quickly than average.
Note: These might simply be called pōs. Their name appears to be cognate to #Puspa.
These are spirits that cure illnesses.
This is the electrical spirit. Like the other free spirits, they have no number, and therefore no name. They are present wherever there is electricity, including static electricity.
#Malamen communicates through wind. However, there are minor spirits who also control the wind on smaller scales.
The term "angel" can also be used for a supernatural being which has free will, and therefore is immune to temptation. They are capable of both good and evil, and those who do evil will never repent, because they committed it in free will. This is similar to the state of baptism for humans. They have bodies. They have powers *of* nature (not *over * nature).
It is possible that these are the #Yîna.
Far back in the past, some creatures, das, running away from a battle were turned into trees as they ran, with those who were fast enough to resist the change being the only survivors. Those who became trees remain as such today, their spirits bound into their new bodies. They are considered to be both powerless and amoral; as such, they are undeserving of compassion. These and other spirits are thus sometimes described as subhuman; while they have souls, they have no supernatural powers and cannot resist the forces of nature.
A tree spirit may achieve freedom if a splinter of its wood pierces the skin of a human and links itself with the human's own spirit; the human then becomes equally bound to the tree.
Reincarnation is hereditary, and souls are innumerable; their number neither increases nor decreases with the change in human population. The fertility goddess #Malamen is responsible for the migration of souls and determines the fate of the children of mixed marriages.
nĭgʷu is comparable to baptism for the priests. It clears their mind, meaning they have true free will and cannot be influenced by other humans or by the spirits of nature. Because of this, they have greater authority than the #angels, but less physical power. Therefore, priests make the laws. A priest who turns away from the faith does so with a clear mind, and cannot be restored to salvation.
Used by priests to reverse curses; cannot be used proactively.
Believers celebrate their acceptance by the savior #Malamen in a ceremony in early adolescence.
Cleanliness and filth
Spiritual and material filth are recognized as distinct concepts, but are treated similarly. No believer is permitted to pray, worship, or congregate with other believers while in a state of filth. Therefore, when hungry, they must acquire and prepare their food independently.
Types of affliction
Spiritual filth is private and cannot pass from one believer to another. It may manifest itself as a non-contagious disease, mental illness, or a curse. Relief from the affliction can be granted if another believer prays on the sufferer's behalf to #Malamen. Therefore, those suffering from a spiritual affliction must remain close to their community in order to make their condition known to another believer who is willing to relieve their burden.
Material filth generally presents as a contagious disease. One may be sound in spirit but defective in body. People suffering from material filth are permitted to pray, but must still remain segregated from the public at mealtimes.
Filth by itself is usually temporary. Someone afflicted must find another believer to pray for them to #Malamen in order to free them from their curse.
If no other member of the community will pray for an afflicted believer, that person falls into disgrace (kuma), a state of permanent filth from which there is no escape. These people thus become disowned by the community. Some are taken as slaves, since their curse cannot be transmitted to other believers. Those generally believed to be more dangerous are exiled into the wilderness, where survival is difficult. Most of these people are male; therefore, the communities of the damned cannot grow by natural means.
The mythology is separate from the theology because it varies from place to place and is not taught to all believers.
Frog Pond is a state of mental clarity, in which all worldly concerns are forgotten and the believer thinks only of spiritual things.
- p188 leapers
- tentative; this makes more sense for Mappa
- "secretary" & "computer" are derived from /aha-/
- 05/27/18 3:30pm EST added attributes also associated with Potikil
- ùga + ə̀ku
- this is the "nymph" name cognate to Banala.
- ... Gold replaces găni with /hìhi/ (--> /his/), and gùta can change to mbŏta ... also, note that Kh. gèye <<< "halia" and "zewan" Alternatively, Gold uses /ganəʕta/ which becomes Khulls Gankʷa.
- The butterfly = boss coincidecne occured twice.
- Bezza~Zewan~Halia are all the same word. /haa-/ prefix
- ahihaka = asisaka
- altname containing /nàta/
- The only one with two animals; this originated as a composite description; this may be explained if there are more angels who are associated with cats. Note that /calaha/ and /icalaha/ may not even be cognates.
- it is possible that these two names are cognate.
- Yòya is represented by Yo-, and /ḳɨ/ shifts to /pʷʕ/ before any other vowel. This is because the sequence /kɨ/ evolved into both /kʷ/ and /ki/. Here /b/ spells /pʷʕ/ because the name is on the Gold side.
- lit, supporter of /tita/~/lalimala/.
- pàluwa ---> pòwo-, and can swap for -ti-, -ci- ... tiwo>hwo
- see /laa-/, note that this is not /haa-/ which is Ganiguta.
- /va-/; thus, this may also be Vaha. On the other hand, Vaha is associated with the sea rather than rivers. She could be Neyuki, as the description matches except for the lack of the association with the moon. However, menstruation does appear. Even so, personality is different.
- Or this might just be from the "red" association.
- note that -mp- > /mb/, and -mVm- > /mpVm/. This explains why neither of the consonants match their antecedents.
- Right Arm
- mn + nlu
- It may actruall be Yuni that does tis.
- see docs for /ahii/
- kila appears to be cognate to Poswa kidža, which indicates a loanword.
- This word is from Tapilula dèha, and replacss "manni" and its kin.