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Basic Grammatical Structures

This section primarily covers all the parts of speech: nouns, adjectives, verbs, and adverbs. It will also describe how to integrate the various parts of speech into a coherent sentence by using particles. By the end of this section, you should have an understanding of how basic sentences are constructed.

Expressing state-of-being

===Declaring something is so and so using



  1. oro
  1. hoksang学生
  1. ongki健기

There is no verb for the state-of-being like the verb "to be" in English. You can, however, declare what something is by attaching

to a noun or adjective only. (We will learn about adjectives in the section on adjectives later.)


  1. 人르。

Is person.

  1. 学生르。

Is student.

  1. 健기르。

Is healthy.

Conjugating to the negative state-of-being


  1. eke

In Rangyan, negative, past and future tenses are all expressed by conjugation. We can conjugate

to either its negative, past or future tense to say A is not B; A was B; or A will be B. This may be a bit hard to grasp at first but all these state-of-being conjugations are regular.


  1. 学生로므。

Is not student.

  1. 友로므。

Is not friend.

  1. 健기로므。

Is not well.

Conjugating to the past state-of-being

We will now learn the past tense of the state-of-being. To say something was something, attach 루웨

to the noun or adjective.

In order to say the negative past (was not), conjugate

to the negative past tense 로무웨


Introduction to Particles


Verb Basics

Negative Verbs

Past Tense

Particles used with verbs

Transitive and Intransitive Verbs

Relative Clauses and Sentence Order

Noun-related Particles

Adverbs and Sentence-ending particles

See also