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Bilabial Alveolar Palatal Velar Labio-velar Uvular
Nasal m n ɲ ŋ (ɴ)
"Clear" plosive p b t d c ɟ k g q ɢ
Aspirated plosive pʰ bʰ tʰ dʰ cʰ ɟʰ kʰ gʰ qʰ ɢʰ
Ejective plosive
Implosive ɓ ɗ ʄ ɠ ʛ
Fricative s
Trill r (ʀ)
Approximant l j w


  • /p t c k q/ p t c k q
  • /pʰ tʰ cʰ kʰ qʰ/ ph th ch kh qh
  • /pʼ tʼ cʼ kʼ qʼ/ p̕ t̕ c̕ k̕ q̕
  • /b d ɟ g ɢ/ b d j g ġ
  • /bʰ dʰ ɟʰ gʰ ɢʰ/ bh dh jh gh ġh
  • /ɓ ɗ ʄ ɠ ʛ/ b̕ d̕ j̕ g̕ ġ̕
  • /s/ s
  • /m n ɲ ŋ~ɴ/ m n ṇ ŋ
  • /r~ʀ l/ r l
  • /j w/ y w


Front Central Back
Unrounded Rounded
Near-Close ɪ ʊ
Mid-Close ɘ ɵ
Mid-Open ɛː ɜ ɞ ɔː
Open ä äː


  • /iː uː/ í ú
  • /eː oː/ é ó
  • /ɛː ɔː/ ê ô
  • /äː/ a
  • /ɪ ʊ/ i u
  • /ɘ ɵ/ e o
  • /ɜ ɞ/ è ò
  • /ä/ a




  • Acute accent on initial syllable.



  • nominative-accusative alignment with marked nominative
  • 3A secundative alignment (S/A = Nominative, D = Pegative, P/R = Accusative, T = Instrumental)
  • 8 cases (suffixal): Nominative, Pegative, Accusative, Instrumental, Genitive, Ablative, Allative, Benefactive
  • noun class system (suffixal): Animate, Inanimate
  • number combined with noun class: singular, paucal, plural
  • definiteness (articles): Gnomic, Indefinite, Definite proper, Definite distant
  • nominal tense (suffixal): past, present, future

Definiteness + [Root + Root extension(s) + (Noun class + Number) + Case + Nominal tense]

Noun class and number

Animate Inanimate
Singular -ar- / -r- banura man - tkacʼa stone
Paucal -akʼ- / -kʼ- banuakʼa few men -akʼ- / -kʼ- tkacʼakʼa few stones
Plural -it- / -t- banuita men -es- / -s- tkacʼesa stones


Nominative -a wolqhara wolf
Pegative -e wolqhare
Accusative - wolqhar
Instrumental -ní wolqharní by/with wolf
Genitive -yò wolqharyò of wolf
Ablative -tʼo wolqhartʼo from wolf
Allative -ôs wolqharôs to wolf
Benefactive -dʼa wolqhardʼa for wolf

Nominal tense

Past -li kʼámarali ex-wife
Present - kʼámara wife
Future -sú kʼámarasú future wife


Gnomic - banu man
Indefinite ês ês banu a man
Definite proper da da banu the man
Definite distant qhá qhá banu yonder man


  • aspects (suffixal): Perfective-Imperfective + Frequentative, Momentane
  • voices (infixal): Active, Reflexive vs Causative
  • three subjective and objective persons (suffixal)
  • three moods (cliticized): Indicative, Conditional, Subjunctive
  • negative verb

(Root + Voice) + Root extension(s) + Aspect + Subject + Object + Mood


Main form Frequentative Momentane
Imperfective - swél- to shine -né- swélné- to glisten -
Perfective -ri- swélri- to lighten -yu- swélyu- to glisten (as fully executed, ended series) -tò- swéltò- to glint (as momentaneous event)


Performative Causative
Active - yôdh- to see -ra- yôradh- to show
Reflexive -si- yôsidh- to see self -ṇi- yôṇidh- to show self


Subject / Agent / Donor
Singular Plural
1. -en / -n I -erò / -rò We, but not you
-emò / -mò We, together with you
2. -es / -s Thou -etò / -tò You all
3. -ey / -y He / she / it -eyò / -yò They all
4. -ek / -k Someone / something
Object / Recipient
Singular Plural
1. -na me -ra us, but not you
-me us, together with you
2. -sa thee -ta you all
3. -ya him / her / it -yak them all
4. -ka Someone / something
Singular Plural
1. -n I -l we, but not you
-w we, together with you
2. -s Thou -th You all
3. -j He / she / it -j They all
4. -kh Someone / something


Indicative - êd to go
Conditional -dô êddô would to go
Subjunctive -phú êdphú may to go

Non-finite verbs

Action noun -ló yôdhló vision, seeing
Adjectival -l- yôdhl- seeing
Adverbial -l-oŋ yôdhloŋ seeing


  • adjectives are replaced by stative verbs and describing nouns.
  • degrees of intensify instead degrees of comparison.

Degrees of intensify

Very strong bʼá bʼá qtèbʼ to be strong very strongly
Strong gʼò gʼò qtèbʼ to be strong strongly
Average / Normal - qtèbʼ to be strong
Weak tʼe tʼe qtèbʼ to be strong weakly
Very weak yú qtèbʼ to be strong very weakly


Cardinal numerals

1. bhyêr
2. dow
3. térs
4. cereth
5. pèc
6. sèth
7. sèdír
8. athôr
9. dembhi
10. déth
11. déthirbhyêr
12. déthirdow
20. dowirdéth
21. dowirdéth bhyêr
30 térsirdéth
100. thiti
101. thiti bhyêr
120. thiti dowirdéth
121. thiti dowirdéth bhyêr
200. dowthit
1.000. túskhat
10.000. déth túskhat

Derived numerals

Ordinal Multiplicative Reproductive Distributive Fractional
-[noun class]-i -yáls -sôkh -pá -rídʼ
1. bhyêrri / bhyêri bhyêryáls bhyêrsôkh bhyêrpá bhyêrrídʼ
10. déthri / dethi déthyáls déthsôkh déthpá déthrídʼ
11. déthirbhyêrri / déthirbhyêri déthirbhyêryáls déthirbhyêrsôkh déthirbhyêrpá déthirbhyêrrídʼ
20. dowirdéthri / dowirdéthi dowirdéthyáls dowirdéthsôkh dowirdéthpá dowirdéthrídʼ
21. dowirdéth bhyêrri / dowirdéth bhyêri dowirdéth bhyêryáls dowirdéth bhyêrsôkh dowirdéth bhyêrpá dowirdéth bhyêrrídʼ
100. thitiri / thitiyi thitiyáls thitisôkh thitipá thitirídʼ
101. thiti bhyêrri / thiti bhyêri thiti bhyêryáls thiti bhyêrsôkh thiti bhyêrpá thiti bhyêrrídʼ
120. thiti dowirdéthri / thiti dowirdéthi thiti dowirdéthyáls thiti dowirdéthsôkh thiti dowirdéthpá thiti dowirdéthrídʼ
121. thiti dowirdéth bhyêrri / thiti dowirdéth bhyêri thiti dowirdéth bhyêryáls thiti dowirdéth bhyêrsôkh thiti dowirdéth bhyêrpá thiti dowirdéth bhyêrrídʼ
200. dowthitri / dowthiti dowthityáls dowthitsôkh dowthitpá dowthitrídʼ
1000. túskhatri / túskhati túskhatyáls túskhatsôkh túskhatpá túskhatrídʼ
10.000. déth túskhatri / déth túskhati déth túskhatyáls déth túskhatsôkh déth túskhatpá déth túskhatrídʼ


  • clusivity in 1. person
  • obviative

Personal pronouns

Singular Plural
1. nêkʼ I ròs We, but not you
mòs We, together with you
2. sún Thou tòs You all
3. ya He / she / it yòs They all
4. ka Someone / something

Possessive pronouns

Singular Plural
1. neyi my ròsi our, but not your
mòsi our, together with you
2. súni thy tòsi your all
3. yayi his / her / its yòsi their all
4. kayi someone / something else's

Demonstrative pronouns

Definite proper Definite distant Indefinite
Place dalòpʼ here qhálòpʼ there êslòpʼ somewhere there
Source dalòpʼtʼo from here qhálòpʼtʼo from there êslòpʼtʼo from somewhere there
Purpose direction dalòpʼôs to here qhálòpʼôs to there, so far êslòpʼôs to somewhere there
Path dajhémo this way qhájhémo that way êsjhémo some way
Time datháth now qhátháth then
Method datʼríp in this way qhátʼríp in that way êstʼríp in some way
Quantity dagôl so much
Qualify buda like this here buqhá like that bwês like something there
Reason dastháy for this reason qhástháy for that reason êstháy for some reason

Interrogative, relative, indefinite and unlimited pronouns

Interrogative / Relative Indefinite Unlimited
Person / Animate object kʼa who ? which ? kʼate someone alíkʼa anyone
Inanimate object cʼa who ? which ? cʼate someone alícʼa anyone
Place kʼaġʼo where ? kʼaġʼote somewhere alíkʼaġʼo anywhere
Source tʼokʼaġʼo whence ? tʼokʼaġʼote from somewhere alítʼokʼaġʼote from anywhere
Purpose direction ôskʼaġʼo whither ? ôskʼaġʼote to somewhere alíôskʼaġʼote to anywhere
Path kʼajhémo which way ? kʼajhémote via some way alíkʼajhémo via any way
Time kʼatháth when ? kʼatháthte once alíkʼatháth ever
Method kʼatʼríp how ? kʼatʼrípte somehow alíkʼatʼríp anyhow
Quantity kʼagôl how much ? kʼagôlte somehow much alíkʼagôl anyhow much
Qualify bukʼa which one ? bukʼate some alíbukʼa any
Reason kʼadʼa why ?

Negative, universal and alternative pronouns

Negative Universal Alternative
Person / Animate object èlkʼa nobody, nothing bhêskʼa every ninkʼa anyone else
Inanimate object èlcʼa nobody, nothing bhêscʼa every nincʼa anyone else
Place èlkʼaġʼo nowhere bhêskʼaġʼote everywhere ninkʼaġʼo elswhere
Source tʼoêlkʼaġʼo from nowhere tʼobhêskʼaġʼote from everywhere tʼoninkʼaġʼo from elswhere
Purpose direction ôsêlkʼaġʼo to nowhere ôsbhêskʼaġʼote to everywhere ôsninkʼaġʼo to elswhere
Path êljhémo through no way bhêsjhémote through all ways ninjhémo which way else
Time êltháth never bhêstháth always nintháth when else
Method êltʼríp nohow bhêstʼríp in all methods nintʼríp otherwise
Quantity êlgôl nothing ningôl otherwise than so many
Quality êlbu neuter, indistinct bhêsbu any ninbu other

Numeral pronouns

Interrogative / Relative kʼagôl how much ?
Indefinite kʼagôlte write a number
Unlimited alíkʼagôl however many
Negative êlgôl nothing
Alternative ningôl otherwise than so many

Reflexive, reciprocal and cooperative pronouns

Reflexive kho oneself
Reciprocal tʼakho each other
Cooperative úkho together cooperatively


Spatials, ablatival and allatival directionals

ú in, inside Accusative
from inside Ablative
to inside Allative
al on Accusative
from on Ablative
to on Allative
alaŋ above Accusative
from above Ablative
to above Allative
udʼu under Accusative
from under Ablative
to under Allative
kʼete beside Accusative
from beside Ablative
to beside Allative
tóq away Accusative
from away Ablative
to away Allative
údow between Accusative
from between Ablative
to between Allative
tʼawkh behind Accusative
from behind Ablative
to behind Allative
out Accusative
from out Ablative
to out Allative
úgál around Accusative
from around Ablative
to around Allative
trôs before, opposite to Accusative
from before, from opposite to Ablative
to before, to opposite to Allative
útháth during, in time of Accusative
from time of Ablative
to time of Allative
after Accusative
from after Ablative
to after Allative

Other postpositions

Companion, attributive object tʼa with Instrumental
Lack phá without Genitive
Alternative úklotʼ instead Genitive
Contrary trôtʼa against Allative
Resistance bhisu despite, though Genitive
Stylization údʼlêk along to, according to Instrumental



Paratactical conjunctions
Copulative é and
Conjunctive édhò also
Disjunctive or
Contrastive, exceptional éno but
Consequentive pʼe so
Comparative kuy than
Essive atʼ as
Hypotactical conjunctions
gwa to, for
qúddhò althought
yethrab because
áchi if
dhò that, providing


Restrictive bhyêro only
Additive yedhò yet
Excessive too
Non-witness yôŋ apparently, allegedly

Polarity particles

Affirmative dʼê yes
Negative1 no

1 Only in independent form.

Word formation




Noun to noun
Diminutive -lé- tʼogharatʼoghléra daughter → little daughter
Augmentative -gʼan- ġôbhaġôbhgʼana mountain → grand mountain
Contradiction èl- banuraèlbanura human → non-human
Similarity -khsak- tuntuatuntukhsaka tree → pseudo-tree
Half pʼala- qutkápʼalaqutká dog → half-dog
Relational abstract -ryáṇ ghebʼeraghebʼeryáṇa brother → brotherhood
Related person -chí- báwbhurabáwbhuchíra cow → cowman
Collective -léga- pʼetharapʼetharléga bird → birds (a a collective)
Place -lòpʼ- khepʼkhepʼlòpʼa fire → campfire
Art / Craft -tkóyá bʼormakhbʼormakhtkóyá war → craft of war
Knowledge -kèndh- jʼólyájʼólyakèndha herb → herbalism
Expert -chí- jʼólyájʼólyachíra herb → herbalist
Noun to stative verb
Similaritive -khsak- merkharamerkhakhsak- cat → felid
Feature -oth- ksíluaksíluoth- hair → hairy
Affiliative -sidh- ġômaġômsidh- family → familiar
Privative èl-...-oth- kôlbhaèlkôlbhoth- tooth → toothless


Verb to noun
Agentive -chí- tqúkh-tqúkhchíra (to) shoot → shooter
Experiencer, adressee [Middle voice's stem]-chí- dákʼ-dásikʼchíra (to) teach → learner
Result -phál badʼ-badʼphála (to) fall → (a) fall
Instance -makh- spʼél-spʼélmakha (to) speak → speech
Instrument -qʼò- bʼê-bʼêqʼòa (to) beat → whip
Place -lòpʼ- thèm-thèmlòpʼa (to) kill → slaughterhouse
Verb to verb
Stative verb to noun
Abstract -makh- qtèbʼ-qtèbʼmakha to be strong → strength


Word order

  • SOV
  • head-final

Copular verbs

Positive Negative
Translative psá became lephá don't became
Essive ye be le don't be
Excessive kʼwô cease to be lwô don't cease to be

Modal verbs

Obligative ġhart to must
Necessitative chúld to need
Jussive láwd to should
Optative níkh to wish
Desiderative ktíkh to want
Dubitative phthòb to doubt
Hypothetical yámb maybe, perhaps
Permissive tôl to let, to permit
Precative slókh to request, to please, to ask
Potentional phêy to may, to be able
Abilitive dhul to can

Use of modal verbs

[Modal verb] + [Main verb as an action noun + Accusative zero-ending]

Jussive láwden ghrésló I should to write.
Desiderative ktíkhen ghrésló I'm wanting to write.
Precative slókhen ghrésló I request to write.



yéls light
dʼômb dark
kʼílm white
túŋg black
khárg red
drèykʼ reddish
romph pink
bhrós blue
jʼólṇ green
chísn yellow
dháws golden
larkʼ silver
stakʼ orange
bhósm grey
ksundʼ brown
rakhs violet
brén navy blue
tlíkh beige

Sides of world

Direct sides
North black túŋgmá
South white kʼílmá (← kʼilm-makh-a)
East red khárgmá
West gold dháwsmá
Indirect sides
Northeast red black khárgla túŋgmá
Northwest golden black dháwsla túŋgmá
Southeast red white khárgla kʼílmá
Southwest golden white dháwsla kʼílmá


thíca side
ksentʼa right
ṇimpha left
trôsa front
tʼawsa back
pátha top
thúma bottom
qúmpha center, middle, heart

Body parts

thalpòa body
keresa blood
tôwlya skin
tlapsa meat
qulpa muscle
qunqa bone
qwálqunqa vertebra
qunqstòpa spine
qunqléga skeleton
bhaŋka head
pyéla hair
kúy eye
khòsa ear
khákya moustache
aôspa mouth
bhalpa lip
pʼaghma beard
cʼítsá chin
chópa cheek
gláqwa mandible
ktúŋka upper jaw
gémpa tooth
dlíkhya gum
tôkla tusk
kúyraŋqa eyebrow
kʼapwá front neck
tʼlepka back neck
ġʼêrġha throat
qhártha larynx
dléṇca tongue
ṇimbá palate
qulqa uvula
dwóla vein
tantana artery
qúmpha heart
pholkha lung
bambua belly
gelmaqa stomach
muqsá kidney
joṇjha spleen
kterbha liver
léŋga gall
tibha rib
yólká intestine
kwôlma skull
lomphos brain
jitka hand
telqe arm, shoulder
trôstelqe forearm
qhílna hand palm
taŋqta fist
tímpa finger
sarkhita nail
tharka claw
límpʼoa knee
toŋkoa elbow
klìnta wrist
nikha nose
kʼlôwpa back
atka foot
kotsa heel
ġʼolqa gullet
skáphma midriff


ġôma family
adámrá parents
amrá mother
adrá father
bíbira child
thúsra son
tʼoghara daughter
khotʼara sibling
ghebʼera brother
khwísra sister
amakhetra cousin from mother's side
adakhetra cousin from father's side
amakhúra second cousin from mother's side
adakhúra second cousin from father's side
támkhérra distant relative
sáwdha father's brother
phitra father's sister
adayò khotʼara father's sibling
khestra mother's brother
khabhra mother's sister
amayò khotʼara mother's sibling
naphthara brother's son
altara brother's daughter
tʼecʼara sister's son
silkhwara sister's daughter
khotaryò bíbira sibling's child
trôadámrá grandparents
trôamra grandmother
trôadra grandfather
yáwnara great grandmother
yêwkhra great grandfather
kábíbira grandchild
káthúsrá grandson
kátʼoghara granddaughter
kákábíbira great grandchild
kákáthúsra great grandson
kákátʼoghara great granddaughter
skôjhra grandfather's brother
bajʼnará grandfather's sister
skôjhbajra grandfather's sibling
gnêjra grandmother's brother
kêrphá grandmother's sister
kêrgnêjra grandmother's sibling
amawthura ancestor from maternal line
adawthura ancestor from fathernal line
uthura common ancestor
pláwkhra progeny

Relatives from marriage

pʼalphenryáṇ marriage
phenġôma family from wife's side
phenra wife
ghôstra husband
pʼalléga spouse
phenadra father-in-law
phenamra mother-in-law
phenadámrá parents-in-law
tʼokhthúsra son-in-law
thústʼoghra daughter-in-law
tyéphra child-in-law
dʼaywara brother-in-law
thaymira sister-in-law
nabhkhotʼara sibling-in-law
phentámkhérra wife's distant relative
ghôsttámkhérra husband's distant relative
syáwnira wife brother's wife
máykʼra wife sister's husband
daytura husband brother's wife
thokʼira husband sister's husband

Relatives from adoption

bʼarlara adrá stepfather
bʼarlara amrá stepmother
bʼarlara adámrá stepparents
bʼarlara ghebʼera stepbrother
bʼarlara khwísra stepsister
bʼarlara khotʼara stepsibling
bʼarlara bíbira stepchild
bʼarlara pláwkhra adopted progeny


jʼwaŋara animal
qhusitrilara domesticate animal
jhálma fish
glówlara amphibian
askwara reptile
pʼethara bird
cʼucʼlara mammal
tʼamphlara hunting animal
tlapsalara predator
arsamáethchíra herbivore


satpakra carp
ksewdra hydra
thapra crawfish
pʼíchura leech
kollora burbot
thlôkʼra tench
stoykra pike
akulra perch
chelpara heron
ktewtara sturgeon
pitsara pollock
walgara clam
kwôkra duck
ansara goose
òlbura swan
jhálmachíra osprey
pampara beaver
spantara kingfisher
ġrôġara frog
skòtra newt


kabhyòmánlara reptile
awj̕arra lizard
pukara turtle
swísra snake
g̕utra viper
gmôlara apodal lizard


Birds and bats

Flying insects