Proto-Uralic/O

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PU *a_ə

Lexeme Finnic Samic Mordv. Mari Permic Hung. Mansi Khanty Samoy. Comments
*a_ə type 1: F. *a_i, S. *oa_ē (!), Mo. *u(CCə), Ma. *u, P. *uu, Ms. *aaC/aCC, Kh. *a (~ *oo), Smy. *å(CCə) default
"to be" *olë- - *uľə- *ŭla- *vɤɤl(ɨ)- val- *aal- E *waL- ~
W *ooL-
*åə- P. *wa- > *wo-, F. unstressed shortening? Hu. *alT > olT (volt)
"gadfly" (*parma) *poarō *purəmə (*parmə) - - - (O. puurəm) - *parə, *parma; cf. "sleep". F. paarma (_rN?)
"to tremble" *tarkënë-
"to stay warm"
*toarkēstē- *turgəďə- - K. tural- - N. toorɣ- *ta(a)rəɣ- -
"raft" *parvi *poarē(vē) - - *puurj - *paara *parə *pårV Smy ← OU?
"flock" *parvi - - - - - - *parə - Same root as prev.?
"clay" *savi - *śovəń *šun K. śun - *suwľ *saɣɯɯ - Mo. > *-ow- > *-uw-. Kh. < *-əj.
"cold weather" - *joasō - *juž U. juz - - - *jat Smy > *a / Ć_. Cf. also SS juoskos ~ joåskos "cold"
"group" *ko/unta *kontē Mk. końďä - - had(a-) *kaant *kantəɣ *kåntə WU contam. with Gmc *hundra?
"willow" *paju *poajōi - - *baď faɟal(o-) - - *päwə S. *oa per -o? Not to be conflated with *pojə "aspen"
"horn" *sarvi *čoarvē *śurə *šur *śuur sarv(a-) *saarəp *ćärpə - ← II, Ug. separately?
"to go thru" - *soaŋē- Er. sova-
~ Mo. suva-
- U. zum- ~ K. sun- av- *tuu- *ɬaŋ- *tüj- Mo. *oŋ → oŋ
"bend" - NS moagge - - *mög - *muuɣəl *makəL - *maŋkə-la > *ma(ŋ)kla in pre-Ms?
"tin, lead" - - - *wulnə - oon(o-) *alən *ooLnaa - H. *alT > *olT, *Vln > VVn. Cf. WU *wala- 'to pour'
"to want" *hapi-- - - - - - *taŋk- *ɬaŋkaa- - *šaŋə- with F. analogical *v > p?? F. *soo- "to grant" ← *suwa- ← II.
"to bild" Fi. rakenta- - - - - rak- - - - Or Fi rather ← Gmc *rakjan
"lid" *kanci *koamtē *kundə *komdəš K. kudj - - - -
"oak" *tammi - *tumə *tumə *tu - - - -
"to split" *halkët- - *Čulgə- - K. čaľal- - - - - SKES; not in UEW.
"maple" *vahtëra - *ukštər *waštar - - - - - Ma. *a / w_
*a_ə type 2: similar but S. *ō_ɤ, Mo. *a, P. *oo, Smy. *a / _Ć palatalization
"butter" *voi *vōjɤ *vaj U. vɤj ~
K vɨj
vaj(a-) *waaj *wooj - ~ IA *āǵja — but *w- ? Maybe *wëjə. F. via *voojə
"to step" *askël,
*as-tu-
- Er. aśkiľa- *aškəl- *ooćkVl- - *uusəl - *asəl
"to receive" *saa- NW *sākɤ- Mk. sajə- *šo- K. su- - - - *tåj- *saxə. Note assim. only in S/Mo. Hi. u per hiatus
"grass, awn" - *kōjɤ - - *kɨ haj(a-) *kaaj - Sk. *quu
< *kåə
"spirit" *vaimo *vōjŋɤ *vajmə - - vaaɟ(a-) - - *wajŋə F. & Mo. < *vajŋ-ma-. Cf. S. *vājmō "heart"?
"to spread, bed" - *vōðō
"bottom
layer"
- - *wååľ- aaɟ(a-) *aaľ - - P. per class 4, F. vuode < vuota ← B, Mo. *aca ← Tat.
"river bend" - - - - K. voľ völɟ(ä-) CMs *wooľ *wakəĽ Ne. wäej NB *ľ?!
"penis" - *pōčɤ - - - fas - - - or H. ← German
*a_ə type 3: similar but F. *oo / _Rə (= std. PU *oo/*ox), Ma. *o "long" cases
"to lick" *noolë- *noalō- *nola- *nŭle- *ńuul- ńal- *ńal-amt- *ńaLaa- *ńåə- F. also cf. *nola "slime". Check Kh. forms. Mo. analogy with *elä- "live"?
"to die" *koolë- *koalō-
"freeze"
*kulə- *kole- *kuul- hal- *kaal- *kaLaa- *kåə- S. may be ← Gmc. Cf. *kal-ma "death".
"intestine" *sooli *čoalē *śulə/a *šolə *śuulj saal(a-)
"thread"
- *sooL - ← II *ćālā
"to sleep" *voodë-k
"bed"
*oaðē- *udə- - - al- *aal- *aLaa- - or F. < *voota "hide"? *ad₂ə "bed" predicts *ota
"mountain" *voori - - - *vɤɤr orr(o-) *waar *woor Km. boor ~ II *aras — but *w- ? P. *wa- > *wo-. Also cf. *wara
"crust" *koori *koarē *kaŕ - K. kɨrś - *kur- W *karə,
*kuurəp
*kar For Se. ker- cf. *kêri
"thicket" - - Er. kuro - - - *kaarəp S. xar FNe. kuur clearly not *kurV!
"to whittle,
to plane"
*voolë- *oalō- - - *vɤl- - *walt- *waLt- - S. *vōlɤ- ← F.; P. *wa- > *wo-
"ash; heat; flame" - - - *lom(p)ɤž *luum- laaŋg(o-) - - -
*a_ə type 4: similar but F. *o_a, P. *wåå / #_ (bled by prev. two exception classes!)
"sleep" - - *udəmə *omə *uunm aalom(o-) *uuləm *aaLəm,
*wuuLəm
"dream"
- *aðəma; > *alma in P+Ug? cf. "to sleep"
"shoulder" *o/õlka *oalkē - - K. volɨs vaall(a-) *waaɣləp - *wajk Cf. BSl. *olkuti ? Ms. 'shoulderband'. NB Smy palzn
"awl" *ora *oarē *urə - - aar(a-) - - - ← II *ārā (Vo õra)
"slave" *orja *oarjē
"south"
*uŕɜ - U. war - - - - ← II *ārya. K. verɤs 'husband' may not belong
"to shine" - - - - *vååľ(k) - *waľɣ- N. *waĽə- - *w- ?? Cf. *wëlkə "light"!
"early" - - - *ažno *wåådź - - - -

*o_ə

F. *o_i/e-, S. *ō_ɤ, Mo. u(CCə)

Lexeme Finnic Samic Mordv. Mari Permic Hung. Mansi Khanty Samoy. Comments
*o_ə type 1a > Ma. *a/*o, P. *(kʷ/w)ɤɤ, Ms. *aa, Kh *oo, Smy. *å) all EU cases with medial clusters?
"hollow, cavity" *o/õnci *vōmtɤ *undə - U. udur odur *aantər *oontər - *omtə(-rV)
"opening, mouth" *o/õvvi W *vōŋɤs *oŋ-kst *äŋ *wɤɤm ajak :
ajka-
- *ooŋ *aŋ *owŋə? F. aukko ← *aŋa- "to open". Mo. *oŋ > oŋ.
"to chew" - *sōskɤ- *suskə- - *sɤɤsk- - *taaɣt- *ɬookəL- #tutə-
"bow" *jousi *jōksɤ *joŋs *jaŋež - iij(a-) *jaaGt *jookəL *jïntə *-ŋs-. Mo. *oŋ > oŋ
"tail" *poč-ka *poac-kē - *pač *bɤɤž far(o-) *paanš *pooč *pånčə *-č- or *-nč-? F, S *po(n)č-ka "shin"
"thick; many" - - - *čaka(-ta) K. čɤk šok *šaaw - - Cf. Turkic *čok
"net needle" - *čōpsē - *šapš - - *taas *soopəs -
"lung; gills" - - - *šoðɤ K. šɤľ - - - - no cluster? S. suovtē 'gills' better ← Gmc (and ≠ P anyway)
""
*o_ə type 1b: similar except F. *uu (= PU *ow_ə?) coronal or zero-ish medials
"spruce" *kuusi *kōsɤ *kuz *kož *kʷɤɤz - *kaaɣt *kooL *kåət *kowsə?
"root, base" *juuri - *jur - *jur - - - *jår *jowrə? Smy not ~ F. jaaru
"cereal" *suurimo
"groats"
- *surə
"millet"
- *zɤɤr
"oats"
- - - - Or F ~ Mo śu/orə 'corn' etc.
"drape" *uudim - - - *wɤɤn(m-) - *aaməl *ooLəp - *owðəmə? NB no *ð > ∅ in P. Possibly PMs *aalma > CMs *aaməl
"other" *muu *mū- - *molə *mɤɤd
*muuket
maaš *maat;
S+E *mɤɤt
- *mow-?!
*o_ə type 1c: similar except Ma. *u, P. *⁽ʷ⁾ɤ (U+KP /ɤ/, Zyrian /o/)
"to vomit" *oksënta- SS vuoksedi- *uksəndə- *ukšənća- *wɤskɨ- - - - - Core S *vōksē--, backformation? Or F. *a > *ə / T_T?
"to touch" NF *koske- *kōskɤ- - *kuške- K. kos- - - - - K from P. *kʷɤɤs-?
"(to) patch" - W *tōŋɤ- ~
E *tōvŋɤ-
- *tuməš K. *dɤɤm- - - - - ŋ/m? Ma. per *a-stem?
"belly, abdomen" *ko/õktu - - - *kʷɤt - - - -
"dry" - - - *kukšə *kʷɤs - - - - cf. *kôśkə?
"worm" - *sōksɤ *suks *šukš - - - - -
*o_ə type 1d: indistinct/unclear
"to wash" *mo/õskë- - *muśkə- *mŭška- *mɨśk- moš- - - *måsə- MaP *u, / m_?
"hole" *oŋk- *vōŋkō - - - - *waaŋka *wooŋk *wåŋkə F. onkalo cf. varsi : vartalo
"to scorch" *ko/õrpët- *kōrpɤ- *kurva- - - - - - *kårpə-
"knee" *po/õlvi *pōlvɤ *pul- *pŭl - - - - *puəj Ma. *ŭ / _[+LAB]_
"thin" *o/õhut - - - - - *waaɣta *wookəL - *wokšə (AA13)
"netstring" - *cōncɤ - - - - - *čoončəɣ -
"hole in wood" - *vōwtɤ - - - - - *ooŋət - *oŋtə, cf. *omtə
"(to) knot" *so/õlmi *čōlmɤ *śulma - - čomoo - - -
"snot" *no/õlki *snōlkɤ *nolgə - - ńaal(a-) - - - S. affected by Gmc *snuut?
"spear" - - - *umdə - - *aaGta *ooŋtəw *aŋtə Tv awtā ← *-ɣt- , WMs *owta/NMs *oowta ← *wt = Ms *-ŋt-? F. *ota better < *woča
"woods" - - - - - vad(a-) - *woont - S. *vōvtē ← Gmc
"to pin; to sew" - - - - - - *saalt- - *såjtə-
"to oppose" *to/õrju- *toarjō- *tuŕə- - - - - - - S. "to support". Cf. *tora
*o_ə type 2: similar except P. *(k)wåå/*ooĆ/*uu, Ms. *u(u), Smy *o open syllables with a dorsal medial
"male" - *kōjɤ
- - *koom hiim CMs *kuj,
*kum
*kuu₂j - *kojə(-ma). Ms. *uuj > *uj?
"to sound" *so/õi- *čōjɤ- - *ša-kte- - †saj- *suj- *söj- *so- Ms. *uuj > *uj? East *u?
"to find; riddle" - - *mujə- *moa- *mååď mu(u)t - *muuj-- - F. mu/o/õista- "to remember" ← R. мысл- "to think"
"to bring" *too- *tōkɤ- *tujə- - - - *tuul- *tuu₂-~
*tuu₁ɣ-
*tå- / *tə- H. *toj- "lay eggs" may be ← Trc
"bosom" *po/õvvi *pōŋɤ Er. poŋgo
~ Mk. pov
Hi. poŋgəš
~ Me. poməš
*pi - *puut E puuɣəL
~ N poxəL
*påŋə *powŋə? Mo. *oŋ > *oŋ. Smy ment'd in AA13, reflexes??
"to pursue" *no/õu-ta- - - - - - *ńɤɤwl- *ńuu₂/ååkəL- *ńo- V -uu-, Vj -ɔɔ-. Ms. cheshirization? Also cf. P. *nuu-, Ma. *nŭmala- "carry"
"to experience" *koke- I. kuoha- - - - - - - *ko-
"berry" Võ pala - - K. pul boľoo,
boɟoo ?
*pul - Sk. *pəl- Core F. *poola probably reshaped after *joo-la- "V. uliginosum"
"steam, fog" - - - - *ruu - - *ruu₂t -
"to say" *hoke- - - - *šuu- - - - -
"barley" - - *čuž *šož *čuužj - - - - substratal? note *-š-
*o_ə type 3: as per *u in WU+P, H. uu, Ms. *u, Kh. *o, Smy *o open syllables with an anterior medial
"sno" *lumi *lomɤ *loŋ *lŭm *lɨmɨ lom - - *jom- Ma. *ŭ / _[+LAB]_
"to bite" *pure- *porɤ- *poŕə- *pŭra- *puur(ɨ)- - *pur- *por- *por- Ma. *ŭ / _[+LAB]_
"to blo" *puhu-
*puhalta-
*posō- - - K. puškɨ- fuu- *put- *poLaa- Sk. puttu? K. ~ Fi. puhku-?
"bone" *luu - *lovaža *lu *lɨ - *luw *loɣ *lɤ Mari CV ⇒ long
"mouth" *suu *čovɤ, *čontɤk - *šu - saa-j *sunt,
*suup
*ɬuuL *so *śowə. Mari CV ⇒ long. Kh *śowə-sa > *suu-ɬ > *ɬuuɬ??
"new" *uuci *oðɤ *od *u *vɨľ uuj(a-) - - - Mari CV ⇒ long. F. length from *wu-?
"(to) coff" - *kosɤ(-) *koz(ə-) - *kɨz(ɨ)- - - *kooL(-) *kot(-)
"to pass by" - *molɤ- *moľə- - - muul- Tv mal- ~
CMs *mul-
- -
"to come" *tule- *tolɤ- - *tola- - talaal- - - *toj- Ma/H. cf. F. *talla- "tread"?
"lake" - - - - *tɨ √tav- Tv. too *toɣ *to *towə, not *toxə. PMs *tow? SKh tew
"side" - - - - K vɨj - *wujəl - - Tv wɤjəl
"hut" - - - - U. tɨlɨs - *tul - - Ms. "tent pole". F. *talas/-oi ← Baltic *tala-
"steep" - - - - *ńɨl- - *ńultəŋ - -
"remaining sno" - W *jësë,
E *jëcë
- *jož *juuž
'hard snow'
- - - - cf. *joččə 'path'
"sleep" *uni - on - - - - - - ← IE *oner
Indistinct between *o₁_ə and *o₂_ə
demonstrativ stem *jo- *jō- E. ju- *ju- - - - - - ← IE?
""
"to be sick" *po/õte- *pōcɤ- - - - - - - -
"true" *to/õci *tōtɤ - - - - - - -
""
"to cut" - - - - - farag *paar - *pərå- Smy. "to scrape", may not belong
"to dry" - - - - - asoo *taaš *soos
with Ms. *ɤɤ
"cheek" *po/õski - - - - - *pɤɤjət E puuɣLəm
~ W *poxLəm
*påtə
"tusk" - - - - *wåådźer aɟar(a-) *ɤɤńćər *eńćər -
"ghost" - - *čo(v) - K. šɤn - *tɤɤw *ɬuu₂ŋk - Mo. *oŋ > *oŋ, or *av > ov? Ms. cheshirization? F. huu better ← Gmc
*ô_ə (F. *o, Mo. *o, Ma. *a?)
"to dry; rapids" *koski *koškɤ- *kośkə- *kaške(-) *kʷååś-/k - *kaš (?) - *kåsə- F. → S. *kōškɤ "rapids"
"stick" *po/?nci - Mk. ponda *pandə *pood - - - - P. also *böd "staff"
"vessel" - - *očkə *wačkɤ U. vɨčkɨ - - - -
"grain" - - *norəv - K nur(j-) - - - -
"straw" *o/õlki - *olgə - - - - - -
"corner; to hide" *so/?ppi - *śopə- - - - - - -
"bear" *o/?kci - *ovtə - - - - - - Cf. late IE *arktos
"to sink" *lo/?nteh - londado- - - - - - -
IE loans
"salt" suola - sal Hi cal ~ Me ćal U. sɨlal ~ K. sol - - - - ← IE, multiple loans? Mari affricated prenasally? (#sÖnćAl)
"to sieve" *pohtVj- - ponžavto- - *poož- - - - - ← IE *powH-(ta-), *pewH-
"(to) hoe" *kookka - - - *kook- - - - - at least F ← Gmc *xōka
"gap" *lo/õvi - *luv *lu - - - - - ← Gmc. Mo/Ma better here than with F. *loma
"hook, to angle" *o/õŋki *vōŋkɤ
*oaŋkō-
- *oŋgə - - - - - ← IE
"to dare" *tohtVj- *tōstɤ- - *tošta- - - - - - ← II *dʰr̥š-?
"protection" suoja, hoi-va *sōjē, šōjē - - - - - - - ← II *sćaajaa
Rejectable
"group" *jo/õukko - - - *juuk ɟakor - - - F. ← Sc. *jǫukja-, P. = *jëka- 'to divide'
"cover" - NS goaran - - - - N. xuri *koraa - better S < *koarō- 'to sew' (1), OU ← *kur- 'to skin' or *kur- 'to sew' (2), maybe Ms ← Kh.
Messy stuff
"those" *noo *nō- nonat *nŭnə K. nɨ- - - - Se. na
"that" *too *tō to- *tŭ U. tu ~ K. ta-, taa- *tuu-, *tu- *to₂-- *tå-
"3" *kolmi *kolmɤ *kolmə *kŭm #kuuińm haarom :
harma-
*kuurəm *kooLəm - *-rm-, analogy to '4' outside H+Ms?
"aspen" - - *poj - *pi - - *paaj #pij
"to flay" - *ńōvɤ- - - *ńij- ńuuz- Tv. ńooj- ~
CMs *ńuj-
*-w-/*-j-? H. *ńoWə-ta-?
"pole" - *čōlčɤ - - - - - - *səlčə Bad
"pole" Fi. vuoli - - - - - *ula N. *(w)ooɭ - OU here under next item?
"pole" ulku *holkɤ olga - K. ɨl N. aawla N. *oxəL *uj for comparision
"straight" *o/õikëda *vōjkɤ *vijəďɜ *wij- - - - - - S. may be ← F. Mo/Ma *wejä/*weKä?
"buckle" *so/õlki *čūlkō- *śulga *šolkama - - - - - P. *śuul "ski" better ← *śëlka
"to feed" - - - *wurde- *vördɨ- - - - - Cf. IE *werdʰ-
"to throw" *loo *lū *ľijə- *loŋa- *lɤd- loog- WTF
"dawn" *koi - - - K. kɨa - - - - Better *kajə? H. haj, Ms. *kuuj cf. *kaja "sun"
"a fish" *to/õtki - *tutka *tatə - tat *tokt - Sk. tut East *u?
"cloth" - - - *tŭɣər *te/ɤra - - - -
"many" *mo/õni moanɤk - - *-mɨn *-vAn *-mən - - Probly ← IE
"to lern; to see" *o/õppe(j)- - - - - - *waapl- *waapəɣ- - F. → S. *oappɤ-
"to be able; to fight" *vo/õi- - - - - viiv- - - -
"ski" - - - *ječe - - *jašə - - Bad
"weak" - - - - K. rudź- ross - - -
"to sweep" Fi. huosi- - - - U. čuž- - *šaaš- *čaač- Sk čuuč-←
*čåəč-
"go sour" - - - Me. šua- U. šut- ~ K. šuź- - - - - Cf. čapp
"harness" - *vōtɤ - - - - *vo/ät *wäät Sk. *kuu
"moss" - *ńōrɤ - - - - - - *ńår- Cf. *ńërə
""
""

*o_a

Lexeme Finnic Samic Mordv. Mari Permic Hung. Mansi Khanty Samoy. Comments
F. *o_a, S. *oa_ē, Mo. *u_ə, Ma. *u, P. *uu, H. aa, Ms. *uu, Kh. *aa, Smy. *å_å
"part; flesh" *osa *oańčē Me. ü/užas - aaɟek, ost- *uunć - - ← II?
"fish trap" *ota- *oacē - - K. vodž - *wuuš *waač *wåč Mo. *oš "city" probably doesn't belong. Sk. *k⁽ʷ⁾ëččə a derivative?
"jaw" - *oalōl *ulə - - aall(a-) *uuləć - -
"awhile; to spend a night" NF *kotva *koaðvē - - *kʷɤl haal- *kuul- *kaaL- - AA15. Ma. kot "year" ← Ru. год (MZh14)
"time" - - - - - - -
"to conjure" - - Er. al(s)ta- *ulte- - aald- - *aaLəL- -
"spirit" - - - - *kuuľj haɟ *kuľ- - *kåjkə *-d₂k-. F. *koljoi ← Gmc
"raw, meat" - - - - *uuľ - - - *åjå
"skin" E. kõba - *kuvə *kŭwə *kuu - - - *kopå Ma. *ŭ / _[+LAB]_
"squirrel" *orava *oarēvē *ur *ur K. ur - - - Mt. orop Vo õrava. PSmy *årop / *oråp
"eagle" *kotka *koackēmē *kućkan *kučkəž *kuuč - - - -
similar but P. *kʷåå, Ms. *aa
"house" *kota *koatē *kudə *kuðɤ *kʷåå haaz(a-) *kaatə *kaat - Old Ms хоть, хоать. ← II?
"ear; leaf" *ko/õrva *koarvē - - *kʷåår harap - - *kåw
"small fly" - - - *lŭmej U. ľum - *ľaaməj - - Ma. *ŭ / _[+LAB]_
indistinct
"head" *oiva *oajvē Mk. uj- *wuj - - - - *åjwå
"to bring" - *toalvō- - - - - - - *tåjwå-
"wedge" *tolva - *tulə - *tuulj - - - *tajwA F. → ??
"hare" - *ńoamēlē *numələ - K. ńimal ńuul(a-) - - *ńåmå ← *ńoxə-ma(-la)? H. *m-lenition
"war" *so/õta - *śudə- *šuðə-
"curse"
- - - - *såjə S. *soattē ← F.
"quarrel" *to/õra *toarō *tuŕə- - - - - *tåro- Hi. "torle-" ∄ (MZh14)
"aunt" - *koaskē - - - - - - *kåtå
"shallow; to dry" - *coakē- - - - - - - Sk. *čëkə- PSmy *čåkå-?
"to go" - - juta-, Mk. jota- - - - - - *jåtA- *jočə-ta-? Cf. OUg *jaač "path". S. *jotē- better ← B. *judē-.
"to dry" - - - - *śuur- saar- - *saar- - Ms. *šu(u)r(l)- ← Komi šural-?
"orphan" *orpoj *oarpēs *urəs - - aarva - E. uurwɯɯ - ← IE *(h₃)orbʰos
"to sew" - - - *ŭrɣe-;
*wŭrɣəm
"cloth"
*vuurɨ- var- - - - Ma. *ŭ / _[+LAB]_
"south; day" *lo/õuna - - - U nun, lum
~ K lun
- - - - ← IE *louksnos
"to gather" *korjat- - - - *kuurjal- - - - - may be loan F → P (-rj-!)
"reindeer" *poro *poačōj - Hi. pučə ~
Me. püčö
U. pudžej - - - - ← II *paču-; Ms *pääš ~ Kh *peeč indep.
"to wait" *odotta- *oacōttē- *učə- *wŭče- - - - - - Ma. *ŭ / _[+LAB]_
"shaman" *no/õjta *noajtē Er. nuď-ńe-
"to divine"
- - - *ńääjt - -
"sleigh" - *čoanē
"last sleigh"
- - - - *šun - -
"wave" - - - - - hab(o-) *ku(m)p *ko/uump *kåmpå Distinct from FP *kumpu "hill".
"hill" - - - *mŭčə *muuč - - - - *močča, Ma. *ŭ / _[+LAB]_?
"cold" - - - *juž U. juz - - - -
"bent, to bend" *no/õtko/eda *ńoackē *nučka- - - - - - -
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West *o_a, Mari *ŭ?, East *ë (P ambiguous)
"man, male animal" *koira(s) - - - K. kɨr here *kɤɤr *kaar *kora *kojra ← *kojə-ra
"duck" *so/õtka *čoaðkē *śulgə *šooe *šuul - *sɤɤľ *saaj - *ś-l → *ś-ľ in Ug.
"ware" *os-ta-
"to buy"
*oasē - *wŭža *vuuz - *wɤɤta - - ← IE *wosā, Ma. *ŭ / _[+LAB]_. Ms via II?
"to peel" - - - *kŭðaša- *kuuľ- - *kɤɤľ- - -
"to dive" - - - *šŭŋga- *s/zuuŋ- - - - -
"to take, to pluck" *vo/õtta- - - - U. vɨtɨ- ~ K. vot- - *wɤɤt- - - *wolə-kta-?
feat. Ms. *aCC, Kh. *oo
"soft" - *loančē - "lënzë-" - laaɟ *lanćəŋ *ɭoonćə(ɣ) - NB no palzn in S.
"rare" *harva *soarvē *šurə - K. šur- - - *ɬoorəp #tïrå- S. "dry tree", K. "to dry"
"soup" *rokka - - - - - LU raɣt *rook -
"to tire" - - - *noje- - - - *nooj- -
"to hack" - - - *roe- - rov- - *rooɣ- - Hi. u in hiatus
"to scrape" - - - - *vuušt- vaaš- *ašɣ- *woočəɣ- -
"to stick in" - - - - - ɟak- *jɤɤkʷ- *jooɣə- Or H ~ Fi tokka-, Ma *loɣe-
"sorcery" - - - - - taaltoš *tooLt - NMs tuultən "light, easy" semantically bad
"palm; span" - - - - - marok(o-) - S muurəs -
"collar" - - - - - - *rɤɤkʷ *rook - Ne. *ruku ← Kh.
feat. P *oo
"friend" - - - - *joort - - - #(*j)üruŋ
"dish, chest" - - - - *dooz - - *toL -
"piece" - - - - *toor - *taawrV - -
"twig" *oksa *oaksē - *ukš *oosɨ - - - -
"space; warm" *hooneh - - - *šoon- - - - - Or F. ← B. *šānas "side" → "room"
"sleigh" - - *nurdə - *noort - - - -
"narrow; to worry" - - - - *šoog aggod- , oog- - - - Semantics bad
"to stick" - - - - *tooj- †toľ- - - -
"to stretch" - - - - U nujt- ~ K ńojd- ńuujt- - - -
"to conjure" - - - - K. vom-- †wima- - - - *wojmɜ-, cf. F. voima?? (should be H. *-w-)
feat. P *åå
"cleft" *kolo *koalō - - *kʷåål- halok *kal *kååɭ - FS possibly ← Gmc
"pig" *po/õrsas - *purćis - *påårś - - - - ← IE
"healthy" - - - Hi. šu *šååń igen - - - H. "very". Expected P -m?
"to knead" - - - *lŭɣA- *lååj- - - - -
feat. Mo *o
"wet" *loppa - *lop-aftə- *lŭp K lapɨd - - - - Ma. *ŭ / _[+LAB]_, unless *u?
"valley" *lotma - ložmo - - - - - - Phonotax non-Uralic
"bad; lazy" Fi. nolo - Mk. nola - - - - - - Better F ← S (cf AASL), Mk < *novla
feat. Ma *a
"slime, phloam" *nola, *nila - - *nalɤ U. ńɤl ~
K. ńiľ
- *ńiľ- "to peel" *ńaL Ne. nal- Cf. *ńïla. F. also nula
"fat" Fi. kuu - *kuja *kaja U. kɤj;
U. kwajɨ-
haaj(a-) - - - Maybe *koxa??
"dung" *sonta - - *šandə U. zud "mud" - - - -
"brittle" NF *rohka - - *raš/čka *rɨž, K. rɨš(k)- - - - - *rošə, *roš-ka? OU ris etc. ← K. Don't see how H. roš- "slow" compares. Zek "P *ruuž"
East only
"hill" - - - - - domb(o-) *tåmp - - clearly not PU
"to sink" - - - - - rokkan- *rowt-, N. räɣ- *raak- -
"birch bark" tidoo + OU per *tana
"to see" - - - - - oov- *wɤɤ(j)- *wuu-/waa- *wë(ra)- how about *ë
"to go" - - - - - in-- *jaam- - Ne. jaam-
"lead" - - - - - oolom(o-) *wuuləm - -
"hole" - - - - - - N. waapi - *wåpə Loan from Ne. → Ms?
"good" - - - - - joo, jav- *jamas *jem - or Kh ~ F. *imeh
"plane (tool)" - - - - - ɟal(l)u, ɟarol- *jar(ɣə-) - - H. *rl → ll?
"to remain; thrifty" - - - - - marad- - - *mərəj better *u?
"head" - - - - - - *ɤɤw(t) *ååk,
*uu₂ŋkəL
*ukə Or Ms < *ojwa?
"road" - - - - - uut(a-) *ɤɤKt *ååkət *uət
TBS
"vessel" F. purnu *pōrnē - - U. bɤrńo
~ K. burńa
- - - -
"to sigh" *hooka- SS såagedh - #šootVć- "to rest" - - *šëëk- - - Consonants bad. F, S. better ← Gmc *swogan. F. → S. *śōkkē-
"stick" *sompa *soampē - šo/umba? K. *zɨb - - - - F. ← S. ← II?
"to prick" F. tokkaa- - - Hi. loɣe- - ɟak- - - -
"yellow" - - *ťuža - U. čuž - - - - Fairly bad
"1000" - - - - *śuurs - *šatər- *ćorəs ← II *ǵʰasra, independantly?
"to peel" - - - - U. vɤľɨ-
~ K. *vɔľ-
*woľćt- - - - S. *oalō- ← *walə-; E. *valə- ← *wala- "pour"??
"Labrador tea" - ES *olo- - - - - *waľ *wääľ - Bad. Note *ľ.
"fat" - *jolē - - - - - *jaaL - *u ~ *ë/*a?
"middle; with" Fi. jotka - *jutkə - - jaat
"friend"
E/N *jat,
S/W *jät
TrJ jot,
VVj jöt
*jotä
"slow" - *ńoacē - - *ńož(jV-) - - - -
"club" *nujja,
*nuhja
"diver" - *ńūNēl - - - - - - *ńuənä
"to press together" - - - *nŭmɤrge- K. ńam- ńom- - - -
"neck" - - - - ńak - - - Sk. #nukV
"to crawl; to grab" - *ńoamē- - - - ńuul- - - *ńəʔmå-
"to crawl" - E *ńoallē- - - - - - - Ne. ńalo- Suspicious
"nettle" - - - *nuž - - - - Ne. nāca-- medial??
"burden" - - - - U. nɨpɨ ~
K. nop, nup
- *nɤɤp - -
"piece" - *(s)moalō - - - - - - #mAlå Rejectable; S ← Gmc
"~protrusion" - *mājrē
"crop"
- Hi. mɤra
"beehive"
*moorɤs
"breast"
mar
"withers"
- - *mərki
"shoulder"
to disassemble
"long" - - - *kužə *kuuź hoss(a-) *kʷašə - Km. kunzu Cent. *o ~ East *u?
"hat" - - - *upšə *uźɨ - - - - Ma. *u despite _p!?
"brittle" - - - #rot - ruut, rot- - *ratək - Cf. *roška
"pit" *kooppa - - - U. gop - - - - Coincidental?
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