Proto-Uralic/E

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Std. PU *e_ə

Finnic *e_i, Permic *oo, Khanty *e

Lexeme Finnic Samic Mordv. Mari Permic Hung. Mansi Khanty Samoy. Comments
*ê_ə (S. *ɤ_ɤ, Mo. *e, Ms. *i, Smy *e → Ng. /ɨ/, *i elsewhere) Old cases mostly open syllables
"to fear" *pel-kä- *pɤlɤ- *peĺə- - *pool- fee/iil- *pil- *peL- *pej-
"blood" *veri *vɤrɤ *veŕ *wü̆r *vir veer *wiɣər *wer -
"water" *veci - *veď *wü̆t *voo viiz
~ vize-
*wit - *wet ← IE?!
"to go" *mene- *mɤnɤ- - *mije- *munɨ- mën- *min- *men- *men- Ma. cf. Kar. mäne-
"to do" *teke- *tɤkɤ- Er. ťeje- - - tëv- *tij- *tej- - ← IE. Mk. ťijə-. Source for OU??
"lip" - *pɤŋsɤm - - - - CMs
*piťem
*peLem *päptän -ms- ?
"to take" *vee- *vīkɤ- *vijə- - *vajɨ- vë-, vi- *wiɣ-/*wäj- *we- *ü- *ex > *ix in S/Mo?? H "take"/""carry"
"night" *öö *ījɤ *vej - *ooj ee/iij *jiɣ *jej - *ewjə, > FMo *üjə? Cf. *kowsə > Ms *kaɣt; *jäwjə > Kh *jeej
"owl" *hüüp- *ɤpɤkē - - - - *jipəɣ *jepəɣ - Onomatopoetics in F.? Compatible with WU *je → *ji
"warm" E. eha NS áccagas *ežə- - - - *iš- - -
"bee" *mehi- - *mekš *mükš *mooš meex - - - ← preII
"honey" *meci - meď *müj *moo meez - - - ← preII. Ma. cf. Kh. *määɣ
"skin" *keri *kɤrɤ keŕ *kü̆r *koor kee/iirëg *keer *käär - ObU *kEr. Cf. IE *(s)ker-
"skin" *keci *kɤtɤ keď - - - - - *ket Cf. prev; also *käðʲə → P. *kiĺ, Ms. *kääĺən
"to must" - *kɤlkɤ- keĺge- Me. küle- ~
Hi. kele-
*kool- kell- - - - Cf. IE. Check if not *i?
"to shake" - - - *rü̆ze- U dźećɨra- rësk *risɣ- ~
N rasɣ-
*reńć- - better *e-ä?
"young tree, twig" - - - *nörɣə *ńɤr ńiir *ńir *nér - Smy. #nËrkə "willow" may not belong - or is this *ë?
"to fly" - - - - K šɨlgɨ- - *tiɣl- *ɬeɣəL- #tiC-
"exchange" *vero - veŕe-nc *werć- U. vur - - *weer -
"run; go" - *vēkɤ- - - *vooɨ- - - - - *wexə-
"handle" - *nɤvtɤ - - *nud - - - - *-ŋt-. Check if not *i
"middle" *keski *kɤskɤ keska - *koos - - - -
"throat" NF *kero ~
EVo *kõri
*kɤrɤs - - *goor - - - - Cf. Ir. *gara "throat"; Toch kor < *gʷerw-
"elder" - - *čev-- - U. šu ~
K. žo
- - - - -
"to wash" *pese- *pɤsɤ- pezo- - - - - - - ← IE
"to stretch" *venü- *vɤnɤ- veńeme- - - - - - *wenä
"rope"
"boat" *veneh *vɤnɤs veńeš - - - - - - cf. "to stretch"
"to be in time" *ehti- *ɤstɤ- - *ĭšte- K. eštɨ- - - - - K. ← F?
"leaf" *lehti *lɤstɤ - *lĭštäš - - - - - ← IE
"work" *töö - ťev - - - - - - *tewə; cf. *tekə-
"lime, bast" *lehmus - ĺevos - - - - - -
"dove" F metti-- ~
E meikas
- *mečə - - - - - -
"pestle" *petkel - peťkeĺ - - - - - -
"feather" *hewhen *sɤvsɤm - - - - - - - NB difthong! Newer loan? -n ~ -m doesn't match
"to tear" *repe- *rɤpɤ- - - - - - - -
"next" *enti *ɤvtɤ - - - - - - - *-ŋt-
"berry" - - - - *mooĺɨ mëɟɟ - *-məĹ - preP → Ma *mooðə?
*e_ə (S. *ē_ɤ, Mo. *i, Smy. *i; cf. *äx) all old cases long or difthongal?
"to cook" - - *pijə- - K. pu- (föö-) *pääj- - *pi- *pexə-; cf. *pEsa- !
"matter" - *sējɤ sij *šü *śiś eev *säj *ɬöj *tiəj *se(x)jə
"to sell" *möö- *mēkɤ- *mijə- - *med - *miɣ- *me- *mi- *mexə. P. "loan"
"to boil" *kee-, *kei- *kī- - *küa- - köve- - - -
"7" *sejcem
Võ. säice
*čēčɤm *śiśəm *sĭm *śiźɨm - - - - ← IE?
"meat" - - *sivəĺ *šĭl *siĺ - - - - *sewə-lɜ?
"round" *kehkerä - *kičkərə *kĭškär - - - -
"brother" *velji *vēljɤ - - - - - - - Short! ← IE?
"clear" *selke- *čēlkɤ - - - - - - - Liv. sieldɤ. Cf. F. *selvä "ibid."
""
*E_ə (as per *e_ə but Ms *ee, Kh *ii) generally coda glides, but note *Eði, *kEri
"mushroom" *seeni *čānā - *šeen U. śeńki - *šeenəɣ *säänəɣ - *śE(x)nə? Maybe better *ä? H. seen ~ sene- "coal, fire"
"to eat" *söö- - *śevə- - *śooj ëv- *tee-,
*tääj-
*ɬii₂- *ti-mä Smy. "tooth". U. *oo₂ → i between palatals? Sibilant & medial mismatch!
"soul, breath, steam" *lewlü *lēvlɤ - - *lool lee/iilëk
~ lëlk-
#li/el *ɬii₁L - Wrt. S, cf. difthong
"soul" *iccek *jēčɤ *eś *ĭške K aćim iis *jis *ii₁s - *jEćə, F. *je → *i? Kh *je → *ii??
"night" - - - *jü̆t - - *(j)eet *äät, *ii₂tən S #(ń)ütə Kh *ii₂ / #_ ? Cf. F. *ilta?!
"front" *eti - - - - elöö *eel *ii₂L *e/ir- Kh *ii₂ / #_ ? Smy. "row"
"rope" - - *piks - - fiu - *pii₁ɣəL -
"smoke; fog" - - - - *čɨŋ - *šeeŋkʷ- - Kh *čii₁ɣ "fog" rather ~ S *cēkɤ (StUE4)
"(to) swear" *irvɜ- *ɤrvɤ-
"be happy"
- - *joo₂r-- öröm
'joy'
*jeer- - - *jerwɜ-, F.& S. *je- → *(j)i-
"edge" - - - - - see/iil *seel *sii₁L -
"short; to cut" - - - - - rövid - Trj riiɣ- -

Std. PU *e_ä

Finnic *e_ä, Samic *ea_ē, Mordvinic *i_ɜ, Permic *oo, Samoyedic *e (not **i!)

Lexeme Finnic Samic Mordv. Mari Permic Hung. Mansi Khanty Samoy. Comments
*e_ä type 1: Ms *ä, Kh *e/*öɣ (in PMs CVCV stems?)
"ear" - *pealjē *piľə *pĭləš *peľ fül *päľ *peL -
"uncle" *setä *čeacē Er. čiče *čü̆čə *čoož - CMs *šäša - *čečä Sibilant assimilation east of F/S? K. also ćož
"knife" - - - *kü̆źə - keeš CMs *käšäj *kööčəɣ - or *kičɜ with H irreg.
"hook" - SS ńieccie - - - - *ńäš(ə?) N *ńešə - *ńeččä
*e_ä type 2: similar except Ms *i (in PMs CVC stems?) more common than "regular" *ê_ä
"ring" *kehä *kēsɤ (či) *keče *kɨč keeɟ Tv küš ~
CMs *kiš
*köč *keččä. S, Ma *ä? Mo. "sun" may not belong
"neck" *sepä *čeapē *śivɜ *šüj *śil - CMs *šip *sääpəL - Ma. *-epV > *-ĭw > *-ü ??
"nest" *pesä *peasē *pizə *pĭžäš *pooz fee/iisek *pit *peL *petä
"catfish,
burbot"
*säkä - *śijɜ *ši - - *šiɣ *seɣ - Ma. CV ⇒ *i
"to serch" - - - *kĭčälä- *kooč-k/j-  ? kereš- *kinš- *kenč- - MaP *keččə- ~ OU *kenčə-?
indistinct between *e₁_ä and *e₂_ä
"4" *neljä *nealjē *ńiľɜ *nĭl *ńooľ nee/iiɟ *ńilə ~
*n/ńäl-
*ńeLää - Ms *ä in n/ńälmən "40" (*nelə-jä vs. *nelə-mon "40"?)
"to liv" *elä- *ealē- - *ĭle- *ool- eel- *jäl- *jeL- *elä- OUg both "visit", "recover". Ms > *i- > *jä-? Mo. *era-?
"big, uncle" *enä *eanē *ińɜ - *uuna - *jänəɣ *enə *enä Ms > *i > *jä-?
"uncle; father" - *eakē - - - - *jäɣ
CMs *äki
*jeɣ
*ii₁kii
En ďiśi < *ekä StUE4. Ms > *i- > *jä-? Ne. ńeekka?
"pine" *petäkä *peacē *pičə *pü̆nće *poožɨm - - - *petä
(> Ng.)
"to beg" *kerjät- - - - *koor- keer- - - - ~ F. *kerät- "to collect"
"skillful" *seppä *čeappē - - - seep - - -
"dog" *penVj *peanɤk *pińə *pij ~ *pŭni *poon(ɨ) (fene) - - - Ma. *ɪ/əj > *ij? H. "wild" may not belong
"ring" *keccV - - - - - - *kösə - Cf. *kecrä
"brook" - - - - *šoo₁r eer - - -
"to get free" - *meanō- mäńe- K. mɨn- ment- - - Ne. mina- *mänə-w-? Also cf. *menə-
"a fish" *keso L. kääčuk - - K. gɨć keseg *kääsəŋ *kosə - or F. < kesä
"white" - *čeaskātɤ-
*čeaskɤtē
- - K. ćoćkɤm - - - - *sk ~ *ćk?
"to scrape" - *neaskē- - *nü̆žä- - - - - -
""
""
*ê_a & such (FSM per , Ma. ?, Ms *i; see also *ü_a)
"heart" *sütäm *čɤðēm *śeďəŋ *šüm U. śulem
~ K. śɤlɤm
siiv(e-) *šim *sem *säjə perhaps *śewd₁äm?
"brother-in-law" *kütü - - - - - CMs *kil *küüLi ? - or ~ *kälü?
"to plow" *küntä- - - *künče- - - - - - F. could be a later derivation from *künčə
"tail" *häntä S. câcka ~
P. ciskes
- - - - *šiš *čenč ~
V. čönč
-
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*E_a (Ms. *ee, Kh. *ää)
"to hit" *peksä- - *piksə- - *pös- - - *pääɣəL- *petV- 2ndary length in Fi. pieksä-
"2" (*kakti) (*kōktē) (kavta) (kok) *kɨkt keet *kit *käät *ketä Ms. *i before a cluster? Kh also *kii₁tənti "both". FV *kakta
"price" - - - - *doon - CMs *tin *tään,
*tii₁n
- (no evidence for a cluster)
"duck" - - - - *goordaa - *kirtəɣ N. kaartaŋ - Ms. *i before a cluster?
"to dodge" - *kɤrvē- - - - kerül- E ker ~
N kir-
*käärəɣ- -
"to cook" - *pɤsē- - - *pɤɤž- - *peet- *pääL- - P also cf. F paah-ta- / OU *ponča-? Cf. *pexi-
"to separate" - *peacē-
(S only)
- - - fesl- *peešt- V pääčii- ~
Vj pečää--
"(to) thin" - *keancē - - - keškëń - *käänć- - Ms. *kAAnś- ← Kh.
"to miss" - *meantē- - - - - - Vj. miintəɣtə- - Or *men-tä-?? Cf. F. mene-ttä-
"to bind" - - - - - ńeek- *neeɣ- "Kr" neewəj- - Cf. Mong. *neke- "to weave"?
"room" - - - - - teer (tere-) - E. täär,
tiir
-
similar except Kh. *(j)ii₂- (initially?)
"weather" *ilma *ɤlmē - - U. in ~ K. jen - *jeeləm *(j)ii₂Ləm - FS *je > *(j)i?
"to press" - - *ičə-
"knead"
*jĭše- *ɨčkɨ- - - W *iiš- -
"to carve" - - *inzəďə- - - - *jeen(s)- *(j)ii₂nL- -
"clear day" - *jealɤkkɤs - - - - - E *jiiL *jälä
"(to) love" - *eaccē- - - - - - *(j)ii₂čəɣ -
IE loans etc.
"year" *ikä
"age"
*jɤkē *ij(ə) *i - eev - - - ← IE *jegʷaa, FS *je > *ji? PreH *ewə rather than *eɣə? S *ɤkē "age" ← F.
"fox" *repä *rēp- Er. ŕiveś *rĭwəž *ruć(i) ravas ← II, Ma. thru Hu. separately?
"blade, edge" *terä *tearē - *tü̆r *door töör - - - Cf. II *dʰārā. Also Ud. ter ~ tir "ax"
"tip" *kasa *keačē - hëɟ - - - ← IE *h₂aḱ-. Probably *a, S. > *ea / _Ć? Distinct from F. "pile" (← Gmc)
"to be born" *süntü- - - - K. sod- †edl- - - - ← preIr *dzen- + *tä-
"side, rib" - *earttē *irdɜ *örðəž *oord- - - - - ← II *erdʰa-
"summer" *kesä *keasē *kizə - - - - - - ← IE *h₁es-en/r-?
"human" *inhimi- - *inžə(j) - - - - - - ← IE *ǵnh₁-V-, with *je > F. ji?
"alder" *leppä *leapē *ľepɜ - - - - - - ← B; Mo. separately
"times" *kërta *keartē *kirda Hi. -kerðə ← B. *kertā / II *kṛt-, later than Mo. -a > -ə?
"all, whole" - - *veśəj - *vååć †ösve - - #wAnsA at least Mo Hu ← II *wićwa-. U. also viś, vɨć
"man" - - *mirďɜ - *moort - - - - ← II *mṛt-
"ring" *kecrä *kearsē Er. *ščeŕe
~ Mk. kšťiŕ
- - - - - - ← preII *kētstra?
"corn" *jüvä - juv - U. ju ~ K. jɨki - - - - ← IE *jewa/*jowa (Avestan yava etc.), F *je > *ji?
"grouse" *tetri - - - *tooɜr - - - - ← B. *tetVrV
"far; woods" *meccä *meaččē - - - (messe) - - - ← B *medja-, H perhaps unrelated
"ghost" - *šeartɤ - *šĭrt U. šurd- ördög - - - ~ Russian čert, Iranian?
"chin" - - - - *aŋ - *eeɣən,
Ko. iɣən
*ääɣəɳ *aŋå ← Turk. *ēŋ, Smy via Oghur? (Chuv: ana). OU #eeɣän better ~ *jekən(ə)
Substrate loans? (Mari *i; note phonotax)
"wheat" *vehnä - *viš(ɜ) *wiśte - - - - -
"cow; horse" *lehmä - *ľišmə - - - - - -
"rope" - *reašmē *ŕiśmə - - - - - - Cf. II *raćmV; B. *rišima "thred" (→ F. *rihma)
TBS 1: Widespread
"us" *mek
"you" *tek #tīj *ťiń *tää *ti ti - - #täŋ
"bundle; to plait" *kerä - *kiŕɜ - - - *keer- *kiir- OU swapped with *kärə- 'to wrap'.
"to prick" - *peaðē- *päľə- - - - *peel- *peeL- - No regularity really. E/ä? l/ð?
TBS 2: FP/West only
"oar" *mëla *mealē *miľə - K. maľ? - - - - Looks newer per F. -a
"back" *selkä ~
*sälkä
*čēlkē - *šĭle - - - - - …*säälkä ??
"spring, summer" *kevät - - *keŋəž *goož(em) - - - - P. metathesis or *ŋ-loss? Or ~ Kh *kaač "warm"
"dust; ash" F. pelmV- - - - U. peńm- ~
K. pɤjim
- - - - F → P? NB *ľ
"bare; good; clean" F. pelkkä - - *pelkə K. peľk - - - - Semantics bad. NB *ľ
"road" *tee - - - K tuj,
Jz tʉj
- - - -
"ear of grain" *tähkä - *ťikšɜ *tü̆ška *too₂šk
"beard"
- - - -
"to feed" - - *ťiŕa- - K. tɤrśɨ- - - - -
"drape" *vërho - #orčta - - - - - -
TBS 3: East only
"to narro" - - - - - mere- CMs *mär- *mer- - Check Kh, O /ä/
"to darken" - - - - - šetët *šät-- W četimə-
"to sink" - - - - - †šeped- šeep- - -
"root" - - - - - ɟökeer T jükäär ~
*jeekʷar
- - better *ü??
"kidney; penis" (?!) - - - - - veše *wäćəɣ - - bad; medial mismatch
"limb" - - - - - iiz - *jöt - alt etym for H: *jäsə-
"(to) work" - - - - - müü(ve-) - - *mäj-
"face" - - - - - - - *weenč Sk. wandV
TBS 4: Ma~P, P~H
"color; dawn" - - - *rü̆m(b)älɣə *romɨt - - - -
"good" - - - Hi. rəž U. dźeć - - - - perhaps *riććä?
"moss" - - - *reɣeńćə *roojɨ - - - -
"alder" - - - *lööl *lool - - - -
"to measure" - - - - U mertal- ~
K *moortal-
mee/iir- - - -
"thick; more" - - - - *too₁p(ɨt) több - - - H. haplology *töpöbb > több?
TBS 5
"light" *kep-edä *keappē - - U. kapći keveeš - - *käjpɜ
"warm" - - - - *rög reeg, rög *riɣ ~
N reeɣ
*reɣ - *-ŋ- ~ *-ɣ-?
"grey" - - - - *dźåår sir,
sürke
CMs *šir - - Cf. Mong. *sira "yellow"?!
"wet" - - - - *uuľ - CMs *iľ - - Ma. iľe ← U. Or Ms other (cf. StarLing)
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"perch" - - - - *joo(kɨ)š - - *jööɣ Ne. ńiix-
"to dance" - - - - U ektɨ- ~
K jɤktɨ-
- *jeekʷ- *jœœk- -
"to err" - - - - - teeved- CMs *tip- *tep- -
"deer" F. teva - - - - teheen - - #täə
"full, to fill" - - - *temə,
*teme-,
*tema-
- †tëm, temet- - - -
"to stick in" NF *työ-ntä- - - - *too₂j- töv-- *täɣ- *töökən- - Medials messy, F. cf. "work"
"breath; heat" *heŋki - - - - - - *čeŋk - Ms #sääNk "hot weather" doesn't fit, U. džog < *r-.
"to run; to hurry" - - Er. čije- - - šiet- - - -
"to refine; flour" *lese- - - - - list - - -
"to sow" - - *viďə- *wüðe- - ve(e)t- - - -
"grouse" *mecco,
*mëttVs
T. piecce - - - - *mänšəm - - Bad. F better ← *meccä 'forest'
"we" *me(k) *mī *miń *me *mi mi *mäŋ
du. meeN
meŋ
du. miin
*mä-
"to tear" *repi- *rɤpɤ- - - - *reped- *reep- - - *p / *pp?
"to flap" *räppä- - - - - *rëpít-/ül- *reep-
"shake"
Vj reepää-
~ N raaw-
"blink"
-
"to glue" - - - - - ragad- - *rööŋk- - better *ä or smth
"to step; wade" - - - - - ruug- - *röŋkää- -
"to be" *lee- *lea- (*ľävks
"young")
*liä- *loo- *lë- - - - *lejə-?
"hard wood (for skis)" *lülü - - - K. lol - - *ɬeL - *e-ü > F *ü-ü??
"soft" CF *leina - - - K lɤń - *liń *ɭeeń -
"under" - - - Hi. lə- - - - - or *li
"very" - - - *lĭŋ - -leg - - -
"butterfly" E *liippo- W *lɤplV- - *lĭpə - lepke *läpäk *ɭepAntaaj
"leaf" *lepeh - - - - leveel *luupta *ɭɯɯpət -
"dense; narrow" - - - - U. ľukɨt - N. ľakʷ *ɬ´ök - NB *ľ-
"cradle; to lull" Fi liesku - - *lüške U. lećkal- - - - -
"lime; bast" *lëhmus - *ľevəš *nĭmeštə - - - - -
"to shine" E *čilketta- - *ćiľďər- ćo/ɤlɣɤža- U ćiľ/lal- ~
K. dźuljal-
čillog- CMs *śulɣ- N *ćuulpəɣ- better something like *o
"small bird" E čiučoi - - - - - *ćäŋći *će₂ćkə #sinsakV probs onomatopoetic
"finger / knuckle" - - - - U. ćińɨ
~ K. ćuń
čüd, čüg - *ćoŋən -
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Rejectable
"to rub antlers against a tree" - *čɤlɤ- - - - - - - Ne. śelə- Ne. better ← *sälä- < *śälä- 'to rub' (AASmy2)
"mild; warm" Fi lenseä - - - - - - Vj ɭɯɯsək Bad. Fi better = leppeä × penseä
"to cut" *lëikka- - - - - leek - - Ne. ľekā- Bad; F ← Gmc
"to find" *lewtä- - - - - lel- - - - rather F ← Gmc