Proto-Uralic/A

From FrathWiki
Jump to: navigation, search

The many and varied cognates of Finno-Mordvinic *a.

Bold marks apparent vocalic irregularities (note tho that rules for Permic are partly unclear), red consonantal. Italic cases are unclear.

Standard PU *a_a

By default: F&Mo *a, S. *ō, Ma. *a/*o (conditioning??) P. *uu, Ms *uu, Smy *å

Lexeme Finnic Samic Mordv. Mari Permic Hung. Mansi Khanty Samoyedic Comments
*a_ə (forking; formerly under *oo, *o_a)
"thru" F. pahki - Mk. pačk - K. pɨšji - *puuš - Se. pooč check Se.
"twig" - *tōrkɤ - Me. tor - - - *tuu₁ɣər - or S ← Sc.
"wolf" - *čōrmɤ - *šŭrmə *śör - - *ćuu₁rəm *sårmå Ma. "lynx", P. "marten" may not belong
"ground" F. tanner *tōntɤr - - - - - - *tåntə-
"birch bark" - - - - *tooj - - - *təj Better *tojə, ~ H tidoo
"to stand" *saisë- *čōnčō- - *šĭnće- K. sidź- - *tuuńć- W *ɬaańć-,
E *ɬɯɯńť-
*tänsə- Ma. & Smy. point to original *ä. (Mo. *śta- ← IE?)
*a₁_a: H. a, Ms. *uu, Kh. *uu₁
"fish" *kala *kōlē *kal *kol - hal(a-) *kuul *kuu₁L *kålä Smy. *-å → *-ä after *l
"bit" *pala *pōlē *pal - - fal-at- *puul *puu₁ɭ *pålä Smy. *-å → *-ä after *l. Possibly K. palak "hole". Hi. pultəš ← *purəltəš ← *purə- "to bite".
"pot" *pata - - *pat - fazeek(a-) *puut *puu₁t *patə- Smy *a → *a between stops?
"to open" - *pōncō
"naked"
*panžə- *pača- K. pudž- - *puunš- *puu₁ɳč- -
"young deer" - - Mk. śarda *šarðə - - - *suu₁rtə Ne. siraj ? Ms. *surtə ← Kh?
"to scoop" *ammɜ-- - *amuĺa- - - - *uum- *uu₁m- -
"salmon sp." - - - - K. udž - *uuš *uu₁ɳč #ånčɜ
"sun" F. kaja- NS guoje Er. kaje- *kaja- - haj(-) CMs *kuj - *kåjå Ms *uuj → *uj. H/Ms. "dawn", better here than with F. koi
"in heat" F. suota *čōðē- - - K. ćulal- salad- - - *såjä F. ← S? Smy palatal assimilation? *-å → *-ä after *l/*ðʲ
"to present" - - *kaźə- - *koodźim hason(o-) - - *kåso *a-ə possible. P. palzn. Ma. *kućək "dowry" ← P.
"to dig" F. kaiva- *koajvō- *kaja- *koe- *kooj- hajiit- - - *kajwå- P, Smy. palzn. Hi. /u/ per hiatus.
"to thro" - - kaja- - *kooj- hajiit- - - - Homophonic with the prev.
"foot" *jalka *jōlkē *jalgə *jal - ɟalog(o-) - - -
"brain" F. aivo *vōjŋē - - - aɟ(a-) - - - Mk. uj rather ← *ojwa?
"to grasp" F. tarttu- - - - - tart- - - -
"roof" F. lakka - - - - lak- - - - H. "to dwell"
"to beat soft" *vanu- - - - - vaańol- - - - H. *wa- → vaa-?
"to roast" F. paahta- - - - *pɤɤž- - - - - F. 2ndary length?
"hole" - - - *raž K. roź rees - - - P. palzn.
"currant" - - - *šaptər U. suter ~
K. setɤr
- - - - Cf. Gmc *sap ??
"rotten" - - - *kaškə,
*kaška-
*kuuź - - - -
"to gro" - - - *paše- *puušjɨ- - - - -
"to ask" - - - *jaða- *juual- - - - - P. ← *-uuða- ?
"groove" NF *latu - - *laðo K. lu - - - - ← Baltic?
"rake" *hara,
*harkki
*sōrē *čar-kəďə- *šar(əm) - - - - - not loan; Gmc ← F
"opposite" *vasta *vōstē Mk. vasta *waštareš - - - - -
"wet" F. nahka
"leather"
*ńōskē Mk. načka *načkə - - - (*ńašak) - Khanty "raw" may not belong
"to grind" *jauha- - jaža- *jaŋəže- - - - - -
"fishing net" F. vata - - *wat - - - - - ← Gmc?
*a₂_a: similar except Ma. *o, Kh. *aa
"to leave" *katoda- *kōðē- *kadə- *koðe- *kooĺ- haɟ- *kuuĺ- *kaaćəɣ- ~
*ka/ɯɯj-
*kåjä- +Ma *koða- "stay". P. palzn. Smy. *-å → *-ä after *ðʲ
"to steal, thief" F. sala- *sōl-ɤk sala- *šolə - - *tuulmant-
*tuulmak
*ɬaaLəm-
*ɬaaLmaak
*tålä- + EKh *ɬɯɯLəɣ "stolen". Smy. *-å → *-ä after *l
"to carry" *kanta- *kōntē- *kandə- *kande- - - *kuunt- *kaant- *kån- *kanə-ta-, cf. Smy. ≠ *kënta "tree stump"!
"net" F. kalin - - - K. kulɤm haalo *kuuləp *kaaLəp - Cf. "fish"
"to open" *ava- - *aŋ-kśəma - - old-, ood- *ɤɤŋkʷ- VVj aaŋət-,
W. *eeŋk-
- Ms. cheshirization
"to bark" - - - *opte- *uut- - *uut- *aapət- -
"low ground" - - - - U. śum - *suujəm *saajəm - *o_a possible
"wild; animal" - - - Hi. wojər K. vɤj - *wuj *waajəɣ - P. *waR → *vɤɤR- ? Ms *wuu → *wu
"white" *hahka - Mk. akša *oš - - - *aaš -
"to thro" *vatkada- - *vačka- wačkalt-
('lect?)
- - - *waaškaLt- Ma. *a / w_
"to burst" *pakkahta- - - - - fakad- - *paakən- -
"fence" *ajta - - - - - - *aać -
"mole; beaver" - - Mk. maksa- - - - - *maaɣ - Weak. *ë_ə possible
"to sit" - - - - - - *uunl/t- *aaməs/t- *åmtə- *o_a possible
With S. *ā, Khanty *åå (/ *č_?)
"to hit" - *cāŋmē- *čavə- *čaŋe- - - *šɤɤŋkʷ- *čååŋk- *čåŋå- Ms. cheshirization?
"to chop" - T *cāppē-;
*cāpɤ-
*čapə- - *čuupɨ- - - *čååp
"piece"
- Onomat.? Cf. "to hit". U also čɨp-. Kh. cf. also Ms šup "piece of wood"?
"to step" - - Mk. šašto- - - - *šuuš- *čååč- *čåčä-
With Permic *oo poorly conditioned
"hard" - *čārēs - - *ćoorɨt - - - *sårə
"crust" *kamara - - *kom *koomɤĺ haaml- *käämtol - *kamə ! U. also kɤm
"fork" - - *užə *waž K. vož - - - *wåtå Or *woša with Ma./K. irregular
"berry" - - - - *oozɨ - - *uu₂L *ota
"rump" - - Er. kaśke
~ Mk. kaska
- *koosk - - - -
"smell" Võ. katsk - kačam(o) - K. kočɨs - - - - Cf. "bitter"
With Permic *u (→ Udm. /ɨ/)
"to go carefully" - *vāncē- - *wanče- *vuž- - *wuunč- *uu₁ɳč- *wånč-
"root" - - - *waž *vuž - - - *wånčå Homophonic with the prev.
"to be born" - - *šačə- *šača- U. čɨžɨ- ~ K. ćuž- - *šašəɣ W *čačəɣ Sk. *čaačə Cf. F. *sato - *śačə with widespread sib. assims?
"to stand" - - - *ša(l)ɣ *sul- aall- - -
"to shoot" *ampu- - - - U. ɨb- - - - - maybe *a → *ɨ / *_m_, cf. *mo- → *mɨ-. S. *āmpō- ← F.
Indistinct *a_a
"to drive" *aja- vōjē- aj- - *ooj- - *wujt- - - ← IE *aǵe- ? P. palzn, Ms. *wuu → *(w)u
"mountain" - *vārē - - - - *wur *woor *wårå Ms. *wuu → *(w)u. Cf. *warə.
"to sink" *vaja- *vōjō- vaja- - *vɤɤj(ɨ)- vaaj-,
vejse-
*(w)uj- - - P. *waR → *wɤɤR, H. *wa- → vaa-? Ms. *wuu → *(w)u
"marsh" *aro - - - - - *uuraj *uu₂rə - Kh *aa-U → *uu₂?
"death" *kalma *kōlmē kalma-
"to bury"
- - - - *kålm- *kaxl-ma? Cf. "to die"
"word" F. vala *vōlē val - - - - - *wålä Smy. *-å → *-ä after *l
"to stick; fork" Võ. tsank *čōŋkō- *śaŋgə - - - - - *såŋkə-
"in-law" *nato *nōtō - *nuðə - - - - *nåto
"to peel" - *vōtkē- *vatka- *wakta-,
*wotke-
- - - - Ne. waataa-
"knot" F. pahka - Mk. pakškä - - - - - *påktV
"branch" NF *sarka *sōrkē - - - - - - *tårkå
"skin" NF *talja *tōljē - - - - - - *tåəjə Better F & S. ← B. Maybe *tawəd₂ə > NMs tAwəľ?
"behind" *taka- *tuokē- - - - - - - *takə Smy *a → *a between stops?
"to rain" *sata- - - - - - - - *sårå-
"left" *vasen - - - - - - - *wåtä ?
"to want" - - *karma- - - - - - *kərmå- ?
"to rain" F. sata- *čāðē- - - - - - - *sårå- S. also *čōcē- "to hit" (won't go with Smy.)
"thru" - - Mk. šačk - - - - - Se. sačk Only Mo. and Se, sibilant assimilation?
"aunt, older sister" - - - - K. ob - *uup *o₂pə *åpå
"rotten" - *cōmcē - Me. šać *žoodź - - - - P. palzn, S. *c-ć → *c-c?
"series" *sarja - - - *śoor - - - - P. palzn. (*-rj-)
"with" F. kanssa - - - *gooz - - - - ← Gmc *xansa? P. palzn. also before plain sibilants?
""

Standard PU *ë

> F. *a, S. *ō, Mo. *a as well

Lexeme Finnic Samic Mordv. Mari Permic Hung. Mansi Khanty Samoyedic Comments
Ma. ö/ü, P. *uu, Ms. *ɤɤ, Kh. *aa, Smy. (std. PU *ëCC, *ëCi)
"land" *maa - - *mü, *mu *muu - *mɤɤ(ɣ-) *meɣ - *mëxə
"hair" F. hapsi *vōptɤ - *üp - - *ɤɤt E. aapət ~
W. *oopət
*ɤptə
"sore; groin" *narma TS ńaarme - - - - *ńɤɤrəm *ńaarəm Cf. also F. näärvä, S. *nārā- ibid.
"arc" *kaari *kōŋɤr - - - - *kɤɤŋraa N.
*xooŋkaar
-
"turnip; pine seed" *nakris - - - - - *nɤɤr *naakər - Suspicious
"cartilage" - *ńōrkēs *nar *nörɣə - ńiir *ńɤɤrəɣ *ńaarək *ńɤr *ńërə-ka (per Mo, Hu.); cf. *ńërə "soft"?
"gills" - *ńōkčɤm - *našmə K. ńokćim - *ńɤɤkćəm *ńaa(ŋ)kćəm Ne. ńińśku,
Ka. neeni ?
"crane" - - - - *tuuri daru, -rva- *tɤɤrəɣ *taarəɣ - *tërə-ka? Cf. abov.
"limb" - - - - - loll *lɤɤɣəl *ɭaakəɭ -
"to split" F. sali- *čōlɤ- - - - sil - - - Cf. F. säle "splinter"
"straight;
obvious"
- *ńōlkɤ-tɤ - - - ńil-ván - - -
"to live" *ase-,
*as-u-
- *äźə- - *uźɨ- - - - *ɤso- Cf. IE *h₁es-. Mo. and partly F may be rather < *äsä- (~ P *ozɜn).
"to be afraid" - - - *lüðä- - - - - *lɤrə- *-d₁- or *-t-? does *l- affect this?
"cradle" *lapci - *lafś *lŭ/epš - - - - *j/lɤpsə F. "child"
"soup; sweet" - - *jam - *juumal - - - - Smy *jäməj- 'soup' better < *lämə. Stem type? From *jëxə-ma??
"to clear wood" - *sōntɤ- *sańďə- *śüðä- - - - - -
"to get wet" - *lōccɤ- - *löčä- - - - - -
"to bury" - - - *müde- *muudɨ- - - - - *mëxə-ta-, cf. "land"
"thick" *sakeda, sakka- *sōkɤtē - *šukə "much" K. suk - - - - *sëkə-ta, *sëk-ka? Could be *o_ə with F. irregular?
"stalk, axle" - - E. sad *šüðər *zoo - - - - P. may point to *a
"stiff" *taŋkeda - Mk. taŋgəda - - - - - - NW+IS toaŋgi??
*ëx: F *o, preS/Mo *u?
"to drink" *joo- *jūkɤ- - *jüä- *juu- iv- *äj- *ɤ- cf. IA *ǵuǵʰew-?
"minor river" *jo/õki *jokɤ Er. jov - *juu joo *jɤɤ *jååkəɳ,
*jɯɯkɯɯ
- *jëkV? Cf. *jëxə- "to drink/flow?" Ma. *joɣe- "to flow" ← Chuv. jox- "id."
"major river" *juka - - *jååkəɳ *jəka for comparision
"swan" *jo/?uccen *ńūkčɤ *lokś-- *jükšə *juuś(k-) - - - *jä¹ŋkɜ *jëxćə-? Initials messy
"loon" - *toktɤ-kɤ - *toktə K. toktɨ - *tɤɤɣ/kt *taaktəŋ - Tv. → tʌt-kaa
"to reach; to spawn" - *joksɤ- - - - (v)iiv- - - - F. *jooksə- better from *joo- "drink, flow"? Bad without
"bent" - - Mk. nokəl(a) - *ńuuk - - - -
Similar except Mari *a/*o
"father-in-law" NF *appi *vōppɤ - *owə - apa, ipa S. ap ~ N. up *uup *əpə
"to chop" - *lōkčɤ- *lakśə- *lokšə-nća- U. lusjɨ-
~ K. lɤɤsjɨ-
- - - - U. ← K?
"light" *valkeda, *vale- *vēlkɤtē *valdə *walɣəðə - vilaag - - - Ma. *a / w_. Cf. #woľa- "to shine"; IE ?
*ëRə: similar except F. *oo, P. (std. PU *ëx_i)
"vein" *sooni *sōnɤ san *śün *sɤn iin(a-) *tɤɤn *ɬaan *čɤn
"arrow" *nooli *ńōlɤ nal *nölə U. ńil ~ K. ńɨl ńiil(a-) *ńɤɤl *ńaaL *ńɤj
"fish skin" *soomu *čōmɤ śav *šüm *śɤm - *sɤɤm *saam - Ne. śaam < PS *kamə
"bird cherry" *toomi *θōmɤ Er. ľom ~
Mk. lajm
*lom *ľɤm - *ľɤɤm *jååm *jɤm
"year" *vooci - - - *wåå -vaľ - *aaL *ɤrö
"autumn"
S. *-vōtɤ semantically off. Cf. IA *vataḥ?
"wet place" *noori *ńōrɤ nar *nöre-
*nörɣə "sprout"
*ńuur
*ńɤr "sprout"
ńirok *ńɤɤr - *ńɤr F. "young", S. "weak" F. *noro ← Gmc.
"duck" - SS sjotsjo? - - *čɤž - *šɤɤš *čaač - Er. šenže better ~ F. hanhi "goose", ← B.
"mitten" - - - *piž *pɤź - *pɤɤsɣə *paas -
"stale (bread)" *kalteda - - - *kɤldi - - - -
"to produce" - *čōltē- - - *ćɤlt- - - - - *ćëlə-ta-. F. suolta- rather ← *sooli
IE loans: West *a_a, H. aa, Ms. *ɤɤ, Kh. *aa
"100" *sata *čōtē *śadə *šüðə *śoo saaz(a-) *šɤɤt *saat - ← II *śata; separately in P. ?
"tree stump" *kanto *kōntōj *kandə - (K. gɨd) - *kɤɤnt *kaant - ← II *skandʰa-. S. *kāntē ← F. K. "bend, bottom", may not belong.
"calf" *vasa *vōsē *vaz - - (üsöö) *wɤɤsəɣ - - ← II
"pole" NF *salko *čōlkōj *śalgə - *śuul saal(fa) *sɤɤɣlaa *saakəL - ← PIE *ǵʰalgʰaa. K. dźal probably later.
"mushroom" - - *paŋgə *poŋgə - - *pɤɤŋk *paaŋk *pɤŋkå- ← IE; Skr. paŋka "swamp" / L. fungus ~ G. spongos. Smy. "be intoxicated"
"to climb" *kangerta- *kōŋkɤrtē- - - - haag- *kɤɤŋk- *kååŋk- - ← PIE *gʰengʰ-
"grass" *tarna - - - *tuurɨm - - - - ← II *trna
"streak" *jooni *jōnɤ jan - - - - - - ← IA *jaana, F. VV / _Rə. Also F. jana!
"to pay" *maksa- - *maksə- - - - - - - ← Ir. *mandza-. F. → S *māksē-
Ma. o/ü, P. *u, Ms. *a/*ɤɤ, Kh. *ɯɯ, Smy. (std. PU *ëCa - note open syllables in Smy!)
"down" *ala- *vōlē- alə *ül *uul al- *jal- *ɯɯL *ɨlə Ma. from *ël-i?? Ms. per original open syllable?
"to put" *akta- *vōktē- *aftə- *opte- K. oktɨ- - - *ɯɯkət *ɨtå-
"to divide" *jaka- *jōkē- *javə- - *juuk - E *jaɣtit *jɯɯkəL
"fork"
*jəkə- Or Ms. ~ Kh *jakaaj "neck"? Kh. also *jaaɣərt "split"
"lowland" *lanci - *lanďa- Hi. landaka *luud - - - Ng. lɨntə excluded: S *lōmtē- "to kneel", Smy *ləmto "low"
"to leave" *valka-(ma) *vōlkē- *valgə- *wale- - vaal- *wɤɤɣəl- *wɯɯkəL-,
*waakəL-
- Ma. *a / w_
"sembra" - - - - *suus - *tɤɤt *ɬɯɯkəL *tɨtə(k)
"liver" *maksa *mōksē *maksə *mokš *muusk maaj(a-) *mɤɤj(ə)t *muu₁kəL *mɨtə Kh. *ɯɯ > *uu after a labial?
"way" *matka *muotkē - - - - - *muu₁kət *mɨtɜ StUE4. Kh. *ɯɯ > *uu after a labial?
"wet sno" - *vōnčē - - - - - *uu₁(n)ć-kəL - *wënśa, with Kh. *ɯɯ > *uu after a labial? NB Vj. wɯɯťkəl!
"mother-in-law" F. anoppi *vōnēm - - - - *aanəp *oonəp *ɨnəpə ObU *Onəp < *onə-pV?
"rested" - *vōŋēs - *üŋəšə - - - - -
Indistinct between *ë_a and *a2_a
"to stretch" - NS ńuoddzi- - *ńuuž- - *ńuunš- *ńɯɯnč - Argues against Ms. delabzn
"village" F. palva- - - - - falu (-lva-) *pɤɤwəl *puu₁kəL - Ms. cheshirization, or Kh. *uu after a labial?
"to giv" *anta- *vōmtē- *andə- - *uud- ad- - - -
"to dry" - - - - *šuupal- apa-- - - - *o_a also possible
"to take off; to be able" *jaksa- - *jukśə- - *juuskɨ- - - - - *o_a also possible. *ś / *s??
"bitter" *karvas - - - *kuurɨd - - *koorəɣ ? -
"handle" *vanka - - - *vuug - - - -
"hoop" *vanneh - - - *vuudž - - - - Or BF ← Gmc *wandi/uz (cf. JKl '76)
"tassel" - *tōŋkē - - *tuug - - - -
"to accuse" - NS guoccot - - U. kušɨ - - - - No other words! Could even be *a₁_a
"to bring" - *pōktē- - *pokte- - - - - -
"to reach" - - Er. saźu- - *suudź- - - - - *a_ə also possible
"stiff; to freeze" - - Er. tarďe - K. tur- - - -
"elm" - - - *nolɣə U. ńulo - - - -
"stallion" - - - *ožə *uuž - - - -
""

All the rest

Lexeme Finnic Samic Mordv. Mari Permic Hung. Mansi Khanty Samoy. Comments
More IE loans
"flood, lake" F. sarajas - - *šoor aar *tuur *ɬaar - ← II *sáras; separately in P, H?
"value" *arvo - - - K. arta- aar - - - Mo. *aŕ-ćə- "think" may not belong
"lord" - - *azər - *oozɨr - *aatər;
N. uutər?
- - Komi ozɨr without /v/- ? Check NMs
"good" *paras *pōrē *parə *pooro *buur - - - - Ma. also *paarema- "to recover"
"shelter" *sooja *sōjē - *šaj *saj - - - - ← Ir. *scāja
"to press" *pajna- *pōńō-
"to dip"
*pańə-
"to drive"
- *pååń- - - - - *pańa- with cheshzn in F, ← Gmc *spannija- "to strain". S. *pājnē- ← F. Ms. *pańəɣt- better ← *puńa-, Ka. paŋdə- rejectable
"sister" - Mk. sazor *šŭžar *soozər F. sisar (and Ma?) ← B.
"gold, copper" - - - - - arań *tarəń *ɬoorńə - ← Ir. *zarna
Unclear correspondence 1: FM *a, P. *a, H. a (with palatals!)
"hard" - - - - K. nadź naɟ - - -
"back; belly" - - - - U. gač has - - - Dubious semantics
"to tred" F. talla- - - - K. taľ- - - - - Loan F → K?
"to hit" - *čōppē- *ćapa- *čuča- *ćapkɨ- čap- *čopam? - - Onomatopoetic? Cf. "to chop"
"to fall" - *vōčē- - *waza- U. vaź- - - - -
"to look" - - - *anće- *addź- - - - - ~ Fi. ais-ti?!
"to take out" - - - *tara- K. taral- - taar - - Ma. "far", H. "open"
"to unravel" - *rūč- - *ranće- K. radź- ronɟ
"rag"
- VVj rać-- - Note Ma. *ć. Probably not ~ F. *riicci-
"to stomp" *tappa- - *tapa- - *tap- top- - - *təpər- F. "to kill". Onomatopoetic? EU *tuppa-
"net" - - - - *ka(d)ź - - *koćəp -
Unclear correspondences 2: With Kh. *a-aa
"to tell" *sarna- - - - K. śorńi- - - S. sarnaaɣ- - *rn/*rń? S. *sārnō- ← F.
"to hang" F. takertu- - - - - - V taɣraaɣtə-
~ W *taɣərLə-
Se. tokua- ?
"to climb ~ to float" F. kapua- - - - - - - Vj kaɣaaɣəl-
~ W *xoowL-
- *-p- ~ *-w-?
"soul; stillborn" - - *pača - - - - *pačaak -
"to sink" - - - - - maart- *muur(s)- *maraa- -
"willow sp." - - - - - malaat - *maɣLaaj -
"area" - - - - - taaj - *taɣaaj -
Unclear correspondence 3: FM *a, P. front, Ms. *a (substrate?)
"understanding" - - Er. važov - K. vežɤr - *aš(tə) *ač(aam) -
"to (let) go" laske- *lōštē- *laśka- - *ledź- - CMs *loośke- ? *lååskə- - *-ə / *-a?
"membrane" *kalvo *kālɤ ? - - *kiľ haaľog *kaľəp *kaĽ-- - Note *ľ. In parts ← IE *ḱel-?
Unclear correspondence 4: FM *a, Ma. *o, P. *ɨ, OU *uu ?
"2" *kakci *kōktē *kaftə *kok *kɨk (keet) (*kit) (*kiit, käät) (*ketä) EU *kettä
Unclear correspondence 8: FP *a(p) ~ Ugric *o(ɣ)
"to freeze" *palëlë- *pōlɤš *palə- - - faɟ *paaľ- *poojət- Cf. FSM *pala- "to burn". Note also *-l- ~ *-ľ- (*-lji?)
"dam, wall" NF *pato *pōðō - *pat
"net"
- fal - *paL
: *paLaa-
- West *paðo, East *palə. Mari per AA13, zek
"sour" *happami - *čapamə;
*čapaks "dough"
*šabə - sava-, sooska- *šɤɤɣ- *čoɣ- ? -
Unclear correspondence 9: FM *a ~ Permic *ɤ (note *k_C!)
"to put" *pane- - *pańə- *pańəža- *pɤn- - *pɯn- *pan- *pɨn- close to *ë_ə
"bitter, to smell" - *kōccɤk *kačadə- *kačə U. kɤš - *kɤɤšɣə *kɯɯč(ɯɯ) *kɤčə- *këččə-; F. katkera better ~ kitkerä.
"to bite" - *kāckē- - *kačka- K. gɤčkɨ- - - - -
"across" - - - *kač K. kɤččɤb - - - -
under other vowels
"rung; pole" - - - - - zaap *šaapla - - *o_a? Ms. *šäp "pole" ← K
"piece" F. sukku - - - - sak - *sak - *u_ə??
"ski" - *čōjkɤ - - - - *taj- - *tåj(-kə) S. ← IE, others *o_ə?
"to breik" *kacket- - - *kŭčkeða- U. kwačkal- - - - - Better *o_i
"shit" *paska *pɤškɤ *pəśkiźə- *pŭškeda- - fos *paaś *poś - *ô? S. → F?
East only
"head" - - - - - - WE *ɤɤwt *ååɣ-
: *uuɣə-
*u(ə)kə NMs aawa, NKh *ooŋx-. Cheshirization in Ms?
"endonym" - - - - - maɟar - *maańć - cf. megyer ~ *määńći
"tale" - - - - - meše - *maańć- -
"to hurry" - - - - - sorog- #surəkt *saarək
"eight" - - - - - ńolc *ńalaa *ńɯɯLəɣ - *ńëla, Hu. *a > o / _lT
"long-tailed duck" - - - - - - *ɤɤŋkə *ɯɯŋk - Sami *hɤŋŋā prob substratal; NSmy *åt³ŋo unrelated
"horn; edge" - - - - - - *ɤɤńt W *aaŋət *amtə, *aŋtə
"surface" - - - - - raa, -rA *raaŋk(aa) - -
to be sorted
"flat" *lappe- (*lāppɤ) Er. lapuža
~ Mk. lapš
Hi. lap ~
Me. lap
*lååp lap - *ɭapsək - *a-ə? S. "aside". Cf. "flat side" Check U. (UEW)
"this" *ta - - Hi. ta ~
Me. ta
K. *too - - *taa-- *tə or F./Ma. from B. *ta
"staff" *sauva *čāvŋē - - - - N. su(u)w *söɣ - Kh → Ms?
"ice crust" - *čōkē - - - zaj *såj *ćooɣ - Consonants bad
"berry" *marja *mōrjē *maŕ *mör - - *maar- *muur- ? -
"to darken; to hide" - - - *söste- K. saśtɨ- - - - -
"instrument" - - Mk. kaŕźi *kerəš U. kɨre(d)ź - - - -
"tame" - *vōń-ɤs - - - - - *aańɯɯ *ɨńə indistinct between *o_ə and *ë_a; cf. PiS vuotnjie ← *vōńē
"to touch" F. kajoa- *kājō- - - - *kaaj- *kaaj- -
"light" F. salama - - - - - *sɤɤl *saL- *sålə
"to dig" - - *kara- *kare- K. kɨr- - - *kiir- ? - P. *kɨr- in general "to wash"
"pale" - - - *šapə- - šaapad- - - -
"dry place" *kaŋka- - - *kaŋga - - *kuŋkʷə ? - -
"sleigh" *ahk- - - - - - - *ååɣəL - Cf. Sw. ackja? TN ŋūtūʔ rather ← ŋū 'pole' (EH).
"valley" *lakso leakšɤ - Hi. laksa U. los(k) - - - -
"dear" FiKrl rakas - - - - rokon *raaw- *raɣ-- - Perhaps F ← Gmc *frakaz "covetous". Ms. "to let close"
"to tear" - - - - *oor- aar(t)- *aart- *aarə- -
"to bend" *tai- *toajē- - - K. tuj- - *täj- *tɯɯj- *tVj- ? *tajə-, *tëjə-? Check Smy.
"pond" F. lampi *lōmpɤl - Me. lop - - - - *lɨmpå
"older brother's wife" *vōńē *ańa - K. ɤńe, ońa, uńe aanɟ, ańa *aańi *ańəkɯɯ #Vńä Separate P. *ańɨ "mother-in-law"
"flat side" F. lapa *lōpē - - - - N. lop? - *ləpä Cf. "flat"
"crane" *kurki *kōrkɤ *kargə - - - - - *kərö
"resin" F. kata NS kaččē - - - - - - *kåCə S. *kássé ← Gmc.
"snot" *natta IS ńetti - - - - - #nəåtə maybe Smy < *ńolkə-tV??
"to shame" - Mo. viźďe *wažəla- U. vodźɨt- - - - -
"berry" - - - *moodə - - - - Ka. modo or Ma. ← P. *mooľɨ < *med₂V
"many; big" - - - - *uuna - - *onə Ng. Aniʔe *u?
"bed, platform" - - - - U. džɨdžol
~ K.džodž(-ul)
- - *čuuč -
"to shake" - - - *pačke- K. pɨškɨ- - - - -
"to dig" - - - - K. kundɨ- haań- *kuun- *kɯɯɳ-,
O xaan-
- *a₂, Kh. umlaut?
"bag" - - - - #kuuda - *kuunt *kɯɯnt
: *kɯɯntɯɯ-
- (F. kontti)
"basket" - - - *kŭrəkš U. kor - *kuurəɣ *kɯɯr(əɣ) *kor-- *u-ish?
"block; dugout" - - - - U. kɨpɨ - *kɤɤp N. *kaap - *këppə/*koppə/*kuppɜ?
"milk; sap" *majto - - - U. mɤľ - - - -
"even; beautiful" - N muoissa- *mazə - - - - - -
"rotten" *mahe- - *makšə - - - - - -
"edge" *mala- *mōlōs *malas - - - - - - ← B
"clear weather" - *mōńē *mańəŋ - - - - - -
"to crawl; bridge" *mata- - Er. madamo - - - - - -
"to disappear, fail" - - Er. joma-
~ Mk. juma-'
*jama- - - - - *jat³ma- /
*jaŋkə-
S. *jāmē- 'die' better < *jämä- 'to stiffen' (StUE3)
"to cool, cold" - SS joasko- *jakšamə *jükše-,
*jüštə
- - - - - Es. jahtu- rather < *jȧhtü- < *jäštä-, possibly also Ma. Also OSwS juoskos "stiff" (PS *jōksō-?)
"split" Fi. rahko - *raškə - - - - - -
"lattice, grid" - - - - K. radź raač ~
reeč
- - -
"hole" - - - *(ə)raž K. *rooź reeš, reš - - - better *rećV, P. → Ma., and F. *riicci- here?!
"ship; pot" *hakci - *Čakš - - - - - - semantics bad
"shape" *haamV (Lu. sjibmō) *Čama - - - - - - maybe S *šëmō, cf. Lu sjimer < *šëmērē (which is of no help whatsoever)
"back of knife" *hamara *šëmērē *Čov - - - - - - likely somehow ← IE *h₂aḱmor "stone, etc."
"" - - - - - - - - -

Rejectable

Lexeme Finnic Samic Mordv. Mari Permic Hung. Mansi Khanty Samoyedic Comments
Irregularities explainable by alternate etymologies for some branches
"meadow" Es. aas - - - *adź asoo - - - Es < *ansa, Hu < *saś- "to dry"
"woven band" *vakla *vōvlē - - - - *waaɣlap - - F & S. ← Gmc.
"bay" *lakci *lōktɤ - - - - *laak *lok - F & S. ← Baltic
"birch bark" *tana - - - - - N. toont *to₂ntəɣ - F ← Sc. OUg better ~ H tidoo
"sturgeon" *sampi - - - - - *šupəɣ - - Better F ← IE *stambʰ- 'pole'
"much" *paljo - - Hi. pülä - - *paal - *påj F. possibly ← Gmc, East *polə
"door bolt" F. sarana - - - U. dźɨrɨ ~ K. dźir čir - - - F. may be ← Baltic
"to stop" *taukot- *tōvkō- - - *duugdɨ- - - - - F. & S. ← Gmc.
"far, long" *kauka(lo) *kukkē *kuvaka - - - - *kooɣ - F ← Gmc, S. *kāwkɤ- "stare" ← F, rest *kowVkka
"to look" *katso- *keaččɤ- - - K. kaźal- - - - - F, S. ← Gmc *gātijan-
"lot" *arpa *vōrpē - - - orvo - - - F. & S. ← Gmc *arba
"flat" *latta-- - - Hi. laptɤ- ~
Me. lapte
- - - *ɬaaptək *ləptå F. may be ← Gmc.
"board" *lauta *lōvtē - - - - - - *låtå F & S. ← Baltic?
"woods" - E *mōjðē - - - - - Sk. mačče Sk. instead < *məja < *mud₂a
"to throw" *heittä- W *sāddē- - - K šɤt- - - - - F. (and K.?) ← #šäjV-ttä- ← preGmc *sēja-; S. ← Sc. senda-
"ax" *tahko - - *toš *tɨš(k-) - - - - ← II *takš-. F. "grindstone" may be unrelated
"coarse" *karkeda - - - *gɨreś - - - - S. *kārkkē ← F. ← Gmc *hargaz.
"asp" *haapa *sūpē - *šapke - - - - - ← Gmc *asp- with metathesis?!
"branch" *hanka - - - - aag *tɤɤɣ *ɬaɣɯɯ - F. ← Gmc. Cf. honka here?
"to be able" *mahta- - *maštə- *mɤšte- - - *mučt- *mač(t)ə- - OU may be ← Ru мочь-, Mo/Ma ← F ← Gmc *maxtiz
"river; mud" - - *rav(ə) "Volga" - - - - *roɣə - Mo. ← II (F. rapa ← Gmc *draba)
"dead; dry (of cow)" *mardas - - - *muur - - - - F. ← II
"old" *vanha - - - #vooɜž - - - - P. ← B. *wetuša (ment'd in 6UE)
"stiff" *tankeda - Mk. taŋgəda *tü̆ŋe- - - - - - Also S toaŋkē (not **toaggē!) Mari may be ← Turkic
"cheap" *halpa - - *šulðɤ - - - - - F. ← Gmc *salwa ?
"to gro" *kasva- - *kasə- *kuška- - - - - - F. & Mo. ← IE *h₂awks-? H. hason "use, advantage" rather from "to present"
"metal" *vaski veaškē *uśkɜ *waž U. -veś ~ K. -ɨś vaš *wüš *waɣ *wasa Messy Wanderwort
"shaft" *varci - - *wu/ŭrðə - - - - - ← B?
"joint; twin; center" *jama *jōmēč Er. jav - - - - - - better F, S ← IE (separately), Er. ← *jëka-
"to stretch; to spread" - *rāččë- *raćakadə- - - - - - - better S ← Sc *braidja-
"woman" √naa- - - - - naas *näji *nääj ? - F. ← IE *gʷnah₂-, OU ← *näjə
Too sparse & irregular
"skis" - SS. laabje - - - - - E. lump Ne. lampa No other words.
"to fall apart" - - - - K. gɨlal- - N kuulat- W *kooɭ-- - probably loans in OUg.
"to graze" - *kōtō- - - - - - - *kətå-
"fishing gear" - - - mača ? - - - - Se. maaše-
"stomach" *vacca - - - - - N. waś - - Weak (suggests PMs *wäć). Fi. → S. *vāttē. Mo. *vaćə "dirt" semantically bad
"to go" - - *jaka- - - iktat- - - -
"pine forest" - - - - *jag - - *jaaɣəm - Ma *jäktə ~ Chuv. jaxtə;. Maybe Kh ← P, < *jäŋkä or ← IE *ǵʰeng-?? Cf. EU #jëKə 'pine'
"to write" - - - - - iir(o)- - *jee₁rii- -
Messy crap
"beginning" F. alka- *vōlkē- - - - - *aawəl *aaləŋ *olə- Cf. *ole- "to be" ?
"armpit" *kainalɜ kājŋēl Mk. kaval *koŋla *kuun hoon *kalna *konəŋ #kali ? (En. seeri) Veps kaimal
"nits" Fi. saivar;
Es. saere
čīvrōs *śarkə *šarkeń(ć)e *śerel - N. seeri ? E. sɯr ? Ka. šurijar ? might be two items?
"gull" *kajaka kājēkē - - K. gaďa - *kajik - Ne. ho Substrate word? Cf. "beaver"
"crow" *vari/eks *vōrččē *varś/ćəŋ - - varjuu
: varja-
N. uurin W *warŋaaj,
E *wuurŋɯɯ
*wårä Unreconstructible consonantism, onomatopoetic? Ne. *wərŋæ ← Kh?
"painted" - - - Me. pač U. pužɨ - - - *påtå
"fly" *kärpänen - *karvə Me. karme - - - - -
"vessel" F. saima - *śuma,
Er. śima
- U. śumɨk - - *sooma ? Sk. somma ? Semantics all over the place.