Palli language

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Palli is a language expanded from Thaoa. Although originally an independent society, many Andanese spilled over and soon became the new majority. Because of the strong Andanese influence, /ŋ/ is romanized as g here. (There is no /g/ anyway)

Palli was one of the languages of Creamland, but was likely not widely spoken since its speakers were descended from the losing side of a major war.

Thaoa (2674) to Palli (4175)

The inherited phonology of the crushed Thaoa state was


Labials:        pʰ   p   b   m   f   v   w
Alveolars:      tʰ   t   d   n   s   z   l
Palataloids:         č   ǯ   ň           y
Velars:         kʰ   k       ŋ   x   g
Postvelars:     qʰ               h
  1. The glottal stop ʔ came to be spelled h.
  2. The voiced fricatives v z g shifted to f s x.
  3. The STAIRCASE SHIFT occurred:
    The voiceless fricatives x h shifted to š before any /e i/.
    The voiceless fricatives š x h shifted to f before any /o u/.
    The voiceless fricatives š s merged to s.
    The voiceless fricatives f x h merged to h.
    Note that in this shift, 1) /f/ stayed /f/ always; 2) /h/ became /f/ when before /a o u/, but became /s/ when before /e i/; 3) /š/ became /s/ when before /a e i/, but became /f/ when before /o u/; 4) /s/ stayed /s/ always.
  4. The voiced stops b d ǯ shifted to p t č.
  5. The aspirate stops pʰ tʰ kʰ qʰ shifted to p t k q.
  6. The vowels e o shifted to a unconditionally. Then, ə shifted to i.
  7. Syllable-final k assimilated in manner, but not position, to any following consonant.
  8. Syllable-final n assimilated in position, but not manner, to any following consonant.
  9. Syllable-final glottal stop (spelled "h") assimilated in both position and manner to any following consonant.
  10. The uvular stop q came to be spelled hk.

There may be more. e.g. did /č/ survived or did it collapse with /š/ ?

Also, it is possible that /e o/ should shift to /i u/ instead of to /a/, since they are allophones of /i u/ in closed subleases.

Orthography

The Palli scribes insisted on writing their language with the Andanese script, despite it having only 30 syllables.

Grammar

Much of the vocabulary was borrowed from Late Andanese, but the grammar remained native. Though the phonology collapsed to almost the same tiny inventory as Late Andanese, closed syllables remained, and could occur even at the ends of words. Thus, for example, the word ulukukuya "hook" had dative case ulukukuyan.

Even words for simple concepts were often very long, both because of the small phonology and because the inherited Thaoa circumfixes were often wrapped around borrowed Andanese stems that already contained prefixes and were often transparent compounds. The word for hook above thus contains four morphemes.

Verbs had to be followed by particles denoting the gender of the agent. These were thus like inflecting verbs for gender, but were separate words.

Notes