Andanic languages

From FrathWiki
(Redirected from Old Andanese)
Jump to: navigation, search

The Andanic languages are those descended from Old Andanese. Most are very conservative; however, the Andanese language for which the family is named is not particularly conservative at all, and its speakers numerically outweighed those of all of the other languages combined.


Tapilula (0) to Old Andanese (1900)

The Andanese/Gold dialect of Tapilula had the consonants

Rounded bilabials:                     hʷ  w
Spread bilabials:      p       m   b   f  (Ø)
Alveolars:             t       n   d       l
Rounded alveolars:     tʷ      nʷ  dʷ         
Velars:                k   ḳ   ŋ   ġ   h   g
  1. The accent pattern involved in certain infixes with accented schwa switched to favor the following vowel. e.g. ăpo "field", apə̀ho "field (possessive) became /ăpo apəhò/.
  2. The "labial" vowel ə disappeared, syllabified nearby consonants or turned to i if the nearby consonants were not possible to become syllabic. Note that it never occurred after labialized consonants. Sequences such as /pəh/ collapsed to form aspirated consonants, though these behaved as clusters.
  3. The velar nasal ŋ changed to n in all positions.
  4. The stops p b t became w w k (the /t/ shift was allophonically [th > tx > kx > kh]) except when occurring:
    After an accented or high-tone vowel (but not before);
    In a consonant cluster of any kind; or
    In a monosyllabic word.
  5. tʷ dʷ nʷ > kʷ ġʷ ŋʷ.
  6. The labialized sounds kʷ ġʷ hʷ f w changed to k ġ h h g when they preceded a vowel followed by a labial consonant (including /w/).
  7. ŋʷ> ŋ.
  8. Tautosyllabic vowel sequences òi ài èi converged to ē. This did not affect syllable-straddling words like /tùya/. Likewise, èu àu òu in the same environment converged to ō.
  9. Duplicate vowel sequences àa èe ìi òo ùu shifted to long vowels ā ē ī ō ū. But the same sequences with the opposite tone pattern did not shift.
    NOTE ON POLITICS: Olati breaks away here.
  10. The glottalized stop changed to a uvular q in all positions.
  11. The voiced stops b d ġ ġʷ became voiceless p t k kʷ, but /p t/ remained voiced allophonically between vowels. Note that aspiration was still contrastive, though sequences like /ph < pəh/ behaved as clusters rather than single consonants, reflecting their origin.
  12. Chronically unstressed syllables all became short and low tone. This even extended to shifts like ou > o that had been missed by previous shifts.
  13. aw,ew>ow in classifiers
  14. Tones were eliminated in closed syllables, but length was preserved.


By this time the Old Andanese language had the consonants

Bilabials:         p   m   w
Alveolars:         t   n   l
Velars:            k   ŋ   g   h
Labiovelars:       kʷ          hʷ
Uvulars:           q
Rounded uvulars:   qʷ

and the vowels /a e i o u/. There were two tones, and a superficial long tone patterned after that of the Gold language to write the common sequence of a high tone followed by a low tone of the same vowel. However, this was much less common than in Gold. The rounded uvular /qʷ/ was rare and could be analyzed as a sequence of /q/ + /w/, unlike the much more common /kʷ/.

The labial glide /w/ is often spelled /gʷ/, but there is no phonemic contrast.

Allophony and sandhi

Old Andanese /p/ and /t/ are pronounced as voiced stops [b d] between vowels. Since the language is highly CV, this means that [b d] are actually more common in speech than [p t]. Note that the parent language, Tapilula, had had a distinction between voiced and voiceless stops. In early Old Andanese, the voiced stops became voiceless, and then later on they came to be voiced allophonically in intervocalic position. Thus, for the primordial voiced stops, they first became voiceless, and then changed back again, rather than remaining voiced all along.


North Andanic languages

Old Andanese (1900) to Galà (3750 AD)

The Old Andanese language had the consonants

Bilabials:         p   m   w   f
Alveolars:         t   n   l
Velars:            k   ŋ   g   h
Labiovelars:       kʷ          
Uvulars:           q
Rounded uvulars:   qʷ

and the vowels /a e i o u/ on two tones.

  1. The uvular stops q qʷ shifted to k kʷ in word-initial position. Most root-initial /q/ also shifted, because most roots could appear without classifiers at least in certain contexts. But roots that were fully bound retained initial /q/.
  2. The sequence qi disappeared to q before a consonant or at the end of a word. The sequences qig qih simply shifted to qi.
  3. The voiceless stops p t shifted to b d in word-medial position. Root-initial examples followed the inverse of the pattern of the /q/>/k/ shift.
  4. The clusters qp qm qt qn qk qŋ qkʷ shifted to geminates pp mm tt nn kk ŋŋ kkʷ. Any cluster *ending* in /q/ shifted it to /k/.
  5. All remaining q shifted to Ø and caused the preceding vowel to become high-toned.
  6. The clusters mh nh ŋh (common in genitives) shifted to mp nt ŋk. Then bh dh shifted to p t.
  7. Remaining aspirate clusters deaspirated.
  8. The mid vowels e o were raised to i u when adjacent to a vowel in either direction.
  9. Before a vowel, the sequences ti hi ki all shifted to s. Likewise in the same environment gi li shifted to d y. pi shifted to t. Any other palatalized consonants then depalatalized.
  10. The labialized consonants kʷ w f shifted to k g h. (/f/ is a variant spelling of /hʷ/.)
  11. The clusters ng ŋg shifted to ŋ. Thus, the gap of */ŋa/ was filled, although it remained rare.
  12. After a high tone, the voiceless fricative h shifted to q.
  13. The vowel sequences ăa ĕe ĭi ŏo ŭu shifted to á é í ó ú/ Note that, unlike most languages of the area, sequences such as /àa/ (from /aqa/ ) did not contract to simple long vowels.

Thus the final consonant inventory was


Bilabials:         p   b   m   w    
Alveolars:         t   d   n   l   s
Palatals:                      y
Velars:            k       ŋ   g   h
Uvulars:           q

Litila

See Litila.

Similar to Galà, but develops the labiovelars into coronals, making it appear to have Gold language traits. /kʷ hʷ gʷ/ > /t s z/.


Udami

Spoken to the west of Galà.

  • Tones preserved.
  • /hʷ gʷ/ > /f w/, but other labials drop.
  • /q/ > /k/ unconditionally.
  • /b d/ > /p t/ (that is, allophonic voicing was reverted). Thus this language doesnt "suffer" from the lack of /t/ found in neighboring languages.
  • /g/ (still a fricative) > /x/, thus removing the last voiced/voiceless pair from the language.
  • Possibly a Palli-like "staircase shift" to get phonemic /s/. But how? Palli's was /fa fi fu sa si su ša ši šu ha hi hu/ > /fa fi fu sa si su sa si fu fa si fu/. This shift could have been affected by front vowels on *both* sides of the consonant. For sure, /h/ is the "weakest" consonant, probably shifting away completely by changing to /s/, /x/, or /f/, depending on the surrounding consonants. Even with all of this, /s/ will still be rare unless /k/ is somehow pulled into the shift.
  • Possibly /f w/ > /h 0/ later on. Under some circumstances, maybe also /p m/ > /h 0/, but the /m/ nasalizes vowels and thus causes a final -n.


Lyugi

A language that changed more than the others. Spoken in the mountains of Repilia. Possibly a "Tarise" language.

  • High vowels were deleted in unstressed syllables in some environments, creating consonant clusters. They were never deleted after labialized consonants, however, or when long (though all long vowels were stressed anyway). There are now palatalized and labialized versions of consonants, and these can occur before other consonants, but the plain (/a/) consonants do so only very rarely. (e.g. /top/ "blood" was native.)
  • The labialization is deleted in most such clusters, while the palatalization moves towards /s/-like sounds and then is also deleted. However, before a vowel, labialization survives and then changes to a true /w/. Also, /q/ resisted palatalization.
  • Word-final consonants in unstressed syllables are dleeted. (These words had two unstressed syllables in a row.)
  • Word-final consonants in stressed syllables are often deleted, changing the tone and length of the vowel.
  • Other clusters are generally resolved either by creating geminates, wholly new consonants, or making the preceding vowel long.
  • Perhaps /e o/ > /i u/ in environments where the previous /i u/ had disappeared. (c.f. some dialects of Greek) And perhaps in fact it is unconditional, such that unstressed syllables can only have /a i u/. Again this would not affect long vowels because they are always stressed.
  • /ʷa ʷe ʷi ʷo ʷu/ > /o o u u u/ (?) Some of these might be long vowels.
  • /e o/ > /ə/. Thus, this is now a four-vowel language.
  • /k/ > /c/, perhaps going further to /č/, /š/, or even /s/, when before /i/.
  • /q/ > /k/ unconditionally. (Thus, it does not delete itself.)
  • Intervocalically, /g/ > /0/ and /b/ > /w/. (/d/ > /r/, but this is considered just an allophone.) This may have been influenced by Khulls' shift.
  • The resulting vowel sequences change to single (usually long) vowels. The changes are again similar to those of Khulls, but definitely unrelated, as Khulls had done its shift more than a thousand years beforehand. Note that /o/ now only occurs where there was once a /b/, and /e/ only occurs where there was once a /g/. Possibly /ja/ > /e/, but /ai/ > /ē/ (also as in Khulls).
  • There should be more sound changes pushing towards /s/. All of the palatals, for example, up above could be simply merged together as /s/. (Escept nasals.)
PROBABLE FINAL PHONOLOGY

/p m/ <--- Note the lack of /b/ (because it was always intervocalic(?)) and of /w/ (considered just an allophone of /u/).

/t n s l r/ <--- Likewise /d~r/ is considered one phoneme. /s/ arises from multiple paths.

/c/ <-- Possibly just merges to /s/.

/k g ŋ h/ <--- Note that /g/ survived in initial position, and did not merge to any other sound.

/a e i o u ə/ <-- tentative. Schwa might merge to /o/ as in Japanese, to /u/ as in Khulls, or to /a/ as in Moonshine.

NOTE, also, that /p/ and /t/ will both be very rare phonemes in this language, and that might be a problem.


Core Andanic

Old Andanese (1900) to Late Andanese (4178)

Note that all of the tone changes below are entirely rirrelevant, because Late Andanese ends up losing its tones, and so does Babakiam, which was the only language that took any significant number of loans from Late Andanese.

  1. Labialized stops pʷ tʷ kʷ all changed to p.
  2. The sequences aha ehe ihi oho uhu shifted to ha he hi ho hu. (These /h/'s later disappeared in almost all positions.)
  3. The sequences hi ki ti shifted to s before a vowel.
  4. The voiced velar fricative g disappeared to Ø.
  5. The labial fricative f changed to h in all positions.
  6. All remaining occurrences of the labial approximant w shifted to l.
  7. The uvular stop q disappeared to Ø unconditionally.
  8. The mid vowels e o changed to i u in all positions.
  9. The sequences ns ŋh shifted to n ŋ.
  10. The fricatives s h occurring *before* a syllable ending in a nasal coda shifted to n ŋ.
  11. The remaining sequences mp nt ŋk shifted to m n ŋ. (Note that most of these were from earlier /mh nh ŋh/.)
  12. All remaining coda consonants disappeared.
  13. Tones were eliminated except in syllables with no consonants.
  14. Tones were eliminated. Andanese now had only 9 consonants, 3 vowels, and no tones, and was entirely CV, thus making it the most phonologically simple language in the world.

West Andanic languages

note, this may be incorrect, these are3 just "left over" languiages. however, west would be a good place to put them since they cannot be in the mtns. Spoken west of Nèye. No state name given on map.

East Andanic languages

See Thaoa#Culture_and_history, but these languages may go extinct in 2686 like Thaoa did, and be replaced much later with an unrelated strain of Andanese from the core (Late Andanese).

Tapilula (0) to Pre-Olati (1300)

Note: these South Andanic languages broke from the main community earlier than the others, and therefore preserve voice contrasts in stops.

The Andanese/Gold dialect of Tapilula had the consonants

Rounded bilabials:                     hʷ  w
Spread bilabials:      p       m   b   f  (Ø)
Alveolars:             t       n   d       l
Rounded alveolars:     tʷ      nʷ  dʷ         
Velars:                k   ḳ   ŋ   ġ   h   g
  1. The accent pattern involved in certain infixes with accented schwa switched to favor the following vowel. e.g. ăpo "field", apə̀ho "field (possessive) became /ăpo apəhò/.
  2. The "labial" vowel ə disappeared, syllabified nearby consonants or turned to i if the nearby consonants were not possible to become syllabic. Note that it never occurred after labialized consonants. Sequences such as /pəh/ collapsed to form aspirated consonants, though these behaved as clusters.
  3. The velar nasal ŋ changed to n in all positions.
  4. The stops p b t became w w k (the /t/ shift was allophonically [th > tx > kx > kh]) except when occurring:
    After an accented or high-tone vowel (but not before);
    In a consonant cluster of any kind; or
    In a monosyllabic word.
  5. tʷ dʷ nʷ > kʷ ġʷ ŋʷ.
  6. The labial fricative f shifted to .
  7. The labialized sounds kʷ ġʷ hʷ w changed to k ġ h g when they preceded a vowel followed by a labial consonant (including /w/).
  8. ŋʷ> ŋ.
  9. final /b/ > /w/. must, now, add to other list!
  10. Tautosyllabic vowel sequences òi ài èi converged to ē. This did not affect syllable-straddling words like /tùya/. Likewise, èu àu òu in the same environment converged to ō.
  11. Duplicate vowel sequences àa èe ìi òo ùu shifted to long vowels ā ē ī ō ū. But the same sequences with the opposite tone pattern did not shift.

Proto-Olati (1300) to Olati-A (2672)

The Olati languages are known both as South Andanic and West Subumpamese. They are Andanic by genetics, but primarily Subumpamese (and partly Naman) by culture.

  1. The labialized consonants kʷ ḳʷ ġʷ hʷ w shifted to p p b f v unconditionally.
  2. The aspirate clusters bh dh shift to p t.
  3. The velars k g ġ ŋ h shifted to č y ň š unconditionally.
  4. The sequences py by fy shift to t d s before a vowel.
  5. The uvular stop became k.
  6. Remaining aspirated clusters deaspirate.
  7. Before a vowel, the sequences ay ey oy shift to ē. iy uy shift to ī.

Thus the consonant inventory was

Labials:     p   b   m   f   v       
Alveolars:   t   d   n   s       l
Palataloids: č   ǯ   ň   š       y
Velars:      k

And the vowel inventory was /a e i o u/, on two tones, and a long series.

Proto-Olati (1300) to Olati-B (2672)

This may be the same as the Yoy language.... note that Yoy is said to have preserved voiced stops, like Olati, and unlike the rest of Andanic.

The consonant inventory as of 1300 AD was

Labials:        p       m   b      (Ø)
Alveolars:      t       n   d       l       
Velars:         k   ḳ   ŋ   ġ   h   g
Labiovelars:    kʷ  ḳʷ      ġʷ  hʷ  w

There were relatively few sequences of two or more consecutive vowels.

  1. The clusters bh dh ġh ġʷh gh shifted to p t k kʷ h. Then mh nh ŋh became mp nt ŋk.
  2. The voiced sounds g ġ ġʷ b shifted to Ø Ø w w. This set up a consonant gradation in which words with hiatus in their bare form developed an oblique form with -/k/- (generalized from a choice of k~p~h).
    NOTE: the /k/ alternant was almost certainly the rarest of the three by a wide margin. It should either be /p/ or /h/.
  3. Remaining aspirates disappeared.
  4. The voiced stop d shifted to r. It was still [d] word-initially.
  5. The labialized consonants kʷ ḳʷ hʷ shifted to p p f.
  6. Before a vowel, the sequences aw ew ow shifted to o. Then iw uw shifted to u.
  7. Before a vowel, the sequences ay oy uy shifted to e. Then iy uy shifted to i.
  8. The vowel sequences òe òi ài èi èe ìa shifted to ē. Then èo èu àu òu òo ùa shifted to ō. Lastly, àe èa àa òa ào shifted to ā.
    Note, the name of the language is properly /jōj/, hence it comes from an earlier triple sequence.
  9. The vowel sequences ùe ùi ìi ìe shifted to ī. Then ìo ìu ùu ùo shifted to ū.
  10. Before a high-tone vowel, the sequences ti ni ri li shifted to s n y y. Then, ki ḳi ŋi hi in the same environment shifted to č č n s.
  11. Remaining shifted to k .

Thus the consonant inventory was

Labials:       p   m   f   w
Alveolars:     t   n   s   l   r
Postalveolars: č           y
Velars:        k   ŋ   h

Proto-Olati (1300) to Olati-C (2672)

It is possible that this is the language spoken in Vuʒi, assuming that Vuʒi's own language was lost in the wipeout.

The consonant inventory as of 1300 AD was

Labials:        p       m   b   f   w
Alveolars:      t       n   d       l       
Velars:         k   ḳ   ŋ   ġ   h   g
Labiovelars:    kʷ  ḳʷ      ġʷ       

There were relatively few sequences of two or more consecutive vowels.

  1. The voiced stops ġʷ ġ shifted to w g.
  2. The voiceless stops p t shifted to f s . This shift included the aspirate sequences /bh dh ph th/.
  3. The voiced stops b d shifted to p t unconditionally.
  4. After a low tone or word-initially, the voiceless stops k kʷ shifted to x xʷ.
  5. The voiceless ejectives ḳ ḳʷ shifted to k kʷ unconditionally. The combination of the above shifts and grammatical levelling created a consonant gradation where words with /p t k kʷ/ as the last consonant in the word shifted it to /f s x xʷ/ to form the oblique. By analogy, some words in which historical /p t k kʷ/ had become /f s x xʷ/ now reverted to /p t k kʷ/ in order to use the gradations.

Proto-Olati (1300) to Dakʷòhi (2672)

This is the language spoken in Dakʷòhi, which is the state labeled as Mania on some maps.

  1. The voiced sounds gʷ ġʷ ġ shifted to w w g.
  2. The voiceless stops p t shifted to f s . This shift included the aspirate sequences /bh dh ph th/.
  3. The voiced sounds b d g shifted to p t x unconditionally.
  4. The velars k ḳ g ŋ x shifted to č č y n š unconditionally. Note that this /x/ is distinct from /h/.
  5. The labialized consonants kʷ ḳʷ w shifted to k k v.

Yoy language

The Yoy language was spoken in the Thunder Empire from 3844 AD to 3884 AD, during (and only during) the time when the THunder Empire was governbed by Dreamland. Yoy was confused with Dreamlandic, and the two languages had a similar sound, but they are not closely related. Rather, the anti-Thunder policies of the Dreamers allowed minority languages such as Yoy to flourish. After the overthrow of the Dreamer government, Yoy went back into suppression; however, the people who spoke Yoy were generally anti-Dreamer by this point as they had been no better treated by the Dreamers than were the majority Thunderers.

Characteristics
  • Deletion of /b d g/ after a stressed vowel; before this, /ab/ > /o/. This meant that the only stops that occurred between vowels were /t k q/.
  • Probably, the loss of voicing contrasts in stops altogether, since there would be relatively few minimal pairs by this point (only /t/ vs /d/ after unstressed vowels). Possibly remaining /d/ > /r/ before this happens.
  • The growth of falling diphthongs resulting from the deletion of these consonants, without the monophthongization that characterized most languages of this area. THe name Yoy would have quicvkly become *Yē in most of the neighboring langs, even those not closely related.

Table of cognates

The table below makes some assumptions, such as unconditional /k/ > /t/ in Olati.

Note that many roots are preserved only as parts of words rather than independent words, since this language family made abundant use of classifier prefixes to pad problematic words that collided with other words. This means that the homophones, especially those found in Late Andanese, did not cause problems in comprehension. For example, the word for "dolphin" appears to be a compound of sa "love" and gu "breast", but the two smaller words are used with classifiers only.[1] Other words are attested but not often used: for example, the common word for torch in Late Andanese is not hunupu but the related ihunu.

Furthermore in these languages, especially Classical (and Late) Andanese, there are no differences between the sound changes that take place word-internally and those take affect independent words.

Also, semantic shifts are not given here.

This also assumes Galà ēa > yā, but īa > ya. As in Japanese, the shfit fails if the second element is /e/ or /i/.

Old Andanese meaning Galà Proto-Olati Lyugi Late Andanese
kakŏbe tree kakŏbe tatŏbe kakē kakupi
lonŏṁ[2] orange lonŏn lorō (?) lunu
gimòga whip gimòga yimā imua
gegŭbo [3] semen gegŭbo yúbo gigū yupu
hʷekăl seaweed hekā fetā (?) hukā
hʷèyunge claw hyūnge fūne (?) sugi
kŏgu tree bark kŏgu
agʷùdu countryside, plain field agùdu avùdu alutu
galàqi Galàqi (placename) galà yalàki alai
hʷèyabe the Sĕyepa religion hyābe fābe hiapi (sapi?)
pudigʷèyo diaper pudigyō pudivō putiliu
lìya beaver lyă (?) lyā (?) lia
nàgo nòma honeybee nagonòma rōroma (?) naguma
hìqi key sìki hii
heyăbo lap (body part); pubis hyābo sábo sapu
lòqa mouth lòka lua
làda girl, woman; child làda làda làra lata
qĕi wheel i
qèga sawgrass kèga ya
hʷàhʷa hair of the head hàha fàfa haha
gʷū milk lu
qʷū urine; pee pu
ukòna wine ukòna utòra ukuna
hʷŭba Fuba (a placename and tribal name)[4] hŭba fŭba hupa
a type of tall grass; cognate to gʷăga pi
hip; side face pi
hʷŭm breast; nipple hun fū(?) gu
hĭbo cranberry hĭbo sĭbo hipu
gìbi[5] water ipi
hʷugʷàyi menstrual pad hugē fuvī hulai
kùqi bird's beak kùi tùki kui
hṅda snow hĭnda gina(?)
qŏqu rain kō(?) kŏku wu
qùne slicing knife kùne kùre uni
gʷàda nŏda Heaven; spiritual paradise gadanŏda vadarŏda latanuta
hʷonùbu torch honùbu forùbu hunupu
kulagʷī step; stair kulagī tulavī kulali
ăpmi woman; female àmi ami
hʷèdu duck (bird) hèdu fèdu hitu
hʷeyahʷŭm[6] dolphin hyāhun(?) fāfū (?) sagu
ùqi eye ù ùki wi
hʷō fire hu
hʷiă love hyă fyá sa
nŭbu fruit that grows on trees nŭbu rŭbu nupu

Notes

  1. This could change, anyway. Maybe the word for dolphin really is derived from the word for breast, i.e. "nipplefish". Though there is still at least one other morpheme to account for here.
  2. given as lonŏmĩ in red dict
  3. from a parent langaueg from given as bebhŭpo in red dict
  4. Same as papsa
  5. Check this. This is either an error or a very rare tone-changing sound shift.
  6. given as fe-afŭm in red dict. Not cognate to the word for breast.