Macro-Pabap languages

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Not to be confused with Paleo-Pabappa.

The Macro-Pabap languages are regional languages descended from Gold but further apart from Pabappa and Poswa than those two are to each other. They could be considered a stem group of Pabappa. However, Proto-Macro-Pabap (PMP) was spoken merely a few generations after the split between Pabappa and Khulls, so nearly all of the shared sound changes between Pabappa and the Macro-Pabap languages, and between the various Macro-Pabap languages, are due to areal influence.


Gold (1900) to Proto-Highland Poswob (2668)

This might be better if it stays united until 2856.

The consonant inventory was:

Bilabials:             p           m      (ʕ)  w   mʷ  ħʷ         
Alveolars:             t       d   n   s       l   nʷ      tʷ  dʷ
Postalveolars:                         š   ž   y                                  
Velars:                k   ḳ       ŋ   h   g   gʷ  ŋʷ  hʷ 

The vowel inventory was

Short vowels:      a  i  u  ə
Long vowels:       ā  ī  ū
Diphthongs:          ai au
                     əi əu
  1. At the end of a syllable, the pharyngeal fricative ʕ disappeared and changed the previous vowel to a high tone. It also voiced the following consonant.
  2. In initial position, the labialized coronals tʷ dʷ nʷ shifted to t d n. In internal position, they decoupled to sequences. Thus they were no longer phonemic.
  3. The rounded bilabial approximants w ħʷ changed to spread labial approximants b f before a vowel. There are no cases in which this sound corresponds to a preservation of pre-Gold /v/; this had earlier become /d/. However, in the clusters like /tw/, the distinction between /w/ and /v/ was neutralized.
  4. Then l lʷ both became w (not */v/) in all positions.
  5. The voiced stop d shifted to l. After a nasal, it was still allophonically [d].

Thus the consonant inventory was

Rounded bilabials:             mʷ          w
Spread bilabials:      p       m   f   b  (Ø)         
Alveolars:             t       n   s       l   
Postalveolars:                     š   ž   y                                  
Velars:                k   ḳ   ŋ   h   g  (ʕ)   
Labiovelars:                   ŋʷ  hʷ  gʷ  
 

Proto-Highland Poswob (2668) to Wimpus (3700)

See Paba#Pabaps_move_to_Nama.

Wimpus is the first state on the north slope that came to adopt an MP language; the states on the south slope and along the continental divide may or may not have retained their earlier languages. It borders Gala language territory and may be somewhat similar.

  1. The fricatives gʷ hʷ ž shifted to w f y. The sequence /gy/ also shifted, but note that this was only present due to analogical shifts and that it had been originally a simple /y/ in Gold.
  2. The labialized nasals mʷ ŋʷ merged as m. Thus labialization was defeated. The sequence /nw/ remained.

Proto-Highland Poswob to Torushi

This branch, also called Plains Poswob, is nested within in the Wimpus branch, and like Russian soon spreads over an enormous amount of territory. However, also like Russian, it does not completely replace the previous languages because its speakers have a low population density. Torushi may be later driven out by the closely related Yeisu Kasu, or its speakers may instead absorb those of Yeisu Kasu. In either case, the speakers of Torushian languages are assumed to be the aboriginals of their territory by later settlers, and not distinguished from Repilians.

The name comes from the capital of the state of Nama, which was in the extreme north, far from the population center of Nama, but near the center of the territory that Nama had ruled when it had been much larger. Torushian languages spread through Nama as Nama's power declined, but the Torushi speakers were not the primary conquerors; they were simply the northernmost of the many troops, and therefore they came to be seen as aboriginals.

Torushian languages adopted many of the hyper-feministic characteristics of the Repilian languages, such as requiring male speakers to use evidential morphemes when using any words belonging to any of the feminine genders. They include Neo-Sakhi, the language that the defeated Sakhi nation adopted after their women switched sides and surrendered to Repilia. This is consistent with the observation that the Repilians and the later Poswob settlers spoke languages that seemed curiously similar despite their peoples having supposedly been separated for more than 15000 years.


  1. > k.
  2. All ʕ and unstressed g shifted to Ø. At this point, g~Ø~k~š all alternated grammatically, as did p~m~t~l.


Thus the consonant inventory was

Bilabials:        p   m   f   w           
Alveolars:        t   n   s   l   
Postalveolars:            š   y                                  
Velars:           k   ŋ   h   g   

There were four vowels, and the diphthongs /ai əi au əu/.

Proto-Highland Poswob to Qoqendoq Mumba

Despite its name, the Highland Poswobs also settled the lowlands of the coast of Qoqendoq, where they met up with distantly related Macro-Thaoans and also some aboriginals.


Proto-Highland Poswob to High School Pabappa

See Paba#Paba_finds_a_purpose.

These languages are spoken on the south slopes of Nama's mountains, but may not have fullly replaced paleo-Pabappa. It is the language spoken in the alpine religious academy (hence "high school") of Pilifala.

Gold (1900) to Proto-Soap (2412)

This is the language of a people who settled in the area that later became Blop; at the time of first settlement, the lake was dammed by glaciers and the climate was hot in summer but very cold in winter. Many Subumpamese people also moved here, and it is possible that their languages are preserved in this area after being wiped out in their original homeland in the late 2600's.

Note that the sound changes listed here might become incorrect, as they are not linked to the template at Babakiam/Sound changes.

The consonant inventory was:

Bilabials:             p           m      (ʕ)  w   mʷ  ħʷ         
Alveolars:             t       d   n   s       l   nʷ      tʷ  dʷ
Postalveolars:                         š   ž   y                                  
Velars:                k   ḳ       ŋ   h   g   gʷ  ŋʷ  hʷ 

The vowel inventory was

Short vowels:      a  i  u  ə
Long vowels:       ā  ī  ū
Diphthongs:          ai au
                     əi əu
 
  1. At the end of a syllable, the pharyngeal fricative ʕ disappeared and changed the previous vowel to a high tone. It also voiced the following consonant.
  2. In initial position, the labialized coronals tʷ dʷ nʷ shifted to t d n.


The Soapies survive for at least 1300 years. Their language may be passed down to the Raspara, but the primary Raspara language was from the Meromo branch of Kava.

Neo-Repilian languages

It is possible that some Repilian tribes in the highlands of Nama converted to speaking Gold when the Naman capital territory did, and that they then lost contact when Nama declined and therefore split into various tribal languages once again. If so, these could be considered to be a branch coordinate with Highland Poswa.

Cosmopolitan Play languages

Invasion of Tata

In 4138, the Play party invaded Dreamland and built a new society they called Tata. Their language was identical with Bābākiam. Later, the Swamp Kids invaded Tata a second time, and even though they opposed the Players, their languages were the same, and the invasion helped cement the role of Babakiam as the primary language of Tata and adjacent areas near (but not in) Baeba Swamp.

Note that the language of Tata arose from a blend of two different dialects; even though the invasions were only 70 years apart, they had originated from different areas. Even so, the differences were mainly in vocabulary, since the phonology of both dialects was exactly the same and the grammar of both dialects was flexible enough that speakers of both had no trouble listening to others.

The Tataans borrowed words from the indigenous Dreamlandic languages, which had by this time diverged widely even from each other. They borrowed relatively few words from the non-Dreamlandic Lenians, however.

Invasion of Amade

In 4140 (approximately), the Play party invaded Amade but did not completely subdue the locals. But the Deppans who invaded Amade in 4162 also spoke Babakiam, and they completely replaced the native languages. They may have had a greater survival of Late Andanese vocabulary than the Players and Swamp Kids in Tata.

This might be the "vuonah" language.

Play (4138) to Tata

This branch could equally well be derived from the Swamp Kids' Bābākiam as spoken in 4206.

Play (4162) to Neo-Atla

The consonant inventory of Babakiam was

Bilabials:    p   m   b   f  (v)
Alveolars:    t   n       s   
Palataloids:          ž   š  (y)
Velars:       k   ŋ

The vowels were /a i u ə ā ī ū/, but double vowel sequences were common and could contrast with single long vowels. For example, /taā/ "boy".

  1. The fricative sequences ž sž shifted to l z.

Proto-Gold to Yeisu Kasu

Note that the sound changes listed here might be incorrect, as they are not linked to the template at Babakiam/Sound changes. This language may not even exist.


  1. At the end of a syllable, the pharyngeal fricative ʕ disappeared and changed the previous vowel to a high tone. It also voiced the following consonant.
  2. Syllable-final k ḳ ŋ changed to kʷ ḳʷ ŋʷ. A few compound words in which the second element began with a vowel or a suppressed consonant split into doublets depending on whether the free (labiovelar) or bound (plain velar) version of the morpheme was generalized in the compound.
  3. In initial position, the labialized coronals tʷ dʷ nʷ shifted to t d n. Elsewhere, they decoupled to the sequences tu du nu.
  4. The bilabial approximant w changed to v (in internal reconstructions, also spelled "β") before a vowel.
  5. Then l lʷ both became w (not */v/) in all positions although it retained a rhotic allophone.
    NOTE ON POLITICS: Proto-Highland Poswa breaks off here.
  6. The labiovelar consonants kʷ ḳʷ hʷ gʷ became p ṗ f v unconditionally.
  7. Sequences of two vowels in which the first vowel was i or u became rising diphthongs. Then all clusters of a consonant followed by a semivowel came to be pronounced as coarticulated single consonants. Thus pua became pʷa, pia became pʲa, and so on. ñ was assimilated as .
  8. Stressed syllabic nasals were opened to sequences containing a schwa.
  9. The voiced fricative g assimilated to a neighboring glide /j/ or /w/, thus creating sequences of /jj/ and /ww/. The shift thus was gj jg gw wg > jj jj ww ww. This includes g after /ī/ and /ū/.
  10. The cluster dh shifted to ð.
  11. The voiced fricatives ð z g became silent between vowels and occasionally in initial position (due to compounding).

Yeisu Kasu (3100) to Mevumep (4100)

Spoken in Mevumep.

*FIND UPDATED VERSION OF THIS*!!!


Thus the language now had the consonants

Bilabials:      p   ṗ   b   m   f   β   w
Alveolars:      t       d   n   s   z
Palataloids:    č       ǯ           ž   y
Velars:         k   ḳ   ġ   ŋ   h   g
Pharyngeals:                    ħ   ʕ

Voiced stops had an odd distribution, occuring almost entirely in word-initial position. Word-internally, the contrast was not between voiced and voiceless stops but between single and double voiceless ones. These two contrasts were not related to each other, but loans from Babakiam into CV languages often treated the single voiceless stops as voiced stops in intervocalic position.

There may have also been a marginal /š/ and /x/.

  1. Inherited schwa comes to be spelled ə. (A spelling change to distinguish it from IPA /e/).
  2. The inherited voiced spread bilabial fricative β shifted to v.
  3. The voiceless ejective stops ṗ ḳ became plain voiced stops b ġ between vowels or after a nasal. The voiced velar stop /ġ/ was not contrastive with the voiced velar fricative /g/, however, because they occurred in complementary environments. Therefore, in some word roots, they merged.
  4. Vowel sequences collapse: ài àu became ē ō, and əi əu become ī ū. Likewise, ăi ău became ĕ ŏ; there was no fourth set because all diphthongs containing schwa had been moved to the low tone during the changes of the parent language. The sequences ăa əa shift to ă.
    This relies on the idea that a short rising tone is likely to become low, and a short falling tone is likely to become high.
  5. Further collapse: àə ìə ùə əə shifted to ā ī ū ə̄. (Nasal?)
  6. The voiceless fricatives f þ s h ħ became v d z g Ø between vowels. This also removes ʕ.
  7. The clusters sf ss sh became the single consonants f s h. (Note the lack of */sþ/ and */sħ/ inherited from the parent language.)
  8. The voiced fricative g became v adjacent to a labial vowel in either direction.
  9. The voiced fricatives d z g became ž adjacent to a palatal vowel in either direction.
  10. The voiced stops d ġ became the approximants r g unconditionally (not just intervocalically).
  11. The voiceless stops p t č k became the voiced stops b d ǯ ġ intervocalically. This shift was ignored in compounds because the only compounds in which it could occur were those which also had a grammatical alternant form with a doubled stop, which did not undergo the shift.
  12. The voiceless ejective stop became p before another stop.
  13. The clusters pp pt ps pk changed to p t c k unconditionally. These could not occur after a breve tone.
  14. The voiced velar fricative g disappeared between vowels.
  15. The clusters mb nd ŋġ became mm nn ŋŋ.
  16. The voiced velar stops ǯ ġ became ž g unconditionally. /d/ was also a fricative in some environments, but this was not a phonemic contrast.
  17. The clusters mp nt nč ŋk became mb nd nǯ ŋg.
  18. The voiceless fricative s disappeared before any stop or nasal.

Notes