와ㅞ 포와 레 이 림리 레
Wawe Fowa le i Limli le
A GRAMMAR OF LIMLI
- 1 Table of Phonemes
- 2 Grammar
- 2.1 General Notes
- 2.2 Verbs - Ńiyu Hoǵo le 끼유 호코 레
- 2.3 Nouns - Yunei Hoǵo le 유네이 호코 레
- 2.4 Modifiers - Silila Hoǵo le 시리라 호코 레
- 2.5 Pronouns - Wusu Hoǵo le ᆍ수 호코 레
- 2.6 Prepositions - Ńoi Hoǵo le 꼬이 호코 레
- 2.7 Conjunctions - Yefe Hoǵo le 예페 호코 레
- 3 Octal Table
Table of Phonemes
- 01. The word order in Limli is VSO, verb-subject-object.
- 02. The word is accented on the penultimate syllable.
- 03. Limli syllables have the structure (C)V. All consonants can appear in the initial position.
- 04. There are no diphthongs.
- 05. In Limli words are not specific to any one function. Function is determined by the absence or presence of pronouns, prepositions, particles, etc., e.g., the word lońo, make, cause.
- Verb: I made/caused the fire. The pronoun ilo and the past particle u show that lońo is a verb.
U lońo ilo ui isu ae. PST cause I OBJ fire the
- Noun: The rain is the cause of the flood. The definite article ae shows that lońo is a noun.
Loyi ae lońo ae yitile ae. rain the cause the flood the
- Preposition: Because of the rain I stayed home. The particle ve shows that lońo is part of a compound preposition.
U yaka ilo ao sita ya lońo ve loyi ae PST remain I at home INDF because PRT rain the
- Conjunction: Because he is sick, I can't go. With no indicators, lońo is a conjunction.
Fia ito ilo ta lońo vui ńivilu. able go I not because he sick
Verbs - Ńiyu Hoǵo le 끼유 호코 레
- 06. Verbs are a class of words that convey an action (bring, read, walk, run, learn), an occurrence (happen, become), or a state of being (be, exist, stand).
- 07. There is no change in the form of the verb for subject agreement. Other semantic notions are expressed by verbal particles.
- 08. The base form of the verb refers to the present tense, the future tense, or an habitual action:
- He speaks Limli.
Wawe vui ui Limli ya speak he OBJ Limli INDF
- 09. The verb particle u indicates the past tense:
- The woman arrived yesterday.
U yiawe sisu ae ua.tihi PST arrive woman the before.day
- 10. The verb particle ke indicates that an action occured before another past action, i.e., the past perfect tense:
- I ate (had eaten) before I left.
Ke liu eo ńoi u ito ifo PSTPRF eat I before PST go away
- 11. To indicate that an action or state is in progress at the moment of speech, the progressive verb particle (PRG) fe is used:
- The woman is arriving now.
Fe yiawe sisu ae miki. PRG arrive woman the now
- This particle is also used to express an action or state happening in the past simultaneously with another past action or state:
- It was raining when I arrived.
U fe loyi iyai u yiawe ilo. PST PRG rain when PST arrive I
- 12. Modal auxiliaries, and verbs with a dependent infinitive, are placed immediately before a plus the main verb. They may be preceded by verbal particles:
- Ability: fia, be able:
- Can you swim?
Fia a hio hea mau? be.able INF swim you Q
- Wish: yuyu, want, wish, desire:
- I didn't want to get up.
U yuyu a ǵuhu ilo ta PST want INF get.up I not
- Permission: foloi, to permit:
- He permitted her to leave.
U foloi a vui a ito ifo vui. PST permit INF he go away she
- Preference: vutu, prefer, would rather:
- I'd rather drink water.
Vutu a umo ilo ui kiyu ya prefer INF drink I OBJ water INDF
- Habitualness: vana, usual:
- I usually get up early.
Vana a ǵuhu ilo ńeifi. usual INF get.up I early
- Obligation: ǵeme, have to, ought, must:
- I have to awaken her.
Ǵeme a siliwi ilo ui vui ought INF awaken I OBJ her
- Need: ńifai, need:
- The child needs to sleep.
Ńifai a ńea laulu ae need INF sleep child the
- 13. Mood is a grammatical category by which the speaker expresses his attitude toward what he is saying.
- 14. The subjunctive mood is formed with the verb marker te:
- She may love me.
Te weyi vui ui ilo SBJ love she OBJ me
- 15. The imperative mood uses the base form of the verb without a subject:
- Love me.
Weyi ui ilo love OBJ me
- A more polite form of the imperative uses the phrase ńa fia, if able, rather like 'please': If able, love me.
Ńa fia weyi ui ilo. if able love OBJ me
- Ńa fia is also the polite response when given a command.
- 16. The cohortative and jussive moods are formed with the particle lui with the appropriate pronoun following:
- Let him sing.
Lui kiufu vui JUS sing him
- 17. The conjunction ńa, if, is used to express conditions.
- If the action or event linked to the condition is likely to occur or is real, no verb marker is used in the conditional clause:
- If the breadfruits are good, I'll buy some.
Ńa hoto le yoe yele ilo ui afi. if breadfruit the good buy I OBJ some
- If the conditional action or event is doubtful or hypothetical, the verb particle ke is used in the protasis and ǵe in the apodosis:
- If the breadfruits were good, I'd buy some.
Ńa ke yoe hoto le ǵe yele ilo ui afi. if PRO good breadfruit the APO buy I OBJ some
- 18. The passive form of the verb is formed with the verb particle sui:
- The banana was cooked.
U sui fomo ńiuhi ae PST PASS cook banana the
- 19. A verbal noun is formed by using the definite article with the base word. This verbal noun functions as an infinitive or gerund:
- Swimming strengthens my limbs.
Uliu lońo hio ae ui titi le ilo strong make swim the OBJ limb the my
- 20. Sentence negation is indicated with the word ta:
- The woman is not here.
Sisu ae lemau ta. woman the here not
- 21. A question is indicated by the use of the interrogative particle (Q) mau:
- Do I love you?
Weyi ilo ui hea mau? love I OBJ you Q
- The interrogative particle is not used when the sentence contains an interrogative word.
- 22. Dependent verbs, such as infinitives and gerunds, follow the verb or adjective upon which they are dependent:
- I was afraid to touch a toad.
U ńihu a yehe ilo ui ǵitili ya. PST fear INF touch I OBJ toad INDF
- A direct object is placed before the infinitive:
- I wanted him to go.
U yuyu a ui vui ito ilo. PST want INF OBJ him go I
- 23. There is no copulative verb to be. The subject and predicate are stated, predicate first:
- The child is in the house.
Ao sita ae laulu ae In house the child the
- If the predicate is a simple adjective, it is treated as a verb:
- The woman was happy.
U ohetu sisu ae. PST happy woman the
- The verb aya is used at the beginning of a sentence to identify and define:
- It's an eagle.
Aya hiafe ya. there.be eagle INDF
- There was a storm.
U aya isi ya. PST there.be storm INDF
- 24. There is no verb to have. This is expressed with a prepositional phrase using i, of:
- I have a flower.
Ǵoili ya i eo. flower INDF of me
- This flower belongs to me.
Fama ǵoili ae i eo. this flower the of me
Nouns - Yunei Hoǵo le 유네이 호코 레
- 25. Nouns are a class of words that function as the names of some specific thing or set of things, such as living creatures, objects, places, actions, qualities, states of existence, or ideas.
- 26. There are no noun classes in Limli.
- 27. The direct object precedes the indirect object:
- I will give the pearl to the woman.
Yiku ilo ui ńeńu ae a sisu ae. give I OBJ pearl the to woman the
- 28. Possession is indicated with the preposition i. The genitive noun follows the head noun:
- The boy's basket is empty.
Ǵofoi fiuli ae i fińi ae. empty basket the of boy the
- 29. Plurality is not indicated on the noun. It is indicated by changing the definite article ae to le: ǵifo, stone; ǵifo ae, the stone; ǵifo le, the stones.
- If plurality is evident, the definite article is not used: fovi ǵifo, two stones; taya ǵifo, many stones; weǵo ya laulu ya, a crowd of children.
- A possessive pronoun follows its noun:
- fiuli hea, your basket; fiuli le hea, your baskets.
- 30. Abstract nouns are derived from verbs and adjectives by using a determiner with them: leta, short; leta ya, shortness; fuńi, begin, fuńi ya, beginning.
- 31. Abstract nouns are derived from other nouns with the suffix -ni: brother, foili; brotherhood, foilini.
- 32. Nouns naming a person characterized by an adjective are formed with the word fio, person: heǵue, young; heǵue fio, youth; liyu, old; liyu fio, elder.
- 33. The agent of a verb is also formed with the word fio, person: ońata, sing; ońata fio ae, the singer.
- 34. The instrument for performing the action of a verb is formed with the word ńai, thing: helu, cut; helu ńai ae, the knife.
- 35. Nouns are formed from verbs with the addition of an adjective or a determiner: hili, laugh; hili vui, his laugh, his laughter:
- Laughter came from the house.
U yiawe hili ya oi sita ae PST come laugh INDF from house the
- 36. Diminutives of nouns are formed with the prefix fu: yikiu, river; fuyukiu, stream.
- 37. A noun may be specified as masculine or feminine by using the adjectives fimi and oyi respectively: ńimo, bird; fimi ńimo, cock; oyi ńimo, hen.
- 38. Collective nouns are formed from nouns or adjectives by using the word weǵo, group: weǵo ae ńimo ya, the flock of birds; weǵo ae uli ya, the school of fish; weǵo ya rotu ya, an archipelago.
- 39. Nouns may be used to modify other nouns; the modifying noun precedes the modified noun: ńihomi fuyukiu ae, the mountain stream.
Modifiers - Silila Hoǵo le 시리라 호코 레
- 40. In Limli grammar adjectives, adverbs and determiners are classed together as modifiers.
Adjectives - Siliyo Hoǵo le 시리요 호코 레
- 41. Adjectives are a class of words which qualify a noun or noun phrase, giving more information about the object signified.
- 42. Adjectives and determiners precede the nouns they qualify.
- 43. The one degree of comparison, the comparative, is formed by reduplication: tiyu, big; tiyutiyu, bigger, biggest.
- If the adjective has more than two syllables, only the last two are duplicated: heǵue, young; heǵueǵue, younger, youngest.
- The standard of comparison follows the adjective. In comparisons than is translated by the preposition iu, with respect to:
- He is younger than I.
Heǵueǵue vui iu ilo. CMPR~young he than I
- He runs faster than I do.
Eńi vui fawafawa iu eo. run he CMPR~fast than I
- I can run faster than he can.
Fia a eńi ilo fawafawa iu fia vui. able run I CMPR~fast than able he
- 44. The absolute superlative is formed by reduplication of only the first syllable.
- He runs very fast.
Eńi fafawa vui. run ASUP~fast he
- 45. Negative comparison is formed with the adverb ańu, less: fisu, distant; ańu fisu, less/least distant.
- 46. The comparison of equality is formed with the word tufa, as:
- This flower is as red as blood.
Sawe tufa fefe ya fami ǵoili ae. red as blood INDF this flower the
- 47. Participles are a form of a verb that is used to modify a noun, noun phrase, verb, or verb phrase, playing a role similar to an adjective or adverb.
- 48. There are two participles in Limli.
- a. The present participle is formed by using the present form of the verb as an adjective: hio uli ae, the swimming fish. This also means "the fish is swimming". Context will distinguish and the form with the participle would have a predicate: The swimming fish was sick.
U ńivilu hio uli ae PST sick swim fish the
- b. The past participle is formed by using the past form of the verb as an adjective: u feyo kili ae, the sunken canoe.
- 49. Nouns of material may be used like adjectives: ǵifo sita ae, the stone house.
- 50. Word negation is indicated by the use of the prefix ta-: ohetu, happy; taohetu, unhappy.
- 51. Adjectives denoting similarity, likeness or resemblance to what is named in the noun root (-ish, -like) are formed with the prefix sili-: ńimo, bird; silińimo, like a bird.
- 52. Adjectives with the meaning without are expressed with the preposition eu, without: hetimi, hope; eu hetimi ya, hopeless.
- 53. The adjective precedes the dependent verb:
- I am happy to help.
Ohetu a leloi ilo happy to help I
Determiners - Yeyete Hoǵo le 예예데 호코 레
- 54. Determiners are a class of words that serve to express the reference of that noun or noun phrase in the context. They may indicate whether the noun is referring to a definite or indefinite element of a class, to a closer or more distant element, to an element belonging to a specified person or thing, to a particular number or quantity, etc.
- 55. The singular definite article is ae and the plural is le. These are placed after the noun: sisu, woman; sisu ae, the woman.
- 56. The singular indefinite article is ya and the plural is ye. It is placed after the noun: sisu, woman; sisu ya, a woman.
- The indefinite article is also used when no other modifier is present:
- Morning comes early.
Yiawe ńeifi yuili ya come early morning INDFSG
- Mornings come early.
Yiawe ńeifi yuili ye come early morning INDFPL
- 57. Numerals precede the noun in the absence of the definite article:
- Three women are cooking.
Fomo feto sisu. cook three woman
- They follow the noun if the noun is preceded by or followed by a determiner:
- These three women are cooking.
Fomo fama sisu ae feto cook this woman the three
- 58. The demonstrative determiners are fama...ae, this; fama...le, these; and lama...ae, that, lama...le, those: lama ńimo ae, that bird; fama ǵoili le, these flowers.
- 59. The elective indefinite determiner is fafi, any.
- 60. The assertive indefinite determiner is afi, some.
- 61. The alternative determiner is afiyu, other.
- 62. The distributive determiner is fihu, each.
Numerals - Yato le 야도 레
- 63. Limli has an octal numeral system.
|ivi 이비||fovi 포비||feto 페도||fińe 피께||ǵia 키아||eme 에메||yufo 유포||kimo 기모|
- 64. The numerals 9-15 are formed by suffixing the proper cardinal to kimo, eight: eight + one, etc..
- 65. The numerals 16-64 are formed by prefixing the proper cardinal stem to kimo, eight: two eight's, etc..
- 66. Additional numbers are formed by adding the needed number to the cardinal stem: fovikimoivi, 2 8's + 1, 17; ǵiakimofeto, 5 8's + 3, 43.
- 66. Compounds of 64 can be made by prefixing the proper cardinal stem to kimokimo: fovikimokimo, 2x8x8, 128, but the Limli very rarely need to count that high.
- 67. The ordinals are made by prefixing fo- to the cardinal stem: fofovi, second; fofovikimokimo, 128th.
- 68. The adverbial numbers are formed with the word lu, time : ivi lu, once; kimo lu, eight times (v. #29).
Adverbs - Fulini Hoǵo le 푸리니 호코 레
- 70. Adverbs are a class of words that modify a verb, an adjective, another adverb, a determiner, a noun phrase, a clause, or a sentence. They typically express manner, place, time, frequency, degree, level of certainty, etc.
- 71. They have the same form as the adjective, but follow the verb they modify: fehi lima ae, the brave man;
- He acted bravely.
U ńiyu fehi vui PST act brave he
- 72. The comparative of these adverbs is formed in the same way as for adjectives; fehi, bravely; fehifehi, more bravely.
Pronouns - Wusu Hoǵo le ᆍ수 호코 레
- 73. Pronouns are a class of words that substitute for a noun or noun phrase. There are seven types of pronouns in Limli.
- 74. The personal pronouns have only the one form which is used for the subject, the object and the possessive.
|vui||he, she, it||him, her, it||his, her, its|
- 75. There are three interrogative pronouns: kiu, who; iyi, what; and ayai, which.
- 76. There are no relative pronouns. Two independent clauses are spoken:
- I have a friend who speaks Limli.
Yei ya i ilo. Wawe vui ui Limli wawe ae. friend INDF of me speak he OBJ Limli language the
- 77. The reflexive pronouns are translated by using the personal pronoun as both subject and object:
- I hurt myself.
Siwi ilo ui ilo. hurt I OBJ me
- 78. The intensive pronouns are formed with the adjective suwe, self, placed before the pronoun:
- I myself will go.
Ito suwe ilo go self I
- 79. The demonstrative pronouns are the same as the demonstrative determiners, famae, this; famale, these; lamae, that; lamale, those:
- I want those.
Yuyu ilo ui lamale Want I OBJ those
- 80. The indefinite pronouns are made from the indefinite determiners:
- fafi fio, anyone, anybody, fafi ńai, anything
- afi fio, someone, somebody; afi ńai, something
- liwa fio, no one, nobody; liwa ńai, nothing
- ǵio fio, every one, every body; ǵio ńai, every thing
- 81. There are no possessive pronouns; the concept is expressed with a possessive expression, i + pronoun:
- This is your flower, that (one) is mine.
Fama ǵoili ae i hea lamae i ilo this flower the of you that of me
Prepositions - Ńoi Hoǵo le 꼬이 호코 레
- 82. Limli uses prepositions, a class of words that express spatial or temporal relations (in, under, towards, before) or mark various semantic roles (of, for).
- 83. The prepositions are classed as either simple or compound.
- a. Simple prepositions are single words:
- The egg is on the mat.
Yalu ae ao siti ae. egg the on mat the
- b. Compound prepositions are composed of a noun and the particle ve:
- Our village is near the mountain.
Lete ilo le lele ve ńihomi ae. village we PL near PTC mountain the
Conjunctions - Yefe Hoǵo le 예페 호코 레
- 84. A conjunction is a part of speech that connects words, phrases or clauses.
- 85. In Limli there are three types of conjunctions.
- a. A coordinate conjunction joins two or more items of equal syntactic importance:
- My brother and I like coconuts and breadfruits:
Wali foili ilo na ilo ui muho le na hoto le. like brother my and I OBJ coconut PL and breadfruit PL
- b. Correlative conjunctions work in pairs to join two or more items of equal syntactic importance:
- You will either eat your supper or go to bed.
Ǵiyi fumi hea ǵiyi filefe either sup you or lie.down
- c. Subordinating conjunctions join an independent clause and a dependent clause:
- Although she is sick, she ate her breakfast.
Yilei ńivilu vui u ǵiwilo. Although sick she PST eat.breakfast
|ivi 이비||fovi 포비||feto 페도||fińe 피께||ǵia 키아||eme 에메||yufo 유포||kimo 기모|