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This article is mostly about the historical kingdom. For the present day Kava, see Nama#Kava.

Kava is the name of a kingdom in the far southeast of Nama. Pavbwa is the name of a city settled by Subumpamese and Andanese-type people during a time in which Nama did not have control of the area. Its etymology is similar to "Baeba Swamp" and indeed it is a mostly a swamp. But it was the capital of a very powerful nation, Kava, during its time. Its people called it "Lun" rather than Pavbwa; their descendants embraced Naman culture when they were eventually overhwlemed, and then later on, Poswob cutlure when Poswobs began taking over Nama. They existed as Kava for a short time, roughly 3125 to 3348.


See the edit history for Hinku.

The proto-language was called Kamīqa. (The state name was Kamī.)

Sound changes unique to proto-Kava

This section is presented separately because it is needed by the spreadsheet and may be useful for loanwords. It ends at 1700 AD, a time of no political significance for Kava but near the time of greater significance for the areas around Kava.

  1. Three-way merger of ṁ ṅ ŋ̇ as /ən/. (later /un/)
  2. > q.
  3. kq qk > qq.
  4. xhʷ > .
  5. śʷ s̀ʷ > . These sounds when a primordial /h/ sound was both palatalized and labialized. Although there was no plain counterpart, this /sʷ/ sound still retained its labialization.
  6. ə > u.
  7. 'e o > i ə. (thus phonemicizing palatalized consonants) This produces the exact same four-vowel system found in Gold: /a i u ə/.
  8. [i] > [ə] if touching a Q in eihte direction.
  9. Primordial f > p (spelled /ṗ/ in wordlists).
  10. Primordial hʷ w > f v.

Proto-Kava evolves a post-palatal stop and fricative, and also a postvelar (but not uvular) stop. Thus it could be said that there are three "k" sounds: front, middle, and back. However, all Subumpamese daughter languages shift the consonant inventory strongly towards the front, resulting in a family of languages that sound somewhat like watered-down Pabappa.

  • All of this happened while there still was not an /s/ in the language, which was one of the triggers for the very strong frontward shift. At one point, early proto-Subumapmese had a voiceless fricative inventory consisting of /fʷ ś s̀ x h/ but no [s], even allophonically. All five of these had originated simply as allophones of [h]. There was also a corresponding voiced series.

Proto-Subumpamese can be stated to have been spoken around 1700 AD, not 1200 AD as its short sound c hange list might imply.

Therefore the consonant phonology of proto-Kava (~1700 AD?) was:

Bilabials:              p  b  m  
Rounded bilabials:      pʷ bʷ mʷ fʷ w
Alveolars:              t  d  n  l 
Rounded alveolars:      tʷ dʷ nʷ lʷ
Palatalized alveolars:  č  ǯ  ň  ł
Palatals:               ć     ń  ś  ź  y
Prevelars:              c̀     ŋ̀  s̀  z̀
Velars:                 k     ŋ  x  g
Labialized velars:      kʷ    ŋʷ 
Postvelars:             q        h
Labialized postvelars:  qʷ

Note: /ň/ = /ñ/; the latter's used because the former isnt on all keyboards.

There still was not an [s], even as an allophone.

Proto-Kava (1700 AD?) to Kava

The consonant phonology of proto-Kava (~1700 AD?) was:

Bilabials:              p  b  m  
Rounded bilabials:      pʷ bʷ mʷ f  w
Labiodentals:           ṗ
Alveolars:              t  d  n  l 
Rounded alveolars:      tʷ dʷ nʷ lʷ
Palatalized alveolars:  č  ǯ  ň  ł
Palatals:               ć     ń  ś  ź  y
Prevelars:              c̀     ŋ̀  s̀  z̀
Velars:                 k     ŋ  x  g
Labialized velars:      kʷ    ŋʷ 
Postvelars:             q        h
Labialized postvelars:  qʷ

Syllable-final consonants were

q qʷ 
k kʷ c̀ ć 
n nʷ ň 
l lʷ ł
x fʷ s̀ ś 
g    z̀ ź

Although these groups were highly restricted in distribution.

The vowel inventory was /a i u ə/, but unlike Gold, the schwa was a full vowel and could be long.

  1. The postalveolar affricates č ǯ became c ʒ unconditionally.
  2. The palatals ć ń ś ź became č ň š ž except in syllable-final position.
  3. The voiceless uvular stop q changed to k when syllable-final.
  4. The happy couple c̀ ć got married and changed their name to ć. Thus the four-way contrast of ć/c̀/k/q in syllable-final position had now been resolved as ć/ć/k/k.
  5. Syllable-final stops s̀ ś locked arms and kissed their way across the syllable boundary to become aspiration sanitizers, losing their palatalificitosity as they did so. Any voiced consonant they stepped on turned voiceless, which if nasal meant a resurgence of sounds like /mp/.
    Note that this does *not* say that they merged with each other, but that the writeup below assumes that they do, either here or later.
  6. The alveolar lateral changed to w unconditionally.
  7. Word-final ć became c, which was allophonically neutralized with both /t/ and /s/ because of tone.
  8. Syllable-final ć switchivizes itself to become the same PoA as a following consonant, except that it hugged a velar or postvelar stop and brought them up to its level.
  9. Labialization dominated a cluster across a syllable boundary, spooning out a new series of bilabializated consos, namely all of them: čʷ ǯʷ ňʷ łʷ ćʷ ńʷ śʷ źʷ c̀ʷ ŋ̀ʷ s̀ʷ z̀ʷ xʷ gʷ hʷ. OBVIOUSLY though, things like łʷ didnt really exist.
  10. Syllable-final fricatives z̀ ź painfully stung the next consonant, spreading a toxic venom as they tunneled all the way through, but not turning it into a voiced consonant.
  11. Any stop/aff after a stop turned into a fricative. That is, after /k kʷ ć/, the stops p b t d č ǯ ć k q became ṗ v s z š ž ś x h.
  12. The affricates c ʒ changed to s z when not after a high tone.
  13. Voiced stops became voiceless when occurring before a high tone.
  14. > .
  15. The postalveolar consonants č ǯ ň š ž ł became c ʒ n s z l unconditionally. (They actually remained before /i/, but this is now allophonic and can be ignored.)
  16. The labialized velar nasal ŋʷ changed to w before /i/.
  17. Labialization disappeared before /i/. (This probably kills the allophony above.)
  18. All remaining labialized dorsals became labiovelar. All others became rounded bilabials.
  19. Sporadically, the initial consonants of nouns changed to rounded bilabials due to analogy with their plural forms, which began with the prefix /u-/ which in the past had caused labialization. That is, for example, an alternation of t-/up- would change to an alternation of p-/up-.
  20. The true palatals ć ń ś ź became č ň š ž unconditionally.
    NOTE ON POLITICS: Post classical changes are below.
  21. After a high tone, voiced fricatives became voiced stops (or affricates). Thus v z ž g became b ʒ ǯ ġ.
  22. After a high tone, voiceless fricatives became voiceless stops (or affricates). Thus f s š x xʷ h became p c č k kʷ q.
  23. Voiced fricatives in syllable-final position, or between vowels, became vocalized. Thus v ž g became w y ʕ. Here, the /ʕ/ is a stand-in symbol indicating a lengthening of the preceding vowel.
  24. The sequences ʕa ʕi ʕu became a yi wu. The same /ʕ/ also changed to /y/ or /w/ when following these same vowels, but the spelling was not changed.
  25. The vowel sequences aa əə became ā ə̄.
  26. d>r.
  27. ġ ġʷ > g gʷ.

The consonant inventory at this time was perhaps

Rounded bilabials:      pʷ bʷ mʷ fʷ w
Spread labials:         p  b  m  f    (Ø)
Alveolars:              t     n  s  l  c  z  r 
Palataloids:            č  ǯ  ň  š  y       
Velars:                 k     ŋ  x        g 
Labiovelars:            kʷ    ŋʷ xʷ       gʷ
Postvelars:             q        h
Labialized postvelars:  qʷ

But see the edit history for a larger inventory in which Khulls-like marginal phonemes are counted as full phonemes.

In syllable final position could be found

Stops: k č p (possibly /t/)
Nasals: ŋ ň m (again possibly /n/)
Fricatives: x š f g ž v
Lateral: l

The voiced labial fricative /v/ comes from /gʷ/. The prevelars above are given here as palatals for simplicity, but there was no explicit shift of them.

Vowels of proto-Kava

The vowel system was the same as in Gold:

/a i u ə/

There was a three-way tone contrast of à/ă/ā. The low tone ă is written unmarked whenever it is predictable from the phonetic environment.

Daughter languages

Ideally, none of these should have more than 10 changes, but Dreamlandic may have more because of an early shift that triggers others.

Proto-Kava (3138?) to Pisi

The date of this language might actually be as far back as 3100 AD, perhaps 3138 AD witj tje founding of Yeisu Kasu. This might be the language of the Raspara.

  1. After a high tone, voiced fricatives became voiced stops. Thus v ž g became b ǯ ġ.
  2. Voiced fricatives in syllable-final position, or between vowels, became vocalized. Thus v ž g became w y ʕ. Here, the /ʕ/ is a stand-in symbol indicating a lengthening of the preceding vowel.
  3. The sequences ʕa ʕi ʕu became a yi wu. The same /ʕ/ also changed to /y/ or /w/ when following these same vowels, but the spelling was not changed.
  4. The vowel sequences aa əə became ā ə̄.
  5. The falling diphthongs ai əi au əu changed to ē ē ō ō.
  6. The vowel sequences ia iə ua uə changed to e e o o, unless one member of the sequence was long.
  7. The sequences mp nt nč nć ŋk ŋq changed to the voiced stops b d ǯ ɟ ġ ġ.
  8. Syllables were front-loaded whenever possible.
  9. Syllable-final fricatives disappeared, lengthening the vowel they had followed.
  10. The uvular stop q became k.

By the year 3348, proto-Kava had evolved into a language called Pisi, which split into a daughter language called Meromo, spoken by exiles, and the future of mainline Pisi.

Proto-Kava (3138?) to Super-Dreamlandic

See edit history for "pmslkrtn" target phonology. This is a complete reworking.

This is the superstratum language of Dreamland, *unless* the settlers simply adopt an aboriginal language.

  1. After a high tone, voiced fricatives became voiced stops. Thus v ž g became b ǯ ġ.
  2. Voiced fricatives in syllable-final position, or between vowels, became vocalized. Thus v ž g became w y ʕ. Here, the /ʕ/ is a stand-in symbol indicating a lengthening of the preceding vowel.
  3. The sequences ʕa ʕi ʕu became a yi wu. The same /ʕ/ also changed to /y/ or /w/ when following these same vowels, but the spelling was not changed.
  4. The vowel sequences aa əə became ā ə̄.
    NOTE ON POLITICS: This is where the mixing happens.
  5. Prenasalized stops are voiced.
  6. ň ń > ň.
  7. l > l.
  8. š ś č ć > š; ž ź ʒ ǯ > ž
  9. k q > k.
  10. g h > silence (Ø).
  11. Possibly k ŋ (even the new /k/) > š ň, due to allophony.

Proto-Kava (3138?) to Lypel

Other languages in Kava

Kava has always been linguistically complicated. Their home province had a language called Pisi, which was similar to Subumpamese but not particularly closely related; they simply evolved similar characteristics because they were neighbors. Later, as Subumpam blew up from a state into an empire, the Subumpamese language spread into Kava, and Kavans began thinking of themselves as Subumpamese people. The indigenous Pisi language was still the first language of most native Kavans, however, even at the peak of Subumpam's power.

Later, the Subumpamese Empire fell and its people were dominated by a series of outside nations. Even though Kava had never been officially part of Subumpam, foreigners also subjugated Kava, since it was an even more advantageous location than the rest of Subumpam had been.[1] Many Kavans tried to learn the languages of these invaders, but they were mostly Namans, who were an alliance of nations with no common language or culture. Still, the Khulls language was the preferred language amongst these leaders when they needed to communicate with each other, and Kavans began to study Khulls in the hopes that they might someday be granted at least a tiny portion of the power of their dominators.

From its earliest days, many Andanese people also moved into Kava, and passed their language down for many generations. Andanese people in Kava actually developed two languages, one that was their primary first language and "main branch Andanese" used for book learning and spoken primarily further east where most Andanese people lived.

Lastly, Kava also absorbed waves of Babakiam speakers from Paba. This is the same language that later became Pabappa. Pabaps moved into Kava primarily as political refugees, and blended in with the Subumpamese. This was not very common, though, as the leadership of Kava made it clear from an early date that Pabaps were not welcome amongst them, as their religion demanded absolute allegiance to Paba and its gods, and even those Pabaps who formally converted still generally believed in the gods of Paba.

Most Kavans spoke Andanese out of necessity to communicate with Andanese people living in other nations, as they felt their power would grow more quickly if they relied on a small people living in many nations (Andanese) as opposed to a large people living in just one (Subumpamese). However, it was never the official language of the Empire. There was a native Kava language, grown from a branch of the Gold language near to Subumpamese and strongly influenced by Babakiam. Thus, their language was "soft" and not very intimidating, unlike their very violent society.

Today Kavans have maintained their distinct culture for over 5000 years, but have adopted Poswa fully as their only language, even going so far as to rename their historical leaders with Poswob names.

Early history

In 2371, a wandering troop of Pabaps calling itself Hīnkù declared war on the Repilians living in Kava[2] and started rushing up the mountains. They planned to create a new nation carved out of territory in the north. Since this was similar to how Tarwas had grown, they claimed that they were founding a newer, smaller Tarwas. Just as Tarwas was a nation for Tarpabaps only, Hinkulas would be a nation for Pabaps only.

Hinku logo was two crossed palms, with a flat horizontal line connecting them.

War of Birth

Since Paba was a pacifist empire, they did not allow wars. Paba immediately severed all ties with Hinku and told the Hinku people that even if they changed their minds about war in the future, the Hinku people would never be welcome in Paba. Nevertheless, since Paba was a pacifist empire, it also refused to help the Repilian diplomats who came to Paba pleading for military intervention against Kava. Paba was in a difficult situation here. The Hinku people had deliberately invoked the analogy with Tarwas to expose the hypocrisy of the Pabap ruling class in instantly denouncing Pabap violence against Repilians living in Kava but ignoring and even supporting Tarpabap violence against Repilians living in Tarwas. In truth, Paba was against violence in both cases, but they were afraid to criticize violence inflicted by another nations because they were afraid of what Tarwas would do to them if they tried to drift away from their strong alliance with Tarwas.

Hinku's soldiers wore white clothes and marched under a white banner. This, in Pabap culture, meant that they claimed descent from the Pabap royal family, as those were the only Pabaps who were allowed to wear white. The Hinku did not actually believe that they were from the royal house, but chose to wear white specifically to show that they considered themselves equal to the very uppermost Pabaps. Paba was unimpressed and secretly hoped that the Hinku people would be massacred by their enemies. Paba could easily have boated to Kava and defeated the Hinku in a war, but the Pabap government did not want to break its promise to never fight a war. They actually sealed their borders to prevent Pabaps from leaving Paba to get away from pacifism and join Hinku.

Hinku referred to Paba as a wasted nation. They claimed Paba could easily conquer the entire planet, but chose instead to do nothing as literally all of the nations bordering them, and some quite distant nations, sent their people to trespass all over Paba and abduct the Pabap people as slaves, with the money going to the ruling class of Paba. They claimed that Paba's survival was not due to its large, obedient navy but due to the fact that none of their neighbors wanted to let the world's most submissive slaves become the exclusive property of just one nation, and formed "alliances" with Paba solely to ensure that they could forever continue to exploit and abuse Paba.

The Hinku said that the Pabaps should stop worrying about their nation being crushed by outsiders because it had already happened. They claimed Paba was oppressed by its pacifist government, which allowed other nations to abduct slaves from the Pabap lower class, never harming any of the ethnic minorities in Paba. Meanwhile, Pabaps were victimized by these same ethnic minorities because Pabaps were not given weapons to defend themselves whereas ethnic minorities were allowed to spend their whole lives collecting welfare benefits unavailable to ethnic Pabaps, and use their free time to build well-armed militias in order to bribe Paba to give them even more. They thus claimed Pabaps, apart from the tiny royal family, were in fact the lowest class in Pabap society and the only one denied even the ability to protect itself.

However, in reality, Pabaps were not denied the right to own weapons. It merely was that they generally did not join the military, and never were trained to use weapons in the first place, whereas at least the males of most of Paba's ethnic minorities did. Most areas of Paba had a low crime rate, and people who did not own weapons did not feel unsafe living among those who did. In areas where the crime rate was higher, per capita owernship of dangerous weapons was indeed much higher. Hinku was correct, however, that slavery had always taken almost exclusively Pabaps, and that this was why Paba's population had not grown even higher. Hinku promised to avoid enslaving Pabaps even if Paba remained eternally an enemy of Hinku.

The Hinku were Pabaps who spoke a dialect with no /p/. This had been a conscious change, because they felt that Pabappa's infantile sound system was partly respondible for Paba's adult population not being taken seriously by others, and why Paba always took abuse from other nations and merely sought the one that would abuse them the least. But they soon changed back to standard Pabappa because they were receiving many illegal immigrants from Paba, generally ones who had traveled to Subumpam first to get around the border barricades.

The Hinku were not a very physically intimidating people. Like other Pabaps they were small and delicate. They did not include ethnic minorities because they said these people were the entire problem in Paba. They had no armor at all. Their men dressed like women, including wearing crop tops and short skirts. This was unusual for Pabaps and for all of the other people around them. They had been nudists back in Paba, which was also unusual but nevertheless legal along Paba's south coast. When they moved north, they realized their new climate was very cold, and needed to wear clothes. The Hinku women adopted the fashions of the Repilian people around them, and the Hinku men simply copied their wives and girlfriends' clothes for themselves. Hinku men were not bothered when Repilian people laughed at them because they were killing Repilian people every day.

Hinku claimed loyatly to the Kakpewo people, but unlike Kakpewo, Hinku people loved nature and did not start forest fires to clear out dangerous animals from the lands they settled. They preferred to see themselves as a part of nature rather than at war with it. This meant that Hinku people were often eaten by wildcats. However, they saw wolves as potential allies and allowed wolves to live in even the centers of their cities. The "grape wolf", whose unusual name was due to being named after a city in Paba that grew grapes, became a symbol of Hinku culture early on.[3]

When the Niks in Niklas heard about the new nation, they signed an alliance with Kava figuring that there were now two Pabas and Niklas would be able to control at least one of them. They did not ask, however, for Niks to be allowed to move to Kava.

Crystal settlement

However, when the Crystals heard about the new nation, 250 Crystals soon moved to southern Kava and set up a pig farm. They were going to avoid the mistakes of their past when they had entered nations and expected to survive on government welfare or by living in cities whose food supply was controlled by rural farmers who were nearly all hostile to the Crystals. The new Crystals figured that the strongest nations in the world were those that were agriculturally self-sufficient and had ample coastline. Thus they took about half of Kava's coastline for themselves, saying they would live on fish and pork, and let the Hinku decide whether to see the Crystals as enemies or allies.

The Hinku knew that only 250 Crystals could cause a lot of damage to their new nation, because Crystals were in general very heavily armed and these settlers were mostly adult males, apparently figuring that more Crystals would move in later once the Crystal colony's existence had been secured. So they did not declare war against the Crystals, although they were embarrassed that their promise to keep foreigners out of their new nation had failed in its very first years. Kava's govenrment told its people that the Crystals were there by mutual agreement, and could be removed at any time, and had not taken any Hinku farmers' land away. Indeed it was true that the Crystals took only empty land, except for the coastline, but the coastline was owned by the government anyway and not individual citizens.

Soon, many of the Crystal settlers married Hinku women and started new families, indicating that they were not planning to ever move back to Lobexon. The Hinku had promised to never hurt their own people, so even when Kava's army became stronger they refused to hurt the Hinku women who had married Crystals. Nor did they hurt the Crystals, as they knew that their wives would try to stop them. But they asked the Crystals for help in boating the pig farmers to Crystal territory both so the embarrassment could be removed and so Kava could have its coastline back.

Contact with FILTER

When FILTER came to realize that its existence depended on waging a relentless war against the Repilian peoples all over the world, they decided to favor Hinkulas/Kava, since Kava was the only nation of Pabaps that was willing to fight Repilians. However, FILTER considered itself superior to Kava and figured that they would one day become enemies.

The War of the Perfect Societies

By 3115, as Kava and FILTER massacred more Repilians every day, an assortment of Repilian tribes responded by creating The Perfect Society. In the Perfect Society, nobody would be allowed to own weapons, except for a few people who needed them to hunt and fish. They considered FILTER and Kava to be as one with each other, and discouragedf their people from moving in, but stated because they were pacifists they wouldn't fight back if some tried to move in as long as they were unarmed. In 3125, The Perfect Society declared its independence (Kava and FILTER had claimed this land already, but not settled it), and defined their borders. The borders of the Perfect Society included the entire icecapped area of Nama, plus most of the territory behind Nama's army's front line. All in all, they claimed about 1/3 of the unglaciated part of Nama as their own.

Also in 3125, the Kavan settlers living in northern Nama created a new nation they called The Perfect Society. In The Perfect Society, all Repilians would be slaves for Kavans and would be forced to breed with the Kavan masters. The Repilian religions would be illegal and anyone caught practicing them would be placed in a special class of slaves that were specifically allowed to be tortured and abused. In 3125, The Perfect Society declared its independence and defined their borders. Nama accepted the new nation but renamed it to Nipanu-Malamuppa to prevent confusion.

Nama's government admitted that its north was hopelessly a lost cause. Kava and FILTER had destroyed much of the Mirror Project, and occupied areas of Nama that had not seen a war for more than a thousand years. Nama had always thought that its south coast was its weak spot, because it was cut off by tall mountains, but they now decided their only hope in surviving lay in moving their army to that very south coast in an attempt to starve out the home nations of Kava and Nèye.

Even though they knew that there were by now far more Kavans living in Nama than in Kava, Kava's original homeland on the south coast was still its only sea access. But they were frustrated by the inability of their constituent nations to even agree that Kava was evil. In 3137, yet another major war erupted in Nama, but it was between the two nations both calling themselves The Perfect Society. The long, spread-out army that Nama had held in place for centuries to keep the invaders out was thus repurposed to help fight the Perfect Society War on the side of the Repilians. Nipanu-Malamuppa won the war, and in 3138 declared that the "Era of Happiness" (Yeisu Kasu) had begun. They had defeated their rival nation, their own rebellious slaves, and Nama's land army in a single year. Most of the deaths in the war, even on Nipanu-Malamuppa's side, were Repilians.

The treaty ending the War of the Perfect Societies assigned to Kava all of the territory that had been claimed part of the Repilian victims' Peace Bubble nation. Thus Kava now had the entire icecap to itself, although they promised to respect preexisting FILTER settlements there, and they also had almost all of the territory that had previously been northern Nama. Because of the agreements the three Teeth had signed with each other more than 700 years ago, this war was considered no different than any of the other battles that had previously been fought, meaning that all of the territory won in the war was assigned to Kava and not the other Teeth, and that this voided even the Teeth's own preexisting plans drawn up 700 years earlier in which the tundra would be divided amongst the three armies. Nevertheless, the Crystals were focusing mostly on building settlements in the west anyway, and did not complain, whereas FILTER had grown so close to Kava now that they realized they could send their people into the new territory as much as they wanted to and not feel unwelcome.

As the killing went on, the Kavans began importing slaves from southeastern Rilola to fill the jobs previously done by the slaves they were massacring. After the killing was over, they kept importing slaves so they could have most of their work done for them and leave the day free for the ruling class. However, even during peacetime, military service was mandatory for non-slaves and began in early childhood.

After the massacre of the natives was over, they began massacring foreigners living further inland, and as they went, they promised protection for anyone of either the Andanese or the Subumpamese tribes, and held true to that promise: they conquered vast territories of land in the far north, killing entire populations as they replaced them with themselves, but they never harmed any of the smaller, weaker nations on their way that were of the same races as the Kavans. Individuals within those nations who attacked the Kavans were treated as criminals, but not war criminals.

Later history and climax of power

Andanese people tended to live within other nations at this time, and those living in Subumpam were seen as "belonging to" the Subumpamese, but they also encouraged Andanese people living in nations outside Subumpam to join them. Thus, they hoped, even if the Andanese did not move to Kava, they could create angry "Kavan" minorities in nations all across the south coast, particularly the unstable and very violent city-state of Paba. The Kavan army won many battles against incredible odds.

Kava encouraged all Andanese and Subumpamese to simply join forces and call themselves Kavans, which many did. The blending of Andanese and Subumpamese families occasionally produced children with red hair, a trait that neither tribe had on its own even in tiny percentages. This is because the dark-haired Andanese had a hidden "red" gene, and the Subumpamese had many blonde people, who when given this gene develop red hair instead. This is similar to what happened later among the Pabap people. The Subumpamese were a typical tall-male tribe (norī), meaning that adult men were taller than women, as they had been all along, whereas the Andanese were tall-femaled (ṗătī). Thus, for males of both tribes, females of the opposite tribe seemed like a natural fit; they were about the same height as what the men would have expected among their own tribe. However, despite the strength and pride of Andanese culture, females of both tribes tended to prefer to marry strong tall adult men, which meant that the Andanese men would have a harder time finding a wife. The government of Kava tried to partially fix the problem by deliberately creating a shortage of males, especially Subumpamese males, by demanding long years of military service from all males and deliberately overrepresenting Subumpamese among those spending the longest periods of time away from home. However, on an individual level, the Andanese men were typically more interested in military service to begin with, to the point that some voluntarily chose celibacy if it meant they could rise to a position of power in the military. As war was seldom far, a soldier so wishing could simply abduct a female from the losing army and get whatever he wanted from her, but this did not happen often. Most of the aboriginal peoples the Kavans were fighting at this time were Repilians or Macro-Repilians, who were of a similar body type and sexual size dimorphism as the Andanese, but much taller in both sexes. This meant that adult Andanese men were hip-high or even thigh-high measured against many of the women they were conquering, and, even given the traditional Andanese (and Repilian) preference for tall women, generally saw these potential pairings as obscenely improper.

Andanese people traditionally favored an extremely rigid society, with very few people committing violent crime and strict punishments for whose who did. By contrast the Subumpamese culture had long been one of the world's most liberal and tolerant of diversity and disruption. However, Kavans were unusual because they originated as just a political subparty of the Subumpamese, lacking essentially all of the liberal traits of their parent nation and instead glorifying the strictly controlled society they developed in their new homeland. This preference for liberalism was largely due to their religion, and therefore was common wherever Subumpamese people lived. Thus, the Kavan army had to struggle with excessively non-violent Subumpamese people in the territories they conquered.

Animal life

Hedgehogs were welcomed into Kava's society, but only the large, thick-skinned arctic species, which they believed to be more adaptable to living in a settled environment alongside humans. All other species were respected but not considered as Kavan citizens.

Views on gender roles and politics

As above, the blending of a unanimously tall-male and a unanimously tall-female tribe created difficult social situations that even the strict Kavan government struggled with. Although Andanese people were generally obedient, they enjoyed friendly fighting, and because their men and boys were so much smaller than their females, they considered it OK for a man to fight a woman, and surprising if the man was not injured more severely than the woman. The Subumpamese found the idea of men beating up women to be intolerable, despite the obvious fact that in these cases the man was by far the weaker party. The government passed a resolution stating that gender simply didn't matter, and whoever was stronger would be punished if they took advantage of the weaker party. But this did not change the culture, which considered women the weaker sex even when they were physically stronger. This was because even in the mixed society, women being beaten by stronger men was considered worse than men beaten by stronger women. Also, women beating up men other than in self-defense was rare. In the Ogili society 5000 years later, a similar situation occurred, but their government was not strict enough to be able to take any action; rape and wife-beating exploded upwards as the "no problem, we women can defend ourselves" Moonshine and Poswob people entered society.

Even though Kava made no apologies for the genocide of Repilians, or even the ongoing killings of Repilians in the deep north, it was considered fashionable in the Kavan Empire to have Repilian ancestry. This is not a matter of being a "strong survivor" of the genocide, but simply due to the belief that Repilians have attained magical powers through their religion that Andanese and Subumpamese cannot ever attain. Remnants of this admiration outlasted the formal Kavan Empire by thousands of years, leading to reduced resistance when the Repilian-like Poswob people began slowly dripping down from their settlements in the high mountains.

Later history

The Kavan empire did not last long enough for significant intermarriage to create a single Kavan race, but after their eventual defeat, immmigration into Kava was very rare, even after they adopted the language of their neighbors, and so the people known as Kavans for the next 5000 years were increasingly homogeneous. People from Kava founded the nation of Meromo in 3348.


Sisnasi[4] is the native religion to Subumpam, and reached majority status among Kavans when Subumpam took over Kava, and remained after Subumpam fell. Nevertheless, minority religions do exist:

Sàŋhʷṁi (Saumfuma in Bābākiam) was predominant among Andanese people, as it was wherever else they went. The Kavan leadership did not see this as a problem because their own native religions had always been allies of the Andanese.

Sĕyepa was brought over by immigrants from the Star Empire, and was never welcome amongst the Kavans, but nevertheless a small minority remains.

Yiibam is the native religion in Bābākiam at this time, and is also not welcome in Kava, but persists in the shadows among people who have blended in with the physically similar Subumpamese people but are actually Pabaps.

is another religion brought in from Nama.

A religion called Si was practiced by birds who had flown in from the Arctic


Kava uses a plutocratic system of government, which means that money is the basis of power. All citizens with money thus have governmental power, proportional to the amount they have. Voting rights begin very early: upon reaching the age of five, all Kavan citizens are allotted a bank account with 100 dét in it, which they are allowed to spend however they wish. For comparison, a meal in a restaurant often costs about 5 to 10 dét and a one-night stay in a hotel might cost about 50 dét. On the other hand, items which people might want much of have government-enforced inflated prices: a piece of candy might cost 100 dét and a visit to the park may be in the thousands.

A political party named the Bubbles was represented here, but not actually native. Rather, it is a pro-Paba party based in Paba, which argued that Kava should expand its protection eastward into Pabap territory where a lot more violence was occurring. Its name was related to the earlier Soap Bubble Society founded in the area around Blop, but the parties themselves were not related; they simply both used the same metaphor of cleaning up their enemies' waste. Thus, the Bubbles preferred to call themselves Bubbles, but also went by Soap Bubbles and just Soap. Moreover there were many different kinds of soap in their society and all had more precise names.


Voting is an everyday activity in Kava; Kavan citizens are expected to put politics first and the rest of their lives second. For children, voting is done in school. Adults may go to any of many polling places at whatever time of day is convenient for them; Kavans tend to work short hours, so they may spend as much time in a polling building as at work. More than 60% of Kava consisted of slaves (who could neither vote nor own money), so the short work hours of Kavans did not put a strain on the economy.

Kavans exercise their power by voting for propositions, not candidates. Each vote costs 1 dét to cast, but any person may put as many votes on a particular bill as he wishes. Thus a citizen who feels very strongly about an issue may choose to divert most of his personal fortune toward it while mostly or entirely ignoring issues that don't matter. This ensures that the outcome of bills will not be swayed by apathetic and uneducated voters voting simply and arbitrarily.

Citizens do also vote for candidates for various governmental positions, but the "offices" held by these people are merely administrative in nature, and do not give them any more power over the voting process. Nor are they paid positions. Incumbents in office can only be replaced by a younger candidate or one over the age of 50.


Kava's national currency is the dét. The economy is entirely centrally planned, with no private business at all. This allows the government to set prices on every item, lowering the prices of necessary items to zero or near zero and making luxury items extremely expensive.

Upon reaching the age of 45, or when their eldest child reaches the age of 15, citizens are required to give up all their money to their children. If they have no children, they must choose some other citizen to give their money to. Afterward, they are allowed to earn money and vote again, but they must start from zero. Often, a parent will start giving large sums of money to their children even earlier than this, since if the child starts getting money earlier he can multiply it and therefore earn more money even faster (false). Any citizen can give up any amount of his money to any other citizen at any time. The most common form of voluntary transfer is from a parent to their child. Thus much power is in the hands of the young, and Kava tends to be forever on the brink of a radical revolution led by inexperienced but powerful minds.


The Kavan system lent itself to some early abuses. Even though the Kavan system encouraged people to be independent, organizations of people with similar political ideals formed and pooled their money, and then required all of the members of the organization to vote the same way on all issues. The members would then all vote for each other for various offices, forming a solid political entity that could not easily be outvoted. If anyone decided to take action against the organization, members could simply hide themselves and have one person volunteer to give up all his money to the other members and then take all of the blame, leaving the organization as rich as it was before.

Often, these organizations would create schools, and invite parents of like mind to send their children into the school to be educated in the political ideals of the organization. This lent a small additional benefit due to the fact that it was legally harder to take money from a child than from an adult; thus money grew slightly faster when it was in the hands of the extremely young, even if they were not allowed by their parents to actually spend it.

Children and the disabled were often robbed of their money by others who, although they could not spend the money they stole (because it was marked), sought to reduce the political power of their opponents. Eventually multiple banks had to be set up where people could keep their money and carry only small amounts with them, but this prevented people from voting as often as they would desire.

Defeat of the Empire

When they finally went down, they were defeated by a power several hundred times what they themselves had been 200 years earlier. This set off a wave of militarism in the area that lasted another 1400 years. Kava remained a fairly militaristic culture during this 1400 years, but they had submitted to their conqueror, Nama, and were thus on the opposite side of their ancestors. However, Nama was in a state of rapid decline as a world power now, because the population density had shifted further northward, and Nama was walled off from the north by the world's tallest mountain range. Instead Nama remained essentially a regional power, controlling at best only itself and the trade that went through its sea from the two empires on either side of Nama. Surrounding empires began biting off pieces of Nama, eventually leaving only a rump state comprised of the most inaccessible parts. They retained more than half of their coastline, however, so even Nama at its worst was still in a fairly advantageous location.

Today Kava considers itself to be just another Poswob district, though with a traditional Naman type of government, and its people are just as pacifistic as other Poswobs. It has a multiparty government, with minority parties being given extra power to oppose the majority.

Other information

It should be noted that even at the height of its power, Kava was not universally seen as evil. Even its enemies admired the fact that children in Kava voluntarily went to school, rather than having to be held there by the cooperation of their teachers and their parents. One incident recalled thousands of years later commemorates a group of children about 5 years old who walked to their school, found it closed, and walked three miles downhill through the woods to a school in another town so that they could complete their schoolwork. All of this happened with pre-modern technology which was primitive even compared to the other nations around them. Kava today strives to still be a place where children go to such lengths when necessary to get their education, and wholesome enough that children can walk through deep woods without fear of being adbucted. The name of these children was given as Tačês in Khulls, Takīs in Babakiam, Tačas in proto-Subumpamese, and Tačibas in Kavan.[5]

Children and teens were conformists who out-parentsed their parents every day. Kavan schools wanted their children to learn new skills every day that they could teach their parents and thus make their parents dependent on them from an early age. Thus, Kava was at once extremely youth-oriented and extremely conservative. Kavan soldiers could not vote; neither could "Wamian" and Xʷugâ guest laborers. The only way a child could give money to an older person is by assassination (money goes to parents or godparents). Even murder is legal, because there are no crimes; punishment is decided on by votes instead of by jury.

More than half of the population consists of slaves; the slaves work much harder than other Kavans and are not paid for it. They are generally, but not always, people imported from the southeast of Rilola, such as Qoqendoq. Kavans tell their slaves that they should be proud to be part of such a powerful nation and that being a slave in Kava is better than being a free man anywhere else.


  1. this is assuming that the people of Kava actually originated in Kava and did not merely move in from Subumpam, taking their name and renaming a previously foreign land after it
  2. Possibly wrong. This is not "Taryte", not even the false Taryte that is known as Nipanu-Malamuppa. Hinku was hostile to "Taryte" because Taryte's Pabaps had made peace with the Repilians.
  3. I had always thought that there was a breed of wolf called "Concordian", but it doesn't seem to exist, so I'm naming them after the grape instead.
  4. a Bābākiam name
  5. This is the "where will be go?" (sic) story.