Grammar of Saxon English
- This is a section of Pure Saxon English, a book published by Elias Molee in 1890, which thus should be public domain. The character "inverted i" (in Unicode, U+1D09) has not been used here due to lack of font support, and has been replaced by the small capital ɪ.
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GRAMMAR OF SAXON ENGLISH.
PHONETIC SPELLING WITH OLD LETTERS.
Ai always sounds as in the word aim (Ger. e); q, ah, arm; a, an (Ger. ä); o, on, or (Ger. soll); ö (or oe) earn, word; oi, oil; ei, eye; au, house; ɯ, rule; ɔ, oh, old; ü (or ue), as in German, für; French, dur; Greek and Scandinavian, y as in syd; ɪ, eel; u, full or but; i, it; e, met; z, hard tsee (as in German, in order to have a clearer, oral distinction between z and s); y, yard; sh, she; ch, church; th, the, thin; w, we; ks, x; kw, qu; k, ch (Christ, Kreist). E before r has the sound of a (an); final o and u are long. Oe is equal to ö, and ue equal to ü. This substitution is also allowed in the German language. Capitals for the inverted c, i, and m, are O·ɔ, I·ɪ, U·ɯ; A·q. We can not invert capitals on account of not lining, and the capital Q looks odd for q. We therefore indicate the proper sound of the capital letters by means of an inverted period. Inverted c, i, m, for oh, ee, oo are advocated, and partly used already in America, England, and France. It is the only way I can see, by which to get along with old letters only, and they are as good as new letters would be to the reader. The type-setter must invert them, but they might easily be made in the future, so as to need no turning. The letter ɔ is written as the figure 2 is written; ɪ is simply inverted i; it is as easy to dot under as over the line, and the distinction becomes all the more conspicuous. Inverted m, or ɯ, is written as u and i without the dot. The corresponding capitals of ɔ, ɪ, ɯ, and q, have always an inverted period on their right side, thus: O·K, ɔk (oak); I·L, ɪl (eel); U·z, ɯz (ooze); A·MS, qms (alms). In remodeling the language, it is sometimes better to modify the pronunciation than the spelling, in order to preserve the old appearance of the word, and to make it more international, as kom (not kum); German, kommen; Dutch kommen; Scandinavian, komme; kql (not kol) as a or q is used for the same word by our cousins. That form which is most internationally Gothic, is best. It is as easy to say kom as kum; bql as bol, etc. With phonetic spelling, we can tell near enough for practical purposes how to pronounce. No spelling can become fully phonetic without having about two hundred letters, according to Ellis, but we can use consistently those letters we have. In the beginning, we can continue the old pronunciation of Saxon words.
RULE 1. To form the plural number, and to increase vowel euphony, add a (an, at; Ger. ä), after words ending on consonants; and add s after words ending on vowels, as, one hand, two handa; one boi, two bois (boys); two hausa. A is a very fine and extensive plural sound, and was much employed by our forefathers. Anglo-Saxon, an hand, twa handa; German zwei hände (handai); Old Frisic, hond, plural honda; twɔ hausa; Scandinavian, to huse; Latin, regnum, plural regna; Greek petron (wing), plural petra; Slavonic grad (castle), plural grada, or gradje; Irish, seamrog (shamrock), plural seamroga. The final a has the same sound as in Florida, America, Mathilda, etc.
RULE 2. To form the possessive case, add o (oh) after consonants, and no after vowels, as girlo hat (girl’s hat), and boino buk (boy’s book). The possessive form may precede or follow, as, hat girlo. This o is a contraction of our possessive word own (ɔn, ɔnership). When words end on a vowel, a euphonistic n is inserted to prevent hiatus, and to blend consonants and vowels for ease of pronunciation. It looks like an abbreviated plural Greek possessive logon (of words). Girlo (girl’s, girl own); Godo haus (God’s house). The preposition of is also used as before; but o and no are used for the short possessive; plural possessive, handano (of the hands), laidiso, etc. It will be as easy to form the possessive of the plural as of the singular, by adding o after s, or no after a; hausano. As final o has the sound of oh, we write o instead of ɔ.
RULE 3. To form the past tense, add o after consonants, and do (doh), after vowels, as, Ei lovo (I loved), Ei gɔdo, ei sɪdo (I went, I saw). The fact that the possessive and past tense signs are alike is no objection, because a noun and a verb stand in such obviously different relations that no mistake can follow. It is different with the plural and possessive sign s, both being added to the same part of speech. O is chosen because it is historical, being used as a past tense sign by the Anglo-Saxons with n, and by our Gothic cousins, the Swedes, without n. It is the most proper and musical vowel we can find for this purpose.
The Anglo-Saxons formed the plural past tense with on, as waron, sindon (were). In Swedish, the n is worn off, while o remains, as, vi spunno, vi kommo, vi funno (we spun, we came, and we found). In Italian, Spanish, and Portuguese, the past participle takes o; united and loved is unito, or unido, and amato, or amado. O· is a well tried past tense form.
RULE 4. To form the present participle, add qnd; and to form the past participle, add en, as, Ei am skreibqnd, the runqnd hors. In the beginning we can use qnd only with the new words; but hɪ has loven, worken, etc. The reason for having qnd for the present participle, when it is used as an adjective, instead of ing, is to prevent the extremely frequent repetition of the ringing sound of ing, which is still employed with verbal nouns. The Anglo-Saxon and, or end, for the present participle, and ung, or ing, for verbal nouns. Anglo-Saxon, and; German and Dutch, end; Swedish, ande; Danish and Norwegian, ende; Italian, Spanish, and Portuguese, endo, or ando; French, ent, or ant. The suffix en is a sign for the past participle in Anglo-Saxon, and with all the Gothic people. Being an easy flowing, liquid sound, it is made the only past participle form. Chaucer, the morning star of English literature, employed and; but finally and and ing were confounded, as ed and en have been.
RULE 5. To form the verbal noun, add ing, or ung, as, hɪring and erzɪung; and to form the infinitive noun, add qn, as, rɪdqn and skreibqn (Ger., lesen und schreiben; Scan. lesen og skriven). The infinitive noun will not be used much at first, but it will be convenient to be able to vary the expression at times. The qn is the Anglo-Saxon infinitive ending, and the same method is used by the rest of our Gothic family.
RULE 6. To form the masculine noun, add ɪ; and to form the feminine noun add in, and neuter it, as, frendɪ, frendin, and frendit. Ine is used in English—hero, heroine; German and Dutch, in; Danish and Norwegian, inde; Swedish, ina. The suffix ɪ is a contraction from he, or hɪ, as the possessive sign o is a contraction from ɔn (own), and u from do (du).
RULE 7. To verbalize a word, and to give it emphasis or make it more specific, add u from du (do); German, thu-en, as fy is from facio, in place of en, fy, ize, ate, etc., as, hqrdu (harden); raru, or rariku (rarify); erinu (memorize). U is a contraction from du, and is very appropriate for this purpose, beside being a very easy sound to pronounce. U is called by some orthoepists the natural vowel. U is employed much in several languages as a final vowel, but especially in Latin, Italian, and Japanese. It is used much in the vocabulary to distinguish a verb from an adjective or other part of speech. In those words where u is a verbal sign, the verb and the noun remain alike, as, klasu, or klasiku (to classify), and klasu, or klasiku (classification).
RULE 8. The definite article is before singular nouns the, as, the hand, the haus; but before plural nouns it is dɔ handa, dɔ hausa. Dɔ has been modified from the German die; Scandinavian de, and Anglo-Saxon dhe, or seo, so as to give us the best variety and clearest distinction from the singular, and from the plural sign a. Dɔ is different in consonant and vowel from the singular the, and the plural ending a. Both the Germanic and Romance languages have a plural form for the definite article. French le (the) has plural les (dɔ); German, der, plural die; Scandinavian, singular den, or det, plural de. We have adopted a plural form in order not to be obliged to repeat the so extremely often; besides we need very much a plural form of the article to show whether the singular or plural is meant in hundreds of sentences. Not to have a plural form for the article is a great defect. We might use the article das before abstract nouns as das gudi, etc.
RULE 9. When the adjective is used as a noun, it takes the plural sign, as, dɔ guda (the good ones). This form will make the expressions clearer as to number. This method prevails in all the Gothic tongues. To have no plural form for the definite article, and no plural sign for the substantive adjective, appears to me to be very indefinite. It is poor practice.
RULE 10. To form the infinitive, add q to the indicative of those words that end on a consonant; as, to komq, to singq, to go, etc. Words ending on vowels receive no addition. This infinitive suffix q is a contraction of the Anglo-Saxon infinitive ending an, pronounced qn. Both the Gothic and Romanic people have a special infinitive form. The French add er or ir, aimer (to lovq), finir (to finishq). The Italians ere, ire, or are; as offendere (offendayray), punire, perdonare (perdohnahray). Germans and Hollanders add en; the Anglo-Saxon an; the Danish and Norwegian e, and the Swedes a; as, att komma, att falla, att vandra (to komq, to fqlq, to wqnderq). This form will not only add many per cent. to the musicalness of our language, but make the imperative and indicative forms more easily distinguished. We now say to come (infinitive), come (imperative), and I come (indicative); come, come, come. Only one form for all three ideas. If we had a separate infinitive and imperative form, then would the indicative be clear to the eye and ear. It can not be of more trouble to us to have an infinitive and imperative form than it is to other nations, and we need the form for clearness and euphony. Even with the several vowels introduced, we will not have as many as the Italians or the Swedes. Our English grammar is too simple and indefinite.
The infinitive form need not be used in the beginning. The foregoing ten rules are the basis of Systematic English, which may or may not include phonetic spelling, but will include no new words. Systematic English only systematizes the grammar without touching the vocabulary any further than to systematize the inflections.
ADDITIONAL RULES OF SAXON ENGLISH.
RULE 11. The cardinal numbers are formed from the ten first units, and the higher numbers add tɪn (teen), ti (ty), hundred, thausand, heiyond (million, that is, high yonder), ɔveryond (billion), augyond (trillion, aug, eye, df. I): 1, an (one); 2, twɔ (pronounce w); 3, thrɪ; 4, fɔr; 5, feiv; 6, siks; 7, seven; 8, ait; 9, nein; 10, ten; 11, antɪn (an and ten, or tɪn); 12, twɔtɪn; 13, thrɪtɪn; 14, fɔrtɪn, feivtɪn, sikstɪn, seventɪn, aittɪn, neintɪn, twɔtɪ (twenty), twɔti-an (twenty-one), etc., thrɪti (thirty), fɔrti, feivti, siksti, seventi, aitti, neinti, hundred, thausand, heiyond (million), ɔveryond (billion), and augyond (trillion). Only seventeen words need to be memorized by the world, and those short, easy, and well known ones.
RULE 12. The ordinal numbers are formed by adding tq to the cardinal; Anglo-Saxon ta (pronounced tq); German and Dutch, te (pronounced tai); Danish and Norwegian, te; Swedish, ta (pronounced tq): feivtq, sikstq (5th, 6th); Anglo-Saxon, fif (five), fifta (fifth), sixta (sixth); German, fünfte, fünf (five); Danish and Norwegian, femte, fem (five); Swedish femta; Greek, pentos; Latin, quinta (pronounced quintq). We add tq rather than ta, because the latter ending is like our frequent plural sign ending a. This makes a fine historical suffix for ordinal numbers. The numeral first is a general Gothic number, and hence preserved, but the regular forms are antq (first), twɔtq (second, pronounce w), thrɪtq (third), fɔrtq, feivtq, sikstq, seventq, aittq, neintq, tentq, antɪntq (eleventh), twɔtɪntq (twelfth), thrɪtɪntq, fɔrtɪntq, twɔtitq (twentieth), twɔti-antq (twenty-first), hundredtq (hundredth), thausandtq (thousandth), heiyondtq (millionth), etc. The reiteratives are formed by simply adding teim: anteim (once), twɔteim (twice), thrɪteim, fɔrteim, etc. The multiplicatives are formed by adding fɔld: anfɔld (simple), twɔfɔld (duplex), thrɪfɔld, fɔrfɔld, etc. We also say annes (onenes), twɔnes (twones), etc.; also anhud (unity), twɔhud (duality), thrɪanikeit (trinity), thrɪanikeitlɔr (doctrine of the trinity), tenmanarɯl (decemvirate). Inflections and compounds of known material are clearer, easier, and more comfortable than strange borrowing. To denote fractional parts, el is added, an abbreviation from teil (part), fɔrel, feivel (fourth or fifth part); two-fifths is twɔ-feivtqs; nine-tenths is nein-tentqs, etc.
RULE 13. Names of days and months are formed by simply taking the ordinal numbers and adding the first letter for day or month, d stading for day, and m standing for month; thus, antq is first, and by adding d, an abbreviation for day, we have Antqd (Sunday), Twɔtqd (Monday); and by adding m we have Antqm (January), Twɔtqm (February). All must learn the numbers anyhow, and then by the slight addition of d and m they would know the names of the days of the week and the months; as, Antqd (Sunday), Twɔtqd (Monday), Thrɪtqd (Tuesday), Fɔrtqd (Wednesday), Feivtqd, Sikstqd and Seventqd. Months: Antqm (January), Twɔtqm (February), Thrɪtqm (March), Tentqm (October), Antɪntqm (November), Twɔtɪntqm (December). Here is a chance to show our good-will towards the whole world by making these names easy to learn, and at the same time use our own Saxon material. The old names might be retained if desired, but they are longr and harder to learn and pronounce, and they are unnecessarily arbitrary.
RULE 14. The personal pronouns remain as at present, with a very slight extension, as they are nearly alike in all the Gothic tongues, and are short and convenient, and all purely Gothic.
There is a defect in the feminine pronoun on account of her being both possessive and objective without any distinction in form. This is too simple and indefinite to the eye and ear, hence her objective has been changed to shim from she, to compare with him from he. I saw him and shim (him and her). Her is preserved for the possessive. The personal pronouns are not very systematic, but they are short and well known, and they are so frequently spoken that they do not need to be systematic to be retained in the mind; besides, it is a great comfort to have as much familiar material upon which to rest the mind as possible. Hence personal pronouns, auxiliary verbs, and adjectives remain as now, and they are nearly alike in all the Gothic languages. The only change consists in phonetic spelling, and even that might be omitted with the personal pronouns. Several grammarians have expressed a desire for a pronoun in the third person, applicable to both the masculine and feminine gender. We have adopted ɪr, ɪro, ɪm for that purpose. I·r is an old form of er (he); ɪro is ɪr with the possessive sign o, ɪro (his or her); m being a general objective and dative sign, we have ɪm (Ger. ihm) for the objective. By adopting ɪr, ɪro, and ɪm as a personal pronoun for the third person common gender, we give extra clearness to such words as hɪlɪr (he or she who heals); tɪchɪm (pupil), he or she who is being taught. I·r as a suffix is used especially where we desire to indicate a higher class of actors, professional actors. I·m is used to denote the recipient of an act; as, paiɪm (payee); selɪm (vendee). The personal pronouns run thus:
|1st Person.||2d Person.||Masculine.||Feminine.||Neuter.||Com. Gender.|
Adding o or no is the same as adding of, in case we desire to lessen the number of the little weakening words; as, fulo (full of); manino (many of). The inflected noun may stand first or last, as in German; the haus Godo (Ger., “Das Haus Gottes”); theno (of the); dɔno (of the, plural); objective form, thim and dɔm (to the).
The pronouns are defective in all the Gothic tongues in the third person plural. The masculine, feminine, and neuter are alike, and yet it would be both easy and convenient to have distinctions. The Russians have very complete pronouns. They can even show whether the speaker or the one spoken to is male or female. I think it would frequently add clearness to stories if there were different plural forms for the masculine, feminine, and neuter. As the plural is now formed by adding a after consonants, and s after vowels, we might easily develop a separate masculine plural by adding s to hɪ: hɪs (they, masculine), and shɪs (they, feminine), ita (they, neuter). The possessive forms would be respectively, hɪso, shɪso, and itano; and the objective, hem, shem, tem (arbitrary for brevity). Although plural forms would often be convenient, I have not made it a part of the system, believing that this is one of the points that can be inserted afterwards, if the American and English people desire more distinctions than they now have. The rest of the Gothic people have no more distinctions in this respect than we have.
Em is an extra objective suffix placed after an object when we wish it to appear first or come between the subject and predicate; as, James Johnem struck. In an ordinary sentence, we can see from the position; by this means we can have as much freedom of position as was enjoyed by the classical languages.
Sich is a reflexive pronoun used by the Gothic tongues, and is equivalent to him-, her-, or itself; as, he or she hurt him or herself; hɪ hurt sich, shɪ hurt sich; French and Latin, se.
Mqn is an indefinite pronoun, very convenient. French, on; Anglo-Saxon, German, Dutch, and Scandinavian, man; “mqn sai.” French, on dit; German, man sagt; Scandinavian, man siger, or man säger.
RULE 15. The auxiliary adjectives and verbs remain irregular as now, as they are more convenient as they are, being short, well known, and nearly alike in all Gothic languages.
1. gud, beter, best.
4. mani, mer, mest.
The regular adjective adds er and est; as, long, longer, longest.
1. werden, wurdi, worden.
5. shal, shud, shuden.
The first auxiliary verb werden would be very convenient to us, and help us to employ the troublesome will and shall more in harmony with their nature and original usage. Will and shall are used very abnormally. We say I shall and you will, we should and they would. Other verbs are alike for all persons in conjugation; as, I can, you can, he can, we can, etc. There is an increased tendency to ignore the superfine and useless distinctions between would and should. In Scotland and in our Southern States would and should are confounded by high authorities; as, I would (should) not have thought so; we would (should) have been there. Will is employed to advantage only where volition is concerned, and shall where duty, obligation, or command is thought of. We can not say “The house wil burn,” but “the house werden burn.” The house can not will to burn, or have a will. Werden is therefore introduced and modified from the Anglo-Saxon weordhan; German and Dutch, werden; Danish and Norwegian, vorde; Swedish, värda. All Gothic people use this very convenient and clear auxiliary verb in the sense of futurity without implying volition. To use will and shall for volition, and also for futurity, is too indefinite. We need an extra auxiliary verb for futurity very much; still it will be used sparingly at first, as it is rather new with us, though our forefathers used it. It is only a revival of what we have had. Thai werden bekom sik, not they will becme sick, for they can have no such will.
RULE 16. To form animal derivative names, we take the easiest and best known generic name, masculine or feminine, and add thereto ɪ for masculine, in for feminine, and et for the diminutive; as, lion (common gender), lionɪ (masculine), lionin (feminine), lionet (diminutive), lionetɪ (masculine diminutive), lionetin (feminine diminutive); dog, dogɪ, dogin, doget, dogetɪ, dogetin. This will be a very convenient method by which to name the more inferior animals, but man, horse, and ox are excepted from the rule.
RULE 17. The descriptive power of participles and adjectives is much extended, as in Anglo-Saxon and all the other Gothic tongues, by employing them as descriptive personal nouns. By adding i as a general personal sign to participles and adjectives, we can say the lovqndi (the loving one), and by adding the gender signs ɪ, in, and it, we can specialize the idea so as to indicate whether the loving one (lovqndi), is a male, female, or a thing in the abstract; as, the lovqndɪ, lovqndin, lovqndit. In the same way we can take the adjective fein, and say the feini (the fine one in general); the feinɪ (the fine man or male); the feinin (the fine woman or female); the feinit (fine thing). German, das Schöne or Feine; Greek, to kalon. We can, of course, use a circumlocution to express the same ideas, as the fine man, the fine woman, the fine thing, but the expression loses its neatness and forcibleness. Our language is far behind in picturesque power. This power is possessed by the Anglo-Saxon and other Gothic languages. The Germans use different articles for masculine, feminine, and neuter, but it is easier to denote thes ideas by special suffixes, and not be troubled by so many articles as in German and Scandinavian. The past participle follows the same rule; as, the fqleni (the fallen in general), the fqlenɪ (masculine), the fqlenin (feminine), the fqlenit; the donit (German, das Gemachte), saienit (gesagte). By prefixing the plural article dɔ (df. do, du), and by adding the plural signs to substantive adjectives, we obtain clear plurals: Dɔ lovqnda (the loving ones); dɔ lovena (the loved ones); dɔ lovqndɪs (the loving men or males); dɔ lovqndina (the loving women or females); dɔ lovqndita (the loving things). These expressions need not be used much at first, but if we desire, as we naturally must do, a highly descriptive language not excelled by any other people, we need these points. We need them to make our language more poetical and picturesque. At present our grammar is very prosaic and generic. The few extra points required can be mastered in one day, and we have forever a thing of comfort and utility.
RULE 18. Adjectives derived from proper nouns follow the general usage of other adjectives by adding anik, ik, lik, leik, ish, som, etc., so that we can tell the adjective from the noun, and the noun from the adjective; thus, a Dutchman who is a native of Holland is called a Hollander, and the adjective becomes Hollandik. A native of Frans, a Franser or Fransi, and French is called Fransik. The frequent names of English and German are excepted from the rule, and we say English instead of Englandik, and Doich instead of Doichlandik. The names of the inhabitants of all other lands are obtained by adding the regular personal endings er, qr, ɪr, ist, an (one). Countries whose names end on a, generally add n; as, Amerika, Amerikan (one from or in America), Russia, and Russian; but the adjective is made different from the derivative noun by adding ik on words ending with an, the most general adjective sign in both Gothic and Romanic languages; as, Amerikanik, Russianik, Assianik, Indianik, Afrikanik.
Names of persons, being guarded by individual rights, remain intact unless their owners wish to spell them according to sound. Friends can easily ascertain each other’s method of spelling, but that will not affect the language proper. Names of countries and cities should adopt phonetic spelling as soon as possible; as, Nu York. Inhabitants—Cheinar (Chinese); Japaner (Japanese); Judan (Jew from Juda); Nazarether (Nazarene); Greelyer (Greelyite); Kalvinist. Only er, qr, ɪr, lqr, nqr, an, and ist must be suffixes.
RULE 19. Personal and impersonal agents are distinguished by the suffix qr or er and el. Thresher is the person that thershes, and very often the threshing machine itself is called thresher; but we have adopted the suffix el to denote the impersonal or thing actor or agent; as, threshel. El is much used for this purpose now in the Gothic tongues; as, shovel (the thing which shoves) and shover (person); handel and hander; rɪpel, rɪper (person). El means the thing acting or acted upon, or the product of an act. The context will show which is meant. Er may be retained with old familiar names, instead of qr. This el, taken from shovel and handel, etc., is, for some purposes, similar to an abbreviation of the Scandinavian else, as in fɔrthbringel, product; Scandinavian, frembringelse. This el is also convenient as a thing name for many acts where we do not think of the action, but of the result of the action. For instance, production and product; fɔrthbringing and fɔrthbringel. L is a very liquid, flowing sound. It is a defect in many languages not to have a distinction between so frequent and broadly different ideas as the personal and impersonal agent or actor.
RULE 20. The personal affix A·r (qr). In order to make it clearer to the eye and ear, we have modified er, which is both a comparative sign and a personal sign. When a personal suffix, it becomes qr, as in scholar, liar. I have used er in the vocabulary, but qr can easily be substituted. It is sometimes doubtful whether a word is a comparative adjective or a personal noun; as, steadier. What does it mean? More steady, one who steadies, or a thing which steadies? Now, if qr is personal, er comparative, and el a thing sign, it all becomes very clear—stediqr (one who steadies); stedier (more steady), and stediel (a thing which steadies). The suffix qr (ar) is used by the Saxons and all other Gothic people as a personal ending, more or less; but, of modern peoples, none employ it as much as the Swedes and the Russians. It is as easy to write qr as er, and we have a fine open distinction, in reading and hearing, between the comparative adjective and the personal noun. Where ɪr, an, lqr, nqr, or ist is used, the distinction is clear. With such words as father, mother, together, er is not a personal suffix, but an integral part of the word. Accent is generally on the syllable next to the last, as in Spanish and Welsh, unless we wish to emphasis the last syllable or the qualifying part of the word. Pronunciation of all new words is strictly according to the spelling; and the key words, except final o and u, are oh, oo. The sound of u in but, hut, rut, being a peculiar sound, is not much used in Saxon English; u in full, pull, or as in moon, soon, takes its place.
The emphatic imperative and optative forms may add ai to verbs ending on consonants, which is much like the sound employed by the other Gothic tongues; as, komai (come thou); spɪkai (speak, or please speak).
Points whichi I have omitted to state formally may be gathered from the specimens. All points not mentioned remain as at present.
In case more vowels should be desired, we might, as in Anglo-Saxon, and the other Gothic tongues, add a vowel to all adjectives after the definite articles in singular and plural; as, the gudq man, dɔ feina hausa.
If we desire, we might form the direct passive, as in the Scandinavian, by adding qs or s to the indicative; as, ei lovqs (I am loved), Latin, amor; thau lovqs (thou art loved), Latin, amaris; thau lovos (thou wert loved), Latin, amabaris. A short passive form seems to be favored as a variety.
His and sein.—We ought to have a distinction between his when demonstrative, and his when reflexive, to prevent such ambiguity as John gave his brother his book (which book?—his own or his brother’s?) If sein were used when reflexive, and his in all other cases, such uncertainty would be avoided. Sein and his are thus employed in the Scandinavian.
In order not to have the to, too, two (the to-sounds) too frequently, the infinitive sign to is pronounced tɔ (toh); the preposition to pronounced tu, and the numeral two twɔ (w pronounced with ɔ).
We may increase the variety of the structure of sentences by allowing the predicate to precede the subject whenever something has first been said in a sentence. This is the case in all the Gothic tongues, and partially so in English; as, for instance, “I am ready, said the man” (not the man said); “when I went into the street, met I a friend.” And in order to increase our freedom of position, so as to be able to place first or last any word to which we may desire to call special attention in speech or poetry, we have adopted the Gothic objective sign em (m). This is to be used only where we wish the object to occupy a different position from the ordinary one. The boyem the man found, or the manem the boy found, or the manem found the boy; him found he, him he found, or him found he. Where we have an objective sign, we can see what is the object, wherever the word is placed.
No more forms or words should be introduced in the beginning than indicated in the “Specimen Readings.”
BRIEF KEYS TO SPELLING AND GRAMMAR.
In writing draw a dash over the inverted ɯ to distinguish it from m or u and i.
- Plurals add a after consonants, and s after vowels.
- The possessive case adds o after consonants, and no after vowels.
- The past tense adds o after consonants, and do after vowels.
- The present participle adds qnd, past participle en.
- The verbal noun adds ing, the infinitive noun qn.
- The masculine noun adds ɪ, the feminine in.
- To verbalize a word, add u (gladu).
- Definite article—singular the, plural dɔ.
- The substantive adjective takes the plural sign.
- To form the infinitive, add q.
- Cardinals taken from the present numerals.
- Ordinals formed by adding to cardinals tq.
- Names of days and months—add to ordinals d or m.
- Personal pronouns and auxiliary verbs nearly as before.
- “ Sich and man (French, on) also employed.
- “ The suffix i after adjectives refers to persons in general.
- “ Sich and man (French, on) also employed.
- Five irregular adjectives, and eight irregular verbs.
- Lion, lionɪ, lionin, lionetɪ, lionetin, lionet.
- Substantive adjectives add for sex, ɪ, in, it.
- Adjectives from proper nouns regularly derived.
- The personal agent adds qr, ɪr, etc.; impersonal el.
- The personal actor adds qr; comparative adjective er, est.
Accent generally on the last syllable but one, as in Spanish, or on the qualifying syllable. His is demonstrative, and sein always reflexive; the subjunctive may add i. The emphatic imperative and the optative may add ai after consonants. Points and words not provided for, remain as in English. The Scandinavian passive adds qs to the present indicative, and s to the past tense; as, Ei lovqs (I am loved), Latin, amor; Ei lovos (I was loved). Em added to a word to allow the object to precede the subject or predicate. I·m, a recipient sign, ein, a receptacle sign; and to, an implement sign. Not all the rules and words need be used at first. The s for the third person singular present is abolished.
The “Specimen Readings” show the real Saxon English proposed; other forms are for future consideration.
SYNOPSIS OF THE REASONS IN FAVOR OF ADOPTING A SYSTEMATIC, PURE SAXON ENGLISH.
- Our scientific men and mechanics in general, and physicians in particular, could remember more facts with a self-defining speech.
- Country people and laborers could learn to read and write correctly, with systematic spelling and vocabulary, in from three to five years less time, and would understand and remember more of what they read.
- The sooner the elementary mechanical part of the language can be mastered, the more time will be left for the knowledge and practice of other things.
- By homogeneity we can economize affixes and basic words, and make the language easily acquired by the whole world, because more practical.
- The future mechanic and manufacturer will be obliged by foreign competition, which has come to the front within the last twenty-five years, to know more of nature, and this can only be acquired by an economical language.
- By regularity and simplicity of grammar we make our tongue easy to master by all foreign peoples with whom we deal, and by our infant population.
- By homogeneity we will make our language the chief representative and leader of the Gothic races, and make it easily learned, loved and supported by them, while, by promiscuous mixing of vocabularies, we can represent and lead no people well, mentally and emotionally.
- By the Saxon material our language will become international among the most commercial and intelligent people, who need an extra international language more than the rest of the world.
- Our own Gothic race can sympathize with us and understand us better than other races of men possibly can do. Every race has special inherited sentiments, as “history is a people’s intellectual soil, and language a people’s intellectual atmosphere.”
- By Saxon material we reconquer what we have lost through the Norman French Conquest, and preserve our good inheritance from our Saxon forefathers, as true and conservative children. We become preservers, systematizers and refiners, and retain the beautiful picturesqueness and poeticalness of our ancient language; as, leaf-stalk for petiole. We shall not be innovators and iconoclasts in language, as we have been. Other leading peoples have purified their language, and are still doing so.
- To simplify and purify is a duty we owe to rich and poor children, helping them to compete with the foreign schools having economical tongues. We can not always have a virgin soil (U. S.) and monopolize commerce.
- We can not always play Romans and conquer territory, but must finally, as the Greeks, find more pleasure in art, poetry, music, science, philosophy, and higher literature; and “Pure Saxon English” prepares the way.
- With an easier understood and remembered language, people will find more pleasure in popular knowledge.
- More vowels will make our language more musical in conversation, in preaching, and singing at home, and become easier to pronounce by all men abroad.
- By a systematic Saxon English we will lessen taxation by at least one hundred millions per annum, and raise the average intelligence and happiness.
- Only a brief and simple grammar, as shown in “Russian Wolf Story” with 1800 new words, mostly self-defining, need to be learned, until final action is taken. More new words in the beginning would weaken the effort.
- To facilitate education by means of systematization and simplification is in harmony with the spirit of our age and country. Everything should be done for the benefit of the people that does not clash with legal, vested, and inherited rights. An intelligent populace is safer and less subject to unreasonable fanaticism.
- This plan will make Saxon-Gothic English international, and be an everlasting honer to the powerful English-speaking people.
(Pronounce q (ah); final o (oh), and final u (oo). See the Beibel.)
The buk ov the geslekt (generation) of Jesus Kreist, the son ov David, the son ov Abraham.
2. Abraham begeto isaak, and Isaak begeto Jakob; and Jakob begeto Judas and his brothera.
(And so on tu the sikstɪntq vers.)
16. And Jakob begeto Jɔsef, the husband ov Mairi, ov hum was birthen Jesus, hu is kqlen Kreist.
17. So ql dɔ geslekta from Abraham tu David qr fɔrtɪn geslekta; and from David until the trqging (carrying) awai intu Babilon qr fɔrtɪn geslekta; and from the trqging awai intu Babilon untu Kreist qr fɔrtɪn geslekta.
18. Nau the birth ov Jesus Kreist was on this weis. When as his mother Mairi was betrothen (espoused) tu Jɔsef, befɔr thai komo tugether, shɪ was feinden mit cheild ov the Hɔli Geist (Ghost).
19. Then Jɔsef her husband, bɪing (being) a gereitik (just) man, and not wiling to maik shim (her) an ofenli (public) beispɪl (example), was meinden to put shim awai heimli (privily).
20. But wheil hɪ thinko on thɪs thinga, behɔld, the ainjel ov the Lord ersheino (appeared) untu him in a drɪm, saiing, Jɔsef, thau son ov David, fɪr not to taik untu thɪ Mairi thei weif, for that which is infqngen (conceived) in shim is ov the Hɔli Geist.
21. And shɪ shal bring fɔrth a son, and thau shalt kql his naim JESUS: for hɪ shal ret (save) his folk from thair sina.
22. Nau ql this was don, that it meit bɪ fulfilen which was spɪken ov the Lord bei the profet, saiing:
23. Behɔld, a yungfrau (virgin) shal bɪ mit cheild, and shal bring fɔrth a son, and thau shal kql his naim Emmanuel, which bɪing twɪndoiten (interpreted) is, God mit us.
24. Then Jɔsef bɪing raisen from slɪp did as the ainjel ov the Lord had biden him, and taiko untu him his weif.
25. And nɔdo shim not til shɪ had bringen fɔrth her first birthen son: and hɪ kqlo his naim JESUS.
Nau when Jesus was birthen in Bethlehem ov Judea in dɔ dais ov Herod the king, behɔld there komo weis mana from the ɪst to Jerusalem,
2. Saiing, Wher is hɪ that is birthen king ov dɔ Judana (Jews)? for wɪ hav sɪen his stqr in the ɪst, and qr komen to worship him.
3. When Herod the king had hɪren thɪs thinga, hɪ was trubelen and ql Jerusalem mit him.
4. And when hɪ had gatheren ql dɔ hed prɪsta and shriftlernika ov the folk sqmen (together), hɪ ferlqngo (demanded) ov them wher Kreist shud bɪ birthen.
5. And thai saido untu him, In Bethlehem ov Judea, for thus is it skreiben bei the profet.
6. And thau, Bethlehem, in the lqnd ov Juda, qr not the lɪst among dɔ fürsta (princes) ov Juda, for aut ov thɪ shal kom a staithɔldqr (governor) which shal rul mei folk Israel.
7. Then Herod, when hɪ had heimli kqlen dɔ weis mana, nqkfrqgo (inquired) ov them fleisli (diligently) what teim the stqr ersheino.
8. And sendo them tu Bethlehem, and saido: Go and forsh (search) fleisli for the yung cheild; and when yɪ hav feinden him, bring me word agen, that ei mai kom and worship him qlso.
9. When thai had hɪren the king, qbreiso (departed) thai; and lɔ, the stqr which thai sɪdo in the ɪst gɔdo befɔr them, til it komo and stando ɔver wher the yung cheild was.
10. When thai sɪdo the stqr, thai erfroido (rejoiced) sich mit übermqsik (exceeding) grait froid (joy).
11. And when thai wer komen intu the haus, sɪdo thai the yung cheild mit Mairi his mother, and fqlo daun and worshipo him; and when thai had ɔpenen thair shqtsa (treasures) thai fɔrthstelo (presented) untu him gifta, gɔld, rɪkel, and mira.
12. And bɪing wqrnen ov God in a drɪm that thai shud not bakwend (return) tu Herod, qbreiso thai intu thair ɔn lqnd another wai.
13. And when thai wer qbreisen, behɔld, the ainjel ov the Lord ersheino tu Jɔsef in a drɪm, saiing: Areis and taik the yung cheild and his mother, and flɪ intu Egipt, and bɪ thau ther until ei bring thɪ word; for Herod wil sɪk the yung cheild to umbring (destroy) him.
14. When hɪ areiso, taiko hɪ the yung cheild and his mother bei neit, and qbreiso intu Egipt.
15. And was ther until the deth ov Herod, that it meit bɪ fulfilen which was spɪken ov the Lord bei the profet, saiing: Aut ov Egipt hav ei kqlen mei son.
16. Then Herod, when hɪ sɪdo that hɪ was mislɪden ov dɔ weis mana, was hɪ übermqsik roth, and sendo fɔrth, and slaido ql dɔ cheilda that wer in Bethlehem, and in ql dɔ kɔsta therov, from twɔ yɪra ɔld and under, anstimik (according) tu the teim which hɪ had fleisli nqkfrqgen ov dɔ weis mana.
17. Then was fulfilen that which was spɪken bei Jeremi the profet, saiing,
18. In Ramq was ther a stimi (voice) hɪren, wɔklqgi (lamentation) and wɪping, and grait mɔrning, Rachel wɪping for her cheilda, and wud not bɪ trɔsten (comforted), for that thai qr not.
19. But when Herod was ded, behɔld, the ainjel ov the Lord ersheineth in a drɪm tu Jɔsef in Egipt,
20. Saiing Areis and taik the yung cheild and his mother, and go intu the lqnd of Israel, for thai qr ded ho sɪko the yung cheildo leif.
21. And hɪ areiso and taiko the yung cheild and his mother, and komo intu the lqnd ov Israel.
22. But when hɪ hɪro that Archelaus did rul in Judea in the rɯm ov his fqther, Herod, was hɪ afraid to gɔ thither; notwithstanding, bɪing wqrnen ov God in a drɪm, wendo hɪ aseid intu dɔ teila (parts) ov Galilɪ.
23. And hɪ komo and dwelo in a stqd (city) kqlen Nazareth, that it meit bɪ fulfilen which was spɪken bei the profeta. Hɪ shal bɪ kqlen a Nazarether.
RUSSIAN WOLF STORY.
[A very good and touching piece to speak at school exhibitions and at concerts. It should be spoken slowly and distinctly.]
Som yɪra ago, a Russianik qdelman (nobleman) was reisqnd (traveling) on bisnes in the ineri (interior) ov Russia, hus wuda qr ful ov wolfa. It was the beginning ov winter, but the frost had seten in erli. His farein (carriage to fare in) rɔlo up to a gesthaus (hotel), and hɪ ferlqngo (demanded) a nuspan (relay) ov horsa to bring him tu the nekst standort (station), wher hɪ wisho tu spend the neit. The gestkɪper telo him that ther was gefqr (danger) in reising (traveling) so lait, as dɔ wolfa wer aut. But the qdelman thinko the gestkɪper ɔnli wisho to kɪp him so as tu fermɔr (increase) his rekening (bill) agenst him; hɪ saido, therfɔr, it was tu erli for dɔ wolfa to bɪ aut. Hɪ then dreivo on mit his weif and cheild inseid the farein.
On the boks ov the farein was a leifɔnɪm (serf, slave), hu had bin birthen tu him on the qdelmano gɯt (estate), and tu hum hɪ was much tutein (attached), and hɪ lovo his master as hɪ lovo his ɔn leif.
Thai rɔlo over the hqrd sno, and ther sɪmo to bɪ no tɔken ov gefqr. The mɯn shedo its soft leit on the silveri rɔd on which thai wer gɔing. At length the litel girl saido tu her fqther: “What was the fremd (strange) haul that ei hɪro?”
“O·! nothing but the wind seiing thru dɔ forest trɪs,” ansero the fqther.
But sɯn shɪ saido agen: “Listen, fqther; ’tis not leik the wind, ei think.”
The fqther listeno; and fqr, fqr awai in the qbstqnd (distance) beheind him, thru the klɪr frosti luft (air), hɪ hɪro lqrm (noise) ov which hɪ tu wel nɔdo (knew) the mɪning.
Hɪ then pulo daun the windo, and spɪko tu his dɪnqr (servant) and saido: “Dɔ wolfa qr after us, ei fɪr; maik haist; tel the man to dreiv faster, and get yur pistol redi.”
The dreivdɪnqr (postillion) dreivo faster. But the saim mɔrnful laut (sound, noise) which thai had hɪren befɔr komo nɪrer and nɪrer.
It was klɪr a pak ov wolfa had smelen them aut. The qdelman prüfo (tried) to stil the qnkstful fɪr ov his weif and doter. At last the hauling ov the pak was doitli (distinctly) hɪren, so hɪ saido tu his dɪnqr: “When dɔ wolfa kom up tu us, pik thau aut an (one), and ei wil pik aut another; and, wheil the rest fersling (devour) them, wɪ shal get ahed.”
As hɪ pulo daun the windo, hɪ sɪdo the pak in ful krei beheind a grɔs (large) dogwolf at thair hed. Two shota wer feiren and two wolfa fqlo. The othera augblikli (instantly) ongrabo (attacked) them and ferslingo them, and meanwheil the farein rɔlo on and wino teim and graund. But the smqk (taste) ov blud maiko them mɔr wütqnd (furious), and thai wer sɯn up tu the farein agen. Agen two shota wer feiren, and two wolfa mɔr fqlo, and wer ferslingn.
But the farein was sneli (rapidly) ɔvertaiken, and the posthaus was yet fqr away in the qbstqnd (distance). Then the qdelman ordero the dreivdɪnqr to lɯs (loose) an ov dɔ fɔrhorsa (leaders) that thai meit win a litel mɔr teim and graund. This was don, and the qrm (poor) hors stürto (plunged) sich rqsqnd (frantically) intu the forest, and dɔ wolfa after him, and hɪ was kwikli zertaren (torn to pieces). Then another hors was senden of and sharo the saim shiksql as the first. The farein worko on as fast as it kud mit dɔ other horsa; but the posthaus was yet fqr awai. At last the leifdɪnqr (serf) saido tu his master: “Ei hav dɪnen (served) yu ever sins ei was a cheild; ei lov yu as ei du mei ɔn leif. Nothing kan ret (save) yu nau, auten (except) an thing. Let mɪ ret yu! Ei beten (pray) yu ɔnli to luk after mei weif and cheilda.”
The qdelman widerstreito (remonstrated), but nɔgivli (in vain).
When dɔ wolfa komo up agen the truful (faithful) dɪnqr thrɔdo sich among them. Dɔ hqrdbrɪthing horsa hoplaufo (galloped) on mit the farein, and the gait ov the posthaus slɪso (closed) in after them as the fɪrful pak was on the point ov maiking the last deiik (fatal) ongrab (attack). But the reisqnda (traveling ones) wer sicher (safe).
The nekst morning thai gɔdo (went) aut and sɪdo (saw) the plais wher the truful dɪnqr had bin pulen daun bei dɔ wolfa. His bɔna ɔnli wer ther! On that spot the qdelman aufrikto (erected) a thinkmqrk (monument), on which was skreiben, in grɔs gɔlden bukstafa (letters), thus:
[REMARKS.—Before speaking the foregoing story at any school exhibition or concert, let the teacher or foreman explain to the audience that this is a proposed pure Saxon English language, and explain the formation of the plural possessive case, past tense, past participles, and plural article, dɔ. That will be enough for this piece. Then pick out the words in parenthesis, and give their equivalents in English. Then introduce the speaker, male or female, and the audience will be pleased.]
Programme as usual. Only a prayer and sermon given.
Translated from Henry Ward Beecher.
O Lord, aur God, in aur helplesnes help thau us. For thau qrt qlsɪing, and wɪ kaum (scarcely) trunem (discern) at ql dɔ graiter thinga ov leif. In our onstreivel (aspiration) wɪ flei but a litel wai, and tuwqrd the Unendik (Infinite) qr mqktles (powerless).
Daunkom (descend) then to us, sins wɪ kan not rɪch thɪ. And bewilik (grant) tu us not ql nolej, but so much nolej ov theiself as that wɪ mai lov thɪ, and hav kindelen in aur hqrta dɔ teidinga mɔst froidful (joyful) that thau dost lov us, and qrt aur nurishing fqther, the dɪnqr (servant) ov mensha (men and women) in lov, that wɪ mai hav ql fɪr auflɯsen (dissolved) and ql ontrust (confidence) and hɔp befesten (established), and that aur leiva mai bɪ in thɪ.
And giv us the sens of thei qlbeibɪ (all-presence) on everi hand, trunemen (discerned) bei everi sens and bei everi fermögen (faculty), that aur leif mai bɪ heiden in thein. For in thɪ wɪ liv and beweg (move) and hav aur bɪing.
And wɪ besɪch ov thɪ, O· God, that thau wilt qnnem (accept; Anglo-Saxon, nim) aur thanka for besunderik (special) bqrmhqrtikeita (mercies), for thinga entflɪen (escaped) which wɪ fɪro; for thinga erhɔlden (obtained) which wɪ kaum (scarcely) daro to hɔp for; for froid (joy) and lov, and for the weldu (benefaction) ov fernunft (reason) and its fɔrthdur (continuance), and for dɔ privilija ov leif, and, abov ql, for the nolej which thau qrt giving us ov thein ɔn self.
Annem (accept) aur thanka for dɔ teidinga ov seligkeit (salvation) thru Jesus Kreist, and for the ofenbarung (revelation) of the Godhed bei Him.
Bɪ gefqlen (pleased) to luk upon ql thɔs that qr fersqmelen (assembled) this morning hɪr mit fershɪdik (various) wanta; mit prüfunga (trials), mit worriinga, mit swqkheita (feebleness), mit siknes, mit wisha unerhɔlden (unobtained), mit fɔrhɔpa (aspirations) bleiten, under yɔka, under burdena; thɔs that qr in soro, thɔs that sit dqrkli in the tweileit ov kumer (grief), thɔs that qr ful ov fɪr, and luk aut from the dai intu the neit; ql that qr fersɪchen (tempted), ql that hav fqlen into fersɪching, and qr in qngest (anguish) ov gewisenpain (remorse, pain of conscience), ql that sɪm tu sichselfa tu hav ferlɪren (lost, df. loose) leif and spenden it unnutsli (uselessly), ql thɔs that hav lost hɔp. Bɪ gefqlen (pleased) tu luk upon this fersqmelung (congregation) ov throbing hqrta, and thau qrt the hɪlɪr (physician), hɪl dɔ sika, strengthu dɔ wɪka, uplift thɔs that qr daunmutik (humble), giv mqkt (power) tu dɔ mqktlesa, and bring hɔm the herlikeit (glory) ov seligkeit (salvation) bei glaubi (faith) and lov tu everi wunden hqrt.
Taik kar of this grait lqnd ov Amerika. As this is the tufleit (refuge) ov dɔ qrma (poor) and nɪdis, so fɔrthdur (continue), wɪ bɪsich thɪ, dɔ thota ov the heilikeit (sacredness) ov mensha. Fɔrthdur thɔs grundlqga (foundations) on which aur fqthera stando to bild this grait fabrik, which is worthi ov the naim ov the tufleit ov dɔ qrma and ferlqsena (desolate). Hɔld baak, wɪ beten (pray) thɪ, ql sinful (sinister) influsa (influences). Giv grait mqkt tu ql weldnik (benificent) influsa. Mai koleja and seminaris, academis and skula ov everi naim gedein (prosper). Mɔr and mɔr mai inleit (intelligence) fɔrthhersh (prevail) among the folk (people). Bewilik (grant) that ql kela (sources) ov nolej, ql paipera and ql buka, ql influsa that tend to fɪd the hunger ov the sɔl, mai bɪ klensen and reinikuen (purified), and maiken mɔr and mɔr mqktful. We komend to thɪ the President ov dɔ Feranen Staita (United States) and thɔs that qr sqmfügen (joined) mit him in mqktreit (authority). Wɪ beten (pray) thɪ, aur Fqther, that thau wil ɔpen thair auga (eyes) to dɔ wais ov truth and reinheit (purity).
Bles aur neibor-nashona. Knit (k pronounced) us tugether mit them, not bei dɔ grɔb (rude) bonda ov selfishnes, but bei dɔ swɪter korder ov lov and mitfɪl (sympathy). Wɪ beten for thei blesing upon ql nashona. Erin (remember) dɔ folka that qr strugeling up slɔli, and sɪking festikeit (stability) in gereitikeit (justice) and nolej. Let thei kingdom kom, let thei wil bɪ don on erth as it is in heven.
TEKST—“Mei lɔrsqts (doctrine) is not Mein, but His that sendo Mɪ.” John vii, 16.
The teil (part) that man ausfür (performs) in the thot and work ov the world is ersheinli (apparently) grɔs (large), and often worthi ov prais; but it is ferhɔldik (relative) and bethingish (conditional), rather than absolut. Hɪ kan not sɪ mitaut leit, nor brɪth mitaut luft (air), nor think mitaut somthing to think abaut, and dɔ lqs (laws) ov thot bei which to think. That which man kql his ɔn, in a heier sens is not his ɔn. To bekom what hɪ is, and to erwerb (acquire) what hɪ has, hɪ has drqen upon other bakkela (resources); hɪ has borɔen from dɔ krqfta (forces) and mqkta (powers) ov natur, and leif, and fernunft (reason). Hens Jesus Kreist kud sai: “Mei lɔrsqts is not Mein, but His that sendo Mɪ.” Ther is a nɪdwendik (necessary), a selftherbɪik (self-existent) kel (source) from which ql is, a bɪing ov bɪinga, hum wɪ kql “Aur Fqther.”
The fqrmer mai sai: “Thɪs qr mei fɪlda, mei bqrna, mei herda. Ei hav bezqlen (paid) for the land, ei hav planten, ei hav bilden,” and in this sens thai qr his. But hu ɔn the erth? Hu ɔn dɔ yɪrteima (seasons), the sunshein and the rain? Hu ɔn the geheimli (mysterious) somthing that wɪ kql leif, and the leifik (vital) stuflɔr (chemistry) bei which the gras gro and the grain reipu? Man skreib a buk, and kql it his ɔn, but hu ɔn dɔ kendɪda (facts) ov histori that it ertel (relates), or dɔ trutha ov grundlɔr (philosophy) that it unfɔld, or dɔ grunda (principles) ov wisenshqft (science) that it erklɪr (explains)? Mana (men) entwerf (project) gestɪringa (governments) and relijona, but thai du not klem (claim) to hav ershaipen (created) or to ɔn dɔ grunda ov frɪhud (liberty) and gereitikeit (justice); thai hav ɔnli brauken (used; Anglo-Saxon, brukan) what qlredi, therbɪdo (existed) in sqmbilding (constructing) a republik or a monqrki. And so mensha (men and women; Anglo-Saxon, mennisk) bild relijona upon thair begrifa (conceptions) ov God, but thai du not klem to ɔn the Unendik (Infinite).
Jesus stando (stood) befɔr the sitlik (moral) order and lqs (laws) ov the worldql (universe). Hɪ inbodien (embodied) thɪs lqs and livo them, and sɪko to ofenbar (reveal) them tu othera. And it is in this qnrɯf (appeal) tu the absolut, and drqing upon it and bringing sɔla intu leifik bezɪung (relation) mit it, that wɪ qr to feind the erklɪru (explanation) ov His fɔrthdurik (continuous) mqkt ɔver the grait hqrt ov the world.
Alexander, and Cæsar, and Napoleon wer grait mqkta in thair dai; but thai lɪvo beheind sich the ferwüstung (desolation) ov krɪg (war), and their mqkt (power) has pasen awai. Galileo, and Kopernikus, and Newton wer mqkta in the world ov wisenshqft (science); and deiing, thai lɪvo the skei, and dɔ stqra, and the godik (divine) order ov dɔ hevena, and mit them thai lɪvo the grait buk ov natur, and dɔ inbrɪthinga (inspirations) to go on tu stil heier errɪchela (attainments).
Jesus Kreist lɪvo us the mqkt ov His beispɪl (example) ov self-opferung (self-sacrifice), and dɔ leidena (sufferings) ov lov to ret (save); Hɪ lɪvo dɔ hevena ql aglo mit the erinel (memory) ov a grait nu dai ov frɪd (peace), and the gud wil and the brutherhud ov man. Jesus bringo nɪr and maiko wirkli (real) Godo leif in man, and hens His mqkt fermɔr (increase) sich as dɔ yɪrhundreda (centuries) kom and go.
And thus qr ql tru tɪchera daunmutik (humble) and argiving (honor-giving, reverent; Anglo-Saxon, ar, honor, reverence), as thai stand befɔr dɔ grait trutha ov the worldql; thair mqkt is not in themselfa, but in dɔ trutha thai erklar (declare), and in bringing other meinda in leifik bezɪunga (relations) mit thɪs trutha.Relijon is that which feranu (unites) the sɔl tu God.