Fojy

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Fojy is an empire straddling the boundary of the tropics and subtropics, and consists of 7 states, although its languages are much more widely spread. The core of the Fojyan language area consists of 13 states in the far west, but they extend as far north as 46N, where they are a substratum but still widely spoken.

language

To see the language with dentals, read here.

This is the source of the substratum of Dreamlandic, and of languages that were spoken as far north as 46N in territory that changed hands several times, ending up split between the Ghosts and Moonshine.

The early stop system was /p t k q pʷ tʷ kʷ qʷ/. However, the q's were never actually uvualar ... they varied depending on the vowel, unlike all other conosonants. They have variable reflexes, even within the same language, depending on whether they were analogized with one of the traditional stops or not. The Dreamlandic branch might shift all to /p pʷ/.

Most sound changes are on paper. Others are:

Shared changes

  1. Before a high tone, the fricatives g h gʷ hʷ were lenited to Ø Ø w w. Before a low tone, these fricatives merged to q q qʷ qʷ. This /q/ was not a proper phoneme, but rather was determined by the surrounding vowels, and therefore could take on different values in different forms of the same word.
  2. Before a low tone, the lateral approximant l shifted to r. This did not affect the dental form (if there was one).
  3. Before a high tone, the voiceless stops pʷ p t tʷ k became the fricatives fʷ f s hʷ h.
  4. Voiceless prenasalized sequences were reanalyzed as nasal + fricative. Voiced prenasalized sequences were reanalyzed as nasal + stop. Thus they were no longer phonemic. Nevertheless, they continued to occur in the syllable onset rather than splitting between the onset and the preceding coda.
  5. The emphatic stops pʕʷ pʕ tʕ ḳ shifted to kpʷ kp kt kk "when the environment would support it".
  6. The voiceless alveolar stop t affricated to c before the high vowels [i ə u].
  7. Before the vowels a i (and probably /e/), the consonants p m f t n s all became palatalized to pʲ mʲ fʲ č ň š. The velars /k ŋ h/ became palatalized, but the spelling was retained. Likewise, palatalization of /l/ was not marked in spelling.
  8. The rounded alveolars tʷ nʷ became kʷ ŋʷ.
    even though they had /q/ "on their side"? Possibly shift all nine, and let the daughter languages merge them in various ways.
  9. The high central vowel ə shifted to i.
    Note that this shift opens up a three-way contrast of /t/~/č/~/k/ before [i], and the following shift adds [ə] and [a]. However, there was only a two-way contrast before [u]. This may be seen as related to the labialized phoneme /kʷ/ and might even trigger the loss of /u/ in some daughters.
  10. The mid vowels e o shifted to ə a. This did not affect, and was not affected by, whether the previous consonant was labialized or not; the respective allophones shifted in tandem.
  11. Tones were eliminated.
  12. Syllabic consonants were resolved as sequences of /i/ + consonant, and assimilated to the place of articulation of a following consonant.

Thus the vowel inventory at this time was /a i u ə/, and the consonants were:

                       CONSONANTS                 VOWELS
Rounded bilabials:     pʷ  mʷ  fʷ  w              a i u ə
Plain bilabials:       p   m   f  (Ø)             a i u              
Spread bilabials:      pʲ  mʲ  fʲ  y              a i   ə
Alveolars:             t   n   s   l   r          a i u               (/ta ci cu/)
Postalveolars:         č   ň   š  *l  *r          a i   ə             (/ča či čə/)
(Palatals:             ć   ń   ś    )             a i   ə
Velars:                k   ŋ   h                  a i u
Labiovelars:           kʷ  ŋʷ  hʷ                 a i u ə

Thus the full set of four vowels was contrastive only after rounded consonants. However, /l/ and /r/ break this rule.


Dreamlandic languages

These start breaking off at some point around 1900 AD, although perhaps earlier since Fojy was isolated from the other areas at the time. Range of habitation is ~27N all the way up to 46N in what soon becomes Moonshine territory.

Note that there is still the c problem.

East Dreamlandic

  1. The velar sounds č ć k š ś h all merged together as š. Meanwhile ň ń ŋ merged as ň. The labialized sounds /kʷ ŋʷ hʷ/ remained as such, but since there were no longer any contrasting plain velars, their spelling was changed to use the letters for the labialized alveolars. Thus, phonemically, kʷ ŋʷ hʷ became tʷ nʷ sʷ.
  2. The palatalized labials pʲ mʲ fʲ became f m f.
  3. The labialized fricative shifted to unconditionally.

At this point the consonant inventory was:

Rounded labials:       pʷ  mʷ  fʷ  w               
Spread labials:        p   m   f  (Ø)                                          
Alveolars:             t   n   s   l   r       
Postalveolars:             ň   š   y                
Labiovelars:           tʷ  nʷ           


And the vowel inventory was still /a i u ə/. However, phonemic palatalization had been eliminated and labialization was beginning to degrade to form sequences of consonant + /w/. For example, the /t/ sound had an allophone of [k] before the vowel /u/, and [kʷ] when labialized. Thus the same process occurred before /u/ and /ʷ/, unlike in the parent language where the color of the vowel itself was dependent on adjacent consonantal coarticulations.

Mimalebra

It is not clear if Dreamland has a single language or many, and, if many, whether they are aboriginal languages or divisions of the language of the political champion class. The language spoken on the coast is the "Womb" language/, but this was only the capital for a short period of time when they lost a war. Not to be confused with the Matrix language, which is "womblike" (metroid) in a different way.


Rounded labials:       pʷ  mʷ  fʷ  w               
Spread labials:        p   m   f  (Ø)                                      
Alveolars:             t   n   s   l   r       
Postalveolars:             ň   š   y                
Labiovelars:           tʷ  nʷ           
  1. The palatals ň š became n s.
  2. Prenasalized stops become voiced stops: mpʷ mp nt ntʷ shift to bʷ b d dʷ.

" P M S L K R T N" language

  1. The fricative f changed to š before /i/.


Matrix language

This is the language used by the Matrix political party, both when they were dominant and when they were defeated. Thus, the Matrixes did not use the language of the Raspara party from which they had split.

  1. The fricatives f fʷ changed to h hʷ unconditionally.
  2. The schwa vowel ə became e. Bordering a /u/, it had an allophone close to [o].
  3. The sequences ʷe ʷi changed to ʷo i. That is, labialization was removed before /i/.
    This is in keeping with the idea that IPA /y/ never appears as a full phoneme, and it would need to if it were not preemptively removed here.
  4. The labiovelars tʷ nʷ shifted to k ŋ.
  5. The sequence ua became ʷa. (Note that this was the only /u/+vowel sequence remaining).
  6. The consonants tʷ nʷ sʷ lʷ rʷ ňʷ šʷ became pʷ mʷ hʷ w w mʷ hʷ. Note that /t n/ no longer had velar allophones.
  7. The prenasalized voiceless stops mpʷ mp nt ŋk became the voiced stops bʷ b d ġ.
  8. The sequences ae aa ea merged as ā.
  9. The sequences ie ue ei eu became ī ū ē ō.

Thus the final consonant inventory was


Rounded labials:       pʷ  bʷ  mʷ  hʷ  w               
Spread labials:        p   b   m                                           
Alveolars:             t   d   n   s   l   r       
Postalveolars:                 ň   š   y                
Dorsals:               k   ġ   ŋ   h  (Ø)        

And the vowels were now /a e i o u ā ē ī ō ū/.

Proto-Dreamlandic to North Dreamlandic (3700 AD)

These languages were spoken in colder climates, rubbing up against Thunder and Moonshine settlements. The speakers were generally of blonde hair and blue eyes, perhaps even more so than the stereotypically blonde Thunderers.

Initial phoneme inventory:

Rounded bilabials:     pʷ  mʷ  fʷ  w              a i u ə
Plain bilabials:       p   m   f  (Ø)             a i u              
Spread bilabials:      pʲ  mʲ  fʲ  y              a i   ə 
Alveolars:             t   n   s   l   r          a i u               (/ta ci cu/)
Postalveolars:         č   ň   š  *l  *r          a i   ə             (/ča či čə/)
(Palatals:             ć   ń   ś    )             a i   ə
Velars:                k   ŋ   h                  a i u
Labiovelars:           kʷ  ŋʷ  hʷ                 a i u ə

Moonshine calls the vowels breast/belly/womb, and so might these be.

  1. The dorsal sounds č ć k all merged together as č. Meanwhile š ś h merged as š and ň ń ŋ merged as ň.
    This shift might be split into two: one shared with East Dreamlandic, the other unique to North. This could allow /č/ to be retained as a separate phoneme (or lost, but with the t>s shift rather than here).
  2. The labialized sounds kʷ ŋʷ hʷ came to be spelled tʷ nʷ fʷ.
  3. The alveolar stop t shifted to s before /i/ or /u/. (It did not occur before the schwa.)
  4. prenasals became voiced.
  5. Fricatives occurring after a nasal shifted to voiced stops.
  6. The spread labials pʲ mʲ fʲ shifted to p m b unconditionally.
  7. The labial fricatives fʷ f shifted to w b in all positions.
  8. The palataloids č š ň y shifted to plain alveolars t s n Ø. They had velar allohpones before /u/&palatals before /i/.
  9. Newly created vowel sequences of /u/ + any other vowel were padded with an intervening w. Thus, no new labialized consonants were created.

Thus the remaining consonant inventory was

Rounded bilabials:     pʷ  mʷ      w      mbʷ 
Plain bilabials:       p   m           b  mb
Plain alveolars:       t   n   s   l   r  nd
Rounded alveolars:     tʷ  nʷ             ndʷ

And the vowel set was still /a i u ə/. Unlike East Dreamlandic, the three-way allophony between alveolar-palatal-velar was triggered by the following vowel.

If both labialized consonants and prenasalized consonants are analyzed as clusters, the phonology would be

Bilabials:       p   m           b   
Alveolars:       t   n   s   l   r     

Which is similar in form to Pabappa. Here, /nd/ is analyzed as a cluster of /nr/, since there is no independent /d/. Western dialects of this language may strip even further by shifting /t d/ > /p b/ before [u] (or at least before [w]), and merging with /s/ before [i] and possibly also [ə]. This would leave an intact /t/~/s/ phoneme only before [a] (and possibly [ə]), which would be unstable. If the remaining contrast also collapsed, it would be seen as /t/ regardless of the dominant allophone. Also, this could be triggered by having /s/ > /0/.

This language persists as a substratum when the PMS feminists take over the area and start building fortresses on hills. A sprachbund forms in which all of the languages have small consonant inventories, often with no independent dorsals, and have the vowel setup /a i u ə/, with or without tone. This vowel system and the tendency for small consonant inventories remain stable in the area for more than 5000 years after the formation of North Dreamlandic.

Wōm language

Borrows consos from both PMS and Kava/Thunder. May even borrow tones by seeing à as a closed syllable and ā as a sequence. t & tʷ become true alveolars, not flexible, which means that loaning /k kʷ/ from PMS actually reduces the amt of [k kʷ] in the language by a lot.

Central Fojyan languages

                       CONSONANTS                 VOWELS
Rounded bilabials:     pʷ  mʷ  fʷ  w              a i u ə
Plain bilabials:       p   m   f  (Ø)             a i u              
Spread bilabials:      pʲ  mʲ  fʲ  y              a i   ə
Alveolars:             t   n   s   l   r          a i u               (/ta ci cu/)
Postalveolars:         č   ň   š  *l  *r          a i   ə             (/ča či čə/)
(Palatals:             ć   ń   ś    )             a i   ə
Velars:                k   ŋ   h                  a i u
Labiovelars:           kʷ  ŋʷ  hʷ                 a i u ə

This branch might be a single language. If /kp/ exists, it survives the voicing change.

  1. The voiceless bilabials pʷ p pʲ became the voiced bilabials bʷ b bʲ.
  2. The sequences kp kt shifted to p t.
  3. Labialization was defeated, leaving no effects on the vowels.
  4. The velar fricative h strengthened to x.
  5. The bilabial fricatives f fʲ shifted to h ś.
  6. The palatalized labials bʲ mʲ shifted to y ń.
  7. The affricates c č ć shifted to s š ś.
  8. The true palatals ś ń merged into š ň .
  9. Prenasalized stops and fricatives were both changed into plain voiced stops.


Thus the consonant inventory was

Labials               p  b  m     w
Alveolars             t  d  n  s  l  r
Palataloids                 ň  š  y
Velars                k  ġ  ŋ  x
Postvelars                     h (Ø)

The vowels were /a i u ə/. The palataloids / ň š /were never followed by /u/.

There should be some vowel changes here, but note the lack of a new null consonant.

Central Fojy Stage II

  1. The velars k ġ ŋ x shifted to č ǯ ň š before the front vowel /i/.
  2. The velars k ġ ŋ x shifted to p b m f before the rounded back vowel /u/.
  3. All velar consonants were deleted in initial position; in word-medial position, any remaining velar consonants became alveolars. (/t d/ may have already had palataloid allophones.)
  4. The voiced stops b d ǯ disappeared between vowels; they allophonically pharyngealized the resulting vowel sequences, but minimal pairs with preexisting vowel sequences were very rare and occurred only over morpheme boundaries.
  5. Before a vowel, i disappeared and palatalized any preceding consonant. shifted to š.

Western Fojy

These languages are probably the ones spoken in the tropical regions of the far west, where there is no significant change in the weather throughout the year, even in rainfall.

Note that the schwa of the parent language is a mid vowel, not a high vowel.

                       CONSONANTS                 VOWELS
Rounded bilabials:     pʷ  mʷ  fʷ  w              a i u ə
Plain bilabials:       p   m   f  (Ø)             a i u              
Spread bilabials:      pʲ  mʲ  fʲ  y              a i   ə
Alveolars:             t   n   s   l   r          a i u               (/ta ci cu/)
Postalveolars:         č   ň   š  *l  *r          a i   ə             (/ča či čə/)
(Palatals:             ć   ń   ś    )             a i   ə
Velars:                k   ŋ   h                  a i u
Labiovelars:           kʷ  ŋʷ  hʷ                 a i u ə


  1. After a labialized consonant or dental, the rounded back vowel u shifted to ɨ. The front vowel i also shifted to ɨ in any context.
  2. All remaining u shifted to ə. Thus the vowel system became vertical.
  3. kp kt > hp ht.
  4. The voiceless non-sibilant fricatives fʷ f fʲ h hʷ shifted to w b bʲ Ø w. However, the three sibilants /s š ś/ remain voiceless.
  5. The palatalized labials pʲ bʲ mʲ shifted to p b m.
  6. prenasals cry =(
  7. The voiceless fricative s shifted to h. (What about š and ś ?)
  8. The sequences hp ht shifted to f s.
  9. b> p.
  10. The vowel ɨ shifted to a fricative before another vowel, thus creating affricates.
  11. premasals > plain voiced stops
  12. i>0 In nonfinal slabs (use yers,etc)
  13. many shifts of clusters. /ɨ/ survives and can come from ɨɨ. The language divides into many daughters here, solely because of the instability resulting from this change.

Thus the vowel system was /a ə ɨ/ and the consonants were at least

                       CONSONANTS                  
Rounded bilabials:     pʷ  bʷ  mʷ      w               
Plain bilabials:       p   b   m   f                  
Alveolars:             t   d   n   s   l   r                         
Postalveolars:         č   ǯ   ň                 
Palatals:              ć   ʒ́   ń   ś     
Velars:                k   ġ   ŋ   h                  
Labiovelars:           kʷ  ġʷ  ŋʷ

Script

If no language difstinguishes /tʷ/ vs /kʷ/, they will be written with the letter for /kʷ/, even if the language has no independent /k/. However, the glyphs are not visibly related to each other, so a learner of the language would not think of the /kʷ/ series as a modification of the /k/ series.

history

Aboriginal population density very low despite climate, hence Mumba settlers quickly become majority and are themselves seen as aboriginals by 1900 ad. They identify as Labans.

Set up "the Peace Zone", a supranational government of nations that would refuse to partake in war. However, unlike Paba and Moonshine, they maintained a strong military for defense.

Fojyans as a whole are not the blonde Polynesians, but a group within them, possibly the substratum of the Matrixes, will be.

tribes

Mumba are blonde people like those of Paba & Lenia. Sometimes they have considered themselves Lenians, other times aboriginals. The same racial divide was present in Laba.

Their leaders were often female, but they fought against feminist leaders as often as they fought for them.

climate

Fojy proper is 17th parallel to 31st parallel. Climate ranges from subtropical to tropical, but winters are stable (no cold spells) ,so vegetation is primarily tropical. But substratum languages extend all the way to the tundra at 46N.

notes