Conlang Relay 23/Sep27

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chel ho idalotos ki bisu poi chel ho shammadi ki bisu poi chel ho madauli ki bisu.

di shimu ki largush.

kinji dash ho shinedel ki bisu failu poi idalotos ma kharbiko kharbi ki sudin hiwa. shinedel ki yo yonchayes panchal ho parshi yo samalko togu rogal ho gashtossu bero chilkayesu hiwa.

shammadi ma kharbiko kharbi ho senetos ki bisu idalatos ho fita poi shinedel borekh'a. e dash ki la raf ma dailokhen ma akol khendi ho mikta e raf ki shota poi la khendi ma kampi ma dami ho ka'ra poi yo san se tosapa. yak samalko togu rogal ho ugashte kai e raf ki e dash ho lika posh yak nichokhrik poi nichobik mesh kai shinedel ki lika posh la kampish ho e raf ki dakta posh khur tofish se fishta posh yak gogashto tau di tofish ho gochobosse kai e raf ki lika.

madauli ma kharbi ho idewan ki bis shinedel ho shinnu poi bokh senetos ho khasbi hore khasbiron ho nan shammadi ho fita. yak shinedel we unisoknur kai idewan ki dalka. jos yalhi ho shinedel ki los shuf ki ji se fishta posh e dash ki la damish ho khoraki e khendi ho dakhraksa. shinedel ki idewan ho nan tau e kharbi ki do taprush ma hap ho on e dash ho gaura posh res lakhna.

la chayo tau e delfat ki dailesti ho mik giselik failu hiwa.


The Sep27 grammar is simple but quite different from the usual (hence the detailed write- up). The only parts of speech are verbs, which are inflected, and various kinds of particles.


A verb form may consist of: an imperative mood indicator, a 1st argument person specifier, the verb root (the only required element), a derivational suffix, an aspect suffix, the negative polarity indicator, a grammatical voice suffix, and a combining form indicator. They can't all appear on the same form, however.


 ni-     person  1st person singular
 go-     person  2nd person
 u-      mood    imperative

There are up to 3 arguments, according to the verb's valence. The 2nd argument (if valid) is implicitly 3rd person in this text. The 3rd argument (theme) is also implicitly 3rd person here.

If the verb is univalent or has direct or antipassive voice, the 1st argument is the subject or agent and the 2nd argument (if direct) is the patient. For the inverse voice, subject and object are reversed and for passive voice, the 1st argument is the patient (no 2nd argument is possible).

The imperative mood always implies a 2nd person agentive 1st argument. Otherwise, an unmarked 1st argument is 3rd person.


 -ossi   derivational    natural possibility (can, able to)
 -(i)    aspect          progressive or stative or inherent
 -u      aspect          habitual
 -a      aspect          aoristic
 -o      aspect          perfect
 -e      aspect          prospective
         polarity        positive is unmarked
 -pa     polarity        negative
         voice           direct is unmarked
 -r      voice           inverse
 -k      voice           antipassive
 -sh     voice           passive
 -ko     other           combining form

The combining form suffix is used to convert verb forms into words that are allowed to be quasi-incorporated by the following verb.

Some verbs forms are relativizable. These are always non-imperative forms with a 3rd person argument (other than theme).


Phrases are made up of determiners, quantity words, relativizable verb forms, and case particles, in that order. The case particle is required. The only quantity word in this text is the plural marker. If no determiner appears, the phrase is indefinite. A genitive phrase, specifying the possessor, may appear instead of the determiner.


 =s      quantity        plural

Clauses are made up of verbs, which may be preceded by argument phrases (nominative, primative, or secundative) and/or a vocative phrase.

Clauses are chained, with any number of coordinate clauses preceding a final clause and any number of subordinate clause preceding each coordinate or final clause. The tense of the sentence is determined by the aspect of the verb of the final clause:

 aoristic        => definite past
 perfect         => indefinite past
 prospective     => future
 otherwise, present.

Each coordinate clause is always followed by a coordinating conjunction, either *poi* or *posh* in this text.

Some types of subordinate clauses are followed by subordinating conjunctions, but others, including relative clauses, complement clauses, and some adjunct clauses aren't.

Relative clauses are internally-headed and are distinguished by the presence of the relative determiner *jo*; the phrase so-marked takes the case appropriate to the relative clause while the correlative pronoun *ji* appears in the following host clause taking the case appropriate there.


Verbs classes are identified by an action-type letter and a valence number.

The citation forms for action-type H, D, and T verbs are progressive while those for N verbs are inherent and those for S and C verbs are stative.

The digraphs ch, kh, and sh are alphabetized as single letters.

Verbs and Particles

 akol            S2      at center of
 bero            conj    cause or reason clause (because)
 bis             H2      define P as S
 bokh            C1      old
 borekh'i        T2      abduct, steal
 chai            D1      day
 chel            N1      country, territory
 chilkayes       S1      miraculous, incredible, unprecedented
 chobi           D2      eat
 chokhri         C2      hungry
 dailesti        N1      palace
 dailokhen       N1      fortress
 dak             S2      outside
 dakhraksi       T2      escape
 dalki           T2      shout
 dami            N2      S is door of P
 dash            N1      woman
 delfat          H1      couple, pair of persons
 di              det     proximal demonstrative (this/these)
 do              det     medial demonstrative (that/those)
 e               det     definite, usually anaphoric
 failu           H1      alive, live
 fishti          T3      bring
 fit             T2      go
 gashti          T2      weave
 gauri           T2      catch, take hold of
 gisel           C2      happy
 hap             N2      S is back/dorsum of P
 hiwa            H1      exist + aoristic (hu)
 ho              case    primative
 hore            conj    purpose clause
 idalatos        N1      (see text)
 idewan          N1      (see text)
 ji              pron    correlative
 jo              det     relative
 kai             other   end direct quotation
 kampi           N2      S is room of P
 ka'ri           T2      lock
 ki              case    nominative
 kinji           C1      young
 kharbi          N2      S is king of P
 khasbi          D2      fight
 khasbiron       N1      army
 khendi          N1      tower
 khoraki         T2      break
 khur            S1      raw
 la              det     distal demonstrative (yon)
 lakhni          T2      leave
 largi           D3      sing
 liki            T3      tell
 los             S2      wait for
 ma              case    genitive
 madauli         N1      (see text)
 mesh            D2      deontic necessity, must, require
 mik             S2      in
 mikti           T2      into, enter
 nan             S2      with (comitative)
 on              S2      at
 panchal         N1      grass
 parshi          T2      use up, consume
 poi             conj    simultaneous conjunction (and at the same time)
 posh            conj    sequential conjunction (and next/then)
 raf             N1      man
 res             C1      fast, rapid, quick
 rogal           N1      fabric, cloth
 samal           N1      gold
 san             N1      food
 se              case    secundative
 senetos         N1      (see text)
 sokni           H2      spouse of (reciprocal)
 sudin           N2      S is daughter of P
 shammadi        N1      (see text)
 shimi           D2      follow
 shinedel        N1      (see text)
 shinni          H2      love
 shoti           T2      make, cause
 shufi           D1      wind
 taprush         N1      horse
 tau             conj    temporal adjunct
 tof             N2      S is meat of P
 togi            H2      S is color of P
 tosi            T3      give
 we              case    vocative
 yak             other   begin direct quotation
 yalhi           H1      word
 yo              det     non-referential (generic)
 yonchayes       C1      ordinary


Idalatos, Shammadi, and Madauli are countries.

What follows is sung.

A young woman named Shinedel once lived who was the daughter of the king of Idalatos. Because Shinedel could weave gold-colored cloth from ordinary grass, she was miraculous.

The king of Shammadi, named Senetos, came to Idalatos and kidnapped Shinedel. That man put the woman into the central tower of his fortress and locked the door of that tower room and didn't give her any food. "Weave gold-colored cloth," he told her. "I'm hungry and need to eat," said Shinedel. Then the man left that room and brought her raw meat. "After you weave, you can eat this meat," he said.

A prince of Madauli named Idewan loved Shinedel and went to Shammadi with an army in order to fight old Senetos. Idewan shouted, "Marry me, Shinedel!" Wind brought those words Shinedel was waiting for to her and, breaking the door, she escaped from the tower. When Shinedel was with Idewan, the prince got her on the back of the horse and rapidly left.

After that day, the couple lived happily in a palace.