From FrathWiki
Jump to: navigation, search

Bwenkhir is a language spoken by an ancient people of the Converse. It is the proto-language from which all other languages in the Bwenkhiric language phylum are descended.

Phonemic inventory

  • p /p/; t /t/; k /k/; q /q/
  • b /b/; d /d/; g /g/; x /ɢ/
  • ph /ɸ/; s /s/ ([ʃ] before i); kh /x/
  • bh /ß/; z /z/ ([ʒ] before i); gh /ɤ/
  • r /r/
  • m /m/; n /n/ ([ŋ] before a velar)
  • j: /j/
  • w: /w/
  • i /i/; y /y/; e /e/; a /a/; ï /ɪ/; u /u/; o /o/

Accent is on the first syllable of one-morpheme words or for words with inflectional suffixes. For compound words, the accent is on the last morpheme, although the first morpheme (head) has a secondary stress.

When /n/ comes before /b/, /p/, /ß/ or /ɸ/ in a compound word, the pronunciation mutates to /m/. When /m/ comes before /d/ or /t/, the pronunciation mutates to /n/.



Word order is VSO.


Nouns fall into three genders, masculine, feminine and neuter.

The cases are as follows:

  • Nominative -- Denotes the agent of an action (there is no passive voice).
  • Accusative -- Denotes the person, animal or thing to which or to whom an action is done.
  • Genitive -- Denotes possession or genealogical relation.
  • Dedative -- Denotes the person by whom something was given to someone.
  • Partitive -- Denotes the whole of which something is a part.
  • Dative -- Denotes the object of a preposition or an indirect object.

Masculine nouns decline like this:

saph (wing)

  • Singular Plural
  • Nom saph saphi
  • Acc sapham sapho
  • Gen sapho saphes
  • Ded saphun saphom
  • Par saphakh saphïz
  • Dat saphis saphy

Feminine nouns decline like this:

pwem (sun)

  • Singular Plural
  • Nom pwem pwemen
  • Acc pwemen pwemor
  • Gen pwemy pwemïn
  • Ded pwemun pwemogh
  • Par pwemas pwemo
  • Dat pwemi pwemyr

Neuter nouns decline like this:

rez (mouth)

  • Singular Plural
  • Nom rez rezïm
  • Acc rezis rezu
  • Gen rezi rezys
  • Ded rezakh rezubh
  • Par rezakh rezubh
  • Dat rezo rezy

If the singular nominative of a noun has two syllables and ends in a vowel, the vowel disappears when declining it:

duri (heart)

  • Singular Plural
  • Nom dur duri
  • Acc duram duro
  • Gen duro dures
  • Ded durun durom
  • Par durakh durïz
  • Dat duris dury

If the singular nominative has one syllable and ends in a vowel, a -k- is added before the declensional suffix:

ma (mother)

  • Singular Plural
  • Nom ma maken
  • Acc maken makor
  • Gen maky makïn
  • Ded makun makogh
  • Par makas mako
  • Dat maki makyr

When words are used as names, they are always masculine (if used as a boy's name) or feminine (if used as a girl's name), regardless of the gender of the noun in its common sense. So a woman named Wem (a neuter noun for sea) would have her name inflected as a feminine noun.

Something owned by a person takes the genitive, and something FROM a person takes the dedative. So, using the feminine name Mwan as an example, "Mwany qonja" means "Mwan's egg (the egg Mwan owns)", and "Mwanun qonja" means "Mwan's egg (the egg Mwan gave to me)".

Compound nouns are head-first: bhes (man), bhesban (husband). The first part of these compound nouns declines:

bhesban (husband)

  • Singular Plural
  • Nom bhesban bhesiban
  • Acc bhesamban bhesoban
  • Gen bhesoban bhesesban
  • Ded bheshunban bhesomban
  • Par bhesakhban bhesïzban
  • Dat bhesisban bhesyban

An epenthetic -t is added if forming a compound word entails adding a word ending in a vowel to a word beginning with a vowel: xersa (speck) - ïm (time) = xersatïm (moment).

The nominative can be used as a vocative:

Arma, khamybh ghumam ni.
Arma look_at-IMP goat-m.ACC 1s.GEN
Arma, look at my goat.

The dative without any preposition can indicate an indirect object. Indirect objects come between the verb and the subject:

Tybhor my phwo pwambis.
f.PST-give 1s.DAT woman cherry-n.ACC
The woman gave me a cherry.

The dative without a preposition can indicate time:

Ronyn ykh ghumam tysis jobhis.
m.FUT-cook 1pi goat-m.ACC year-m.DAT this-m.DAT
We will cook the goat this year.

The word "swegham" is used in object position when a pronoun is reflexive:

Tikas Gho swegham.
m.PST-cut Gho REFL
Gho cut himself.

When colors are used as nouns, they are all neuter.


Here are the personal pronouns in Bwenkhir:

  • om (first person singular; I)
  • ny (second person singular; you)
  • bakh (third person singular masculine; he, it)
  • gem (third person singular feminine; she, it)
  • ra (third person singular neuter; it, he, she)
  • ykh (first person plural inclusive; we)
  • pabh (first person plural exclusive; we)
  • dyr (second person plural; you)
  • dïs (third person plural masculine; they)
  • kher (third person plural feminine; they)
  • an (third person plural neuter; they)

A third-person pronoun is chosen purely based on the grammatical gender of its antecedent. So "jin" (light) would be referred to by "bakh" because "jin" is masculine, and if you referred to a female friend with "tengha" (friend) and then used a pronoun to refer to "tengha", you would use "ra" and not "gem" because "tengha" is neuter.

If you are referring to more than one entity (for instance, khir (m) and nys (f), river and mountain, as "they"), the masculine takes precedence over the feminine and the feminine takes precedence over the neuter. So "khir y nys" (river and mountain) would be "dïs".

The pronouns decline thus:

om (1s)

  • Nom om
  • Acc mo
  • Gen ni
  • Ded nikh
  • Par mes
  • Dat my

ny (2s)

  • Nom ny
  • Acc da
  • Gen ger
  • Ded gekh
  • Par ges
  • Dat gy

bakh (3sm)

  • Nom bakh
  • Acc bakham
  • Gen bakho
  • Ded bakhun
  • Par bakhakh
  • Dat bakhis

gem (3sf)

  • Nom gem
  • Acc gemen
  • Gen gemy
  • Ded gemun
  • Par gemas
  • Dat gemi

ra (3sn)

  • Nom ra
  • Acc rakis
  • Gen raki
  • Ded rakakh
  • Par rakakh
  • Dat rako

ykh (1pi)

  • Nom ykh
  • Acc ykh
  • Gen ykhi
  • Ded ykhas
  • Par ykhï
  • Dat ykhy

pabh (1pe)

  • Nom pabh
  • Acc pabh
  • Gen pabhi
  • Ded pabhas
  • Par pabhï
  • Dat pabhy

dyr (2p)

  • Nom dyr
  • Acc dyra
  • Gen arta
  • Ded rasta
  • Par ren
  • Dat rom

dïs (3pm)

  • Nom dïsi
  • Acc dïso
  • Gen dïses
  • Ded dïsom
  • Par dïsïz
  • Dat dïsy

kher (3pf)

  • Nom kheren
  • Acc kheror
  • Gen kherïn
  • Ded kherogh
  • Par khero
  • Dat kheryr

an (3pn)

  • Nom anïm
  • Acc anu
  • Gen anys
  • Ded anubh
  • Par anubh
  • Dat any


  • om: I
  • mo: me
  • ghum ni: my goat (the goat I own)
  • ghum nikh: my goat (the goat I gave someone)
  • ken mes: my hand
  • khem my: with me ("khem" is the preposition for with)


Genitives (as well as dedatives and partitives) come after the nouns that "possess" them.

Adjectives come after nouns, and decline with the case, number and gender of the noun they modify.

Example with "swebh":

saph swebh (warm wing)

  • Singular Plural
  • Nom saph swebh saphi swebhi
  • Acc sapham swebham sapho swebho
  • Gen sapho swebho saphes swebhes
  • Ded saphun swebhun saphom swebhom
  • Par saphakh swebhakh saphïz swebhïz
  • Dat saphis swebhis saphy swebhy

pwem swebh (warm sun)

  • Singular Plural
  • Nom pwem swebh pwemen swebhen
  • Acc pwemen swebhen pwemor swebhor
  • Gen pwemy swebhy pwemïn swebhïn
  • Ded pwemun swebhun pwemogh swebhogh
  • Par pwemas swebhas pwemo swebho
  • Dat pwemi swebhi pwemyr swebhyt

rez swebh (warm mouth)

  • Singular Plural
  • Nom rez swebh rezïm swebhïm
  • Acc rezis swebhis rezu swebhu
  • Gen rezi swebhi rezys swebhys
  • Ded rezakh swebhakh rezubh swebhubh
  • Par rezakh swebhakh rezubh swebhubh
  • Dat rezo swebho rezy swebhy

The prefix we- before an adjective makes it comparative, and the prefix ghy- makes it superlative:

ghum zwon (big goat), ghum wezwon (bigger goat), ghum ghyzwon (the biggest goat).

The prefix si- means less, and the prefix nï- means least:

bhes phïz (angry man), bhes siphïz (less angry man), bhes nïphïz (the least angry man).

A -d- is added after the prefix when the adjective begins with a vowel, so:

nys ang (wide river), nys wedang (wider river), nys ghydang (widest river), nys sidang (less wide river), nys nïdang (least wide river)

The accent in these comparative and superlative forms is on the root word rather than the prefix.

Adjectives become adverbs through the construction "khem arto...o" (with a...manner).

Sïpher gem khem arto memo.
f.PRS-paint she with manner-n.DAT good-n.DAT
She paints well.

Kodan om khem arto wepako.
m.PRS-walk 1s with manner-n.DAT COMP-slow-k-n.DAT
I walk more slowly.

The preposition "qïn" means "than":

Wepa myra qïn ghumis.
COMP-slow snail than goat-m.DAT
A snail is slower than a goat.

Determiners come after the nouns they modify:

  • bhes jobh: this man
  • bhesi jobhi: these men


Prepositions come before their objects in Bwenkhir.


All verbs in the proto-language fall into one conjugation.

Tense markers are placed at the beginning, while mood and aspect markers come at the end.

Verbs inflect for gender, based on the grammatical gender of their subject.

  • Past tense: ti- (m), ty- (f), ta (n)
  • Present tense: ko- (m), sï- (f), bha (n)
  • Future tense: ro- (m), ry- (f), phi- (n)


  • teph: to stand
  • titeph bakh: he stood
  • tyteph gem: she stood
  • tateph ra: it stood
  • koteph bakh: he stands
  • sïteph gem: she stands
  • bhateph ra: it stands
  • roteph bakh: he will stand
  • ryteph gem: she will stand
  • phiteph ra: it will stand

I, you, we and you (pl.) all take the gender of the person (or sometimes for you, the animal) being referred to. So a man would say "koteph om" for "I stand", but a woman would say "sïteph om".

Mood comes after the verb:

  • kotephar ny: you could stand (have the option of standing to consider) (if the "you" being referred to is male; if female this would be "sïtephar ny")
  • kotephas ny: you can stand
  • kotephem ny: you may stand (have the permission to stand)
  • kotephïph ny: you might/may stand
  • kotephuz ny: you should stand
  • kotephir ny: you must stand
  • titephar ny: you could have stood (had the option of standing to consider)
  • titephas ny: you could stand (were able to stand)
  • titephem ny: you were allowed to stand
  • titephïph ny: you might/may have stood
  • titephuz ny: you should have stood
  • titephir ny: you must have stood
  • rotephar ny: you could stand (have the option of standing to consider in the future)
  • rotephas ny: you will be able to stand
  • rotephem ny: you will be allowed to stand
  • rotephïph ny: you might be able to stand (in the future)
  • rotephuz ny: you should stand (in the future)
  • rotephir ny: you must stand (in the future)

While "koteph om" means "I (male) stand", "kotephun om" means "I am standing". The aspect marker -un goes after the mood marker, so:

  • kotephuz ny: you should stand
  • kotephuzun ny: you should be standing

Accent goes on the root of the verb.

If the verb's root ends in a vowel, -k- is added before the suffix or suffixes:

  • phwu: to sleep
  • sïphwu gem: she sleeps
  • sïphwukun gem: she is sleeping
  • sïphwukas gem: she can sleep
  • sïphwukasun gem: she can be sleeping

A -d- is added before a root that begins with a vowel:

  • ebh: to smile
  • kodebh dïs: they (m) smile

An -n- (which may be pronounced as /m/ or /ŋ/ as well) is inserted after the tense/gender prefix to make the verb negative:

  • tinteph bakh: he did not stand
  • tynteph gem: she did not stand
  • tanteph ra: it did not stand
  • konteph bakh: he does not stand
  • sïnteph gem: she does not stand
  • bhanteph ra: it does not stand
  • ronteph bakh: he will not stand
  • rynteph gem: she will not stand
  • phinteph ra: it will not stand

Before a root that begins with n, an -e- is added after the negative n:

  • nyn: to cook
  • tinenyn bakh: he did not cook
  • tynenyn gem: she did not cook
  • tanenyn ra: it did not cook
  • konenyn bakh: he does not cook
  • sïnenyn gem: she does not cook
  • bhanenyn ra: it does not cook
  • ronenyn bakh: he will not cook
  • rynenyn gem: she will not cook
  • phinenyn ra: it will not cook

A -d- is not used after the -n-:

  • ebh: to smile
  • konebh dïs: they (m) do not smile (not *kondebh dïs)

An imperative adds -ybh at the end:

  • tephybh: stand!

To make a negative imperative, add -an at the beginning and -ybh at the end:

  • antephybh: don't stand!

The hortatory is expressed with future tense (ro- if at least one of you is male, ry- if the speaker and addressees are all female) and the suffix -ïgh:

  • rotephïgh ykh: let's stand
  • rontephïgh ykh: let's not stand

For counterfactual/subjunctive, the vowel in the root of the verb changes:

  • a -> e
  • e -> i
  • i -> y
  • ï -> i
  • o -> y
  • u -> y
  • y -> u
  • komakh bakh: he dies
  • jor komekh bakh: if he died
  • jor konmekh bakh: if he did not die
  • jor timekh bakh: if he had died
  • kores bakh: he lives
  • jor koris bakh: if he lived
  • koghir bakh: he grows
  • jor koghyr bakh: if he grew

And so on.

Bwenkhir has no copula. To say "is", you put the adjective (without a declensional ending), right before the noun where the verb would be:

Khur bïqi mes.
thick blood 1p.PAR
My blood is thick.

Linking verbs come before their predicate adjectives:

Sïgwukh swebh pwem.
f.PRS-feel warm sun
The sun feels warm.

Predicate adjectives do not take declensional endings:

wemïm bukïm


Bharim bu wemïm.
n.PRS-look deep sea-pl.NOM
The seas look deep.

The verb "nïph", not to be, is used to make a predicate adjective negative:

Sïnïph rebh pwem.
f.PRS-not_be red sun
The sun is not red.

Conjugated verbs go before the infinitive.

jïbh = to try
Tyjïbh jes om jïsam.
f.PST-try eat 1s meat-m.ACC
I (f) tried to eat the meat.

The verb "tubh" means "to do". In the past tense, it can pair up with an infinitive to make the pluperfect, and in the future, "tubh" plus an infinitive makes the future perfect.

Titubh jes bakh pwambis.
m.PST-do eat 3sm cherry-n.ACC
He had eaten the cherry.

The word "ron" means "to exist", and is used to express "there is/there are":

Koron khir jos.
m.PRS-exist mountain here
There is a mountain here.

Tyron tweza jos.
f.PST-exist tree here
There was a tree here.

-yph after the root of the verb makes it into a participial adjective:

  • Sïtïm phwo: The woman runs
  • phwo sïtïmyph: the running woman
  • Tytïm phwo: The woman ran
  • phwo tytïmyph: the woman who was running
  • Rytïm phwo: The woman will run
  • phwo rytïmyph: the woman who will be running

Tipa om ghumam titïmypham.
m.PST-see 1s goat-m.ACC m.PST-run-PARTADJ-m.ACC
I saw the running goat. [the then-running goat]


Conjunctions like "if" or "because" come before a clause, not after. Coming before a verb with its usual root vowel, "jor" (if) is conditional; coming before a verb with the altered vowel, "jor" makes a subjunctive.

  • jor timakh bakh: if he died (conditional)
  • jor romakh bakh: if he dies (conditional)
  • jor komekh bakh: if he died (counterfactual)
  • jor konmekh bakh: if he did not die (counterfactual)
  • jor timekh bakh: if he had died (counterfactual)

Tyseph gem ïn tymakh ma gemy.
f.PST-cry 3sf because f.PST-die mother 3sf.GEN
She cried because her mother died.

The conjunction "wes" is used before an intentional clause (say that, know that, promise that, etc.), and is the equivalent of "that":

Kodyn bakh wes tidï kus.
m.PRS-say 3sm that m.PST-fall wall
He says (that) the wall fell.

This is also used with verbs like "see" or "hear":

Tipa om wes tijes ghum phimphen.
m.PST-see 1s that m.PST-eat goat grass-f.ACC
I (m) saw the goat eat the grass.

"In order to": To say that someone did X in order to do Y, the verb infinitive becomes the dative object of "ez" (to, for), and the object of the verb becomes a genitive. Infinitives/gerunds are neuter when they are used as nouns.

Tiphys pabh phanten ez bheko ghumo.
m.PST-enter 1pe house-f.ACC to feed-k-n.DAT goat-m.GEN
We entered the house to feed the goat.

To say that someone did X so that someone else could do Y, use the word "rïkh" (so) as your conjunction, and then state the verb, subject and object of the dependent clause:

Ryzom om ghastis rïkh ronphekh bhiz ghumam ykhi.
f.FUT-close 1s fence-n.ACC so m.FUT-NEG-get bhiz goat-m.ACC 1pi.GEN
I (f) will close the fence so the bhiz will not get our goat.


The words for "here", "there" and "over there":

  • jos: here
  • rus: there
  • zys: over there

They correspond to the following pronouns:

  • jom: this
  • rum: that (by you)
  • zym: that (away from both of us)

And to the following determiners:

  • jobh: this
  • rubh: that (by you)
  • zybh: that (away from both of us)

Verbs with two objects

With a clause following the verb pïm (to make), saying that X makes Y do Z, the verb is put in the neuter accusative singular (the -is form) and the subject of the verb in the clause becomes genitive:

Typïm khizi dïkis twezïn.
f.PST-make lightning fall-n.ACC
The lightning made the trees fall.

If the verb has an object, it is put in the dative:

Tipïm pukh uris ni qonji.
m.PST-make storm-n.ACC drop 1s.GEN egg-f.DAT
The storm made me drop an egg.

Verbs such as "waph" (to want) and "qegh" (to let) follow the same pattern:

Sïwaph om jesis bakho qonji zybhi.
f.PRS-want 1s eat-n.ACC 3sm.GEN egg-f.DAT that3-f.DAT
I (f) want him to eat that egg.

Datives can be used to mark a noun as a second object of verbs:

Tinem ma y ta bakho bakham Zemis.
m.PST-name mother and father 3sm.GEN 3sm.ACC Zem-m.DAT
His mother and father named him Zem.

or adjectives as a second object of verbs:

Tipher bakh phanten kasi.
m.PST-paint 3sm house-f.ACC white-f.DAT
I (m) painted the house white.

Ryqwe om swasten mes gighi.
f.FUT-grow 1s hair-f.ACC 1s.PAR long-f.DAT
I (f) will grow my hair long.

Relative clauses

To form a relative clause, you place the verb after the head noun or pronoun, then use the relative "tïph" (for masculine subjects), "sem" (for feminine subjects) or "kir" (for neuter subjects), then place the object or prepositional phrase:

bhes kojes tïph qonjor
man m.PRS-eat that.m
the man who eats eggs

When the head noun is the object of another noun in the relative clause, place the subject between the verb and tïph/sem/kir. The relative will be chosen depending on the gender of the subject:

ghum tynyn om sem
goat f.PST-cook 1s that.f
the goat I (f) cooked

Kogwor ghum tynyn om sem di karpi.
m.PRS-be_located goat f.PST-cook 1s that.f in bowl-f.ACC
The goat I (f) cooked is in a bowl.

To form a descriptive clause (which/who) instead a restrictive clause (that/who), the relative "xas" is used. It does not vary with gender:

Tidaph bhes kojes xas qonjor narbu da.
m.PST-lift man m.PRS-eat which often stone
The man, who often eats eggs, lifted a stone.

Wagh ghum tynyn om xas.
delicious goat f/PST-cook 1s which
The goat, which I (f) cooked, is delicious.

"Tïph", "sem", "kir" and "xas" can be made genitive, as "tïpho", "semy", "kiri", "xaso" (m), "xasy" (f) or "xasi" (n), to translate the relative "whose"; they are declined according to the gender of the owner and come after the noun referring to the possessee:

Sïtephun phwo tywubh juja semy mo jos.
f.PRS-stand-PROG woman f.PST-soothe song who.f-f.GEN 1s.ACC there
The woman whose song soothed me is standing there.

Konakun ghum tynyn om ghikhis xaso.
m.PRS-bleat-PROG goat f.PST-cook 1s kid-n.ACC which-m.GEN
The goat, whose kid I cooked, is bleating.

The relative word can combine with a preposition by being placed after it:

qim: from
qimtïph: from which (m)
Tyrom tweza ez dughis tysam gem qimtïph.
f.PST-return tree to earth-m.DAT f.PST-come 2sf from-that.m
The tree returned to the earth from which it came.

Note that the masculine form of "from which" is used because the earth (dugh), from which the tree came, is masculine.


To make a yes/no question, place "kwi" before the verb:

Kwi kojes ghumi phimphen?
Q m.PRS-eat grass-f.ACC
Do goats eat grass?

To answer yes say "oja", to answer no say "na".

The word "anka" (really) can be placed after "kwi" to form a sentence tag:

Kwi anka kojes ghumi phimphen?
Q really m.PRS-eat grass-f.ACC
Don't goats eat grass?
Goats eat grass, don't they?

The following are question words:


  • xan (m): what
  • qwor (m): who


  • tas: what, which
  • bum: how much (in plural, how many)


  • jus: where
  • ezjus: where to
  • qimjus: where from
  • jïn: when
  • qy: why
  • ryma: how

"Xan" and "qwor" behave like masculine nouns. "Tas" and "bum" are declined like adjectives.

A question word comes at the beginning of the sentence. An adjectival question word will be followed by the noun it modifies, whether that noun is in subject or object position. Next comes the verb, then the subject, then the object, in that order:

Jïn tyjes ny qonjen?
when f.PST-eat 2s egg-f.ACC
When did you (f) eat the egg?

Tasen qonjen tyjes ny?
which-f.ACC egg-f.ACC f.PST-eat 2s
Which egg did you (f) eat?

Xanam tyjes ny?
what-m.ACC f.PST-eat 2s
What did you (f) eat?

"Xan" and "qwor" can be made possessive to mean "whose":

Qworo ghumam tixen bhiz?
who-m.GEN goat-m.ACC m.PST-steal bhiz
Whose goat did the bhiz steal?

Here the masculine form of "whose" is used because "ghum", goat, is masculine.

A preposition can come before a WH- question word:

Di qwory phanti tiphwu bhiz?
in who-f.GEN house-f.DAT m.PST-sleep bhiz
In whose house did the bhiz sleep?

Note that here even with the question word no longer the first word in the sentence, "whose" still comes before the noun rather than in an adjective's usual position after it.

The word "wes" can be combined with question words to make a compound conjunction, expressing ideas like "I know when" or "tell me what":

  • weskwi: whether
  • wesxan: what
  • wesqwor: who
  • westas: what, which
  • wesbum: how much (in plural, how many)
  • wesjus: where
  • wesezjus: where to
  • wesqimjus: where from
  • wesjïn: when
  • wesqy: why
  • wesryma: how

Sïzun om wesqy sïsam janga.
f.PRS-know 1s that-why f.PRS-come snake
I (f) know why the snake comes.

Kowokh om wesbumor qonjor tyjes Phur.
m.PRS-wonder 1s f.PST-eat Phur
I (m) wonder how many eggs Phur ate.

A preposition can be squeezed in between "wes" and the question word:

Kowokh om wesdiqwory phanti typhwu janga.
m.PRS-wonder 1s that-in-who-f.GEN house-f.DAT f.PST-sleep snake
I (m) wonder whose house the snake slept in.


Bwenkhir has a base-10 system:

  • ki: one
  • babh: two
  • twes: three
  • wïn: four
  • kan: five
  • pwobh: six
  • pwen: seven
  • xïgh: eight
  • khekh: nine
  • dykh: ten
  • dykh y ki: eleven
  • dykh y babh: twelve
  • dykh y twes: thirteen
  • dykh y wïn: fourteen
  • dykh y kan: fifteen
  • dykh y pwobh: sixteen
  • dykh y pwen: seventeen
  • dykh y xïgh: eighteen
  • dykh y khekh: nineteen
  • babhdykh: twenty
  • babhdykh y ki: twenty-one
  • twesdykh: thirty
  • wïndykh: forty
  • kandykh: fifty
  • pwobhdykh: sixty
  • pwendykh: seventy
  • xïghdykh: eighty
  • khekhdykh: ninety
  • xoph: one hundred
  • xoph ki: one hundred and one
  • xoph dykh: one hundred and ten
  • xoph kandykh y pwen: one hundred fifty-seven
  • babh xoph: two hundred

Numbers come after the noun they modify and are not inflected:

Tyjes phwo pwambu kan.
f.PST-eat woman five
The woman ate five cherries.

The ordinal numbers:

  • am: first
  • swon: second
  • ghïz: third
  • wïnagh: fourth
  • kanagh: fifth
  • pwobhagh: sixth
  • pwenagh: seventh
  • xïghagh: eighth
  • khekhagh: ninth
  • dykhagh: tenth
  • dykh y am: eleventh
  • dykh y swon: twelfth
  • dykh y ghïz: thirteenth
  • dykh y wïnagh: fourteenth
  • dykh y kanagh: fifteenth
  • dykh y pwobhagh: sixteenth
  • dykh y pwenagh: seventeenth
  • dykh y xïghagh: eighteenth
  • dykh y khekhagh: nineteenth
  • babhdykhagh: twentieth
  • babhdykh y am: twenty-first
  • twesdykhagh: thirtieth
  • wïndykhagh: fortieth
  • kandykhagh: fiftieth
  • pwobhdykhagh: sixtieth
  • pwendykhagh: seventieth
  • xïghdykhagh: eightieth
  • khekhdykhagh: ninetieth
  • xophagh: one hundredth
  • xoph am: one hundred and first
  • xoph dykhagh: one hundred and tenth
  • xoph kandykh y pwenagh: one hundred fifty-seventh
  • babh xophagh: two hundredth

These are inflected like adjectives (because they are):

Tibhïs ino swono ni om ghumam.
m.PST-give child-n.DAT second-n.DAT 1s.GEN 1s goat-m.ACC
I (m) gave my second child the goat.

Kinship terms

  • ter (f): older sister
  • bor (m): older brother
  • rïnsa (f): younger sister
  • dïm (m): younger brother
  • enti (n): parent
  • ma (f): mother
  • ta (m): father
  • ina (n): child
  • no (f): daughter
  • jo (m): son
  • mama (f): maternal grandmother
  • tama (m): maternal grandfather
  • mata (f): paternal grandmother
  • tata (m): paternal grandfather
  • nono (f): granddaughter (daughter's daughter)
  • jono (m): grandson (daughter's son)
  • nojo (f): granddaughter (son's daughter)
  • jojo (m): grandson (son's son)
  • phwoban (f): wife
  • bhesban (m): husband
  • sesta (f): female cousin
  • gwïsta (m): male cousin
  • kyra (f): aunt
  • swordu (m): uncle
  • surja (f): niece
  • danto (m): nephew


When someone is a bos (child), they are either a suma (girl) or rakha (boy). Everyone starts out as a baba (baby). They then age into a khwesiphdan (toddler), before spending several years as a core bos. Upon hitting puberty, they become a zwona (adult), and are either a phwo (woman) or bhes (man). They remain zwonïm from then on, including when they are an onku (elder), being either a sepha (old woman) or qïngu (old man).


  • abh: to claim
  • agh: to occupy
  • agha (f): occupation (act of occupying a country)
  • agwa (f): brain
  • am: first
  • an: third person plural neuter; they
  • ang: wide
  • anga (f): courtship (mom...angen khem = to date)
  • anka: really
  • aph: to pass
  • aph (m): doctor
  • aphta (n): hospital
  • ar: to watch
  • arma (m): rain
  • artu (n): way, manner
  • as: to lead
  • baba (n): baby
  • babh: two
  • babh: to beat up, to batter
  • babhdykh: twenty
  • babhdykhagh: twentieth
  • bakh: third person singular masculine; he, it
  • bam: to rest
  • ban: to drink; to take (medicine)
  • baph: to chase
  • bem: to think (think about...)
  • ben: to bless
  • beni (n): blessing
  • bha (n): food
  • bham: smooth
  • bhan (m): dog
  • bhaph (m): liver
  • bhar: to burn (transitive)
  • bharna (m): bar, tavern
  • bhe: to feed
  • bhem (f): fruit
  • bhem: to pass out (become unconscious)
  • bhes (m): man
  • bhesban (m): husband
  • bhessera (m): bridegroom
  • bhezo (m): sandal
  • bhïbh: to lie (tell a lie)
  • bhïbha (f): lie
  • bhigh: to invite
  • bhïkh: to release
  • bhïm: thin
  • bhir: to rage
  • bhirba (m): sausage
  • bhïs: to give
  • bhiz (m): bhiz, a carnivorous mammal
  • bhïz: to infuriate
  • bhon: full
  • bhonja (f): knee
  • bhun: to fill
  • bhur: brown
  • bhwar: to go
  • bhwem (f): frost
  • bhwen: many
  • bhwis: to put, to set
  • bhwom: to wipe
  • bhy: to lie down
  • bhyn: to hunt
  • bhyr: to arrive
  • bhyra (f): rope
  • bi: to ask (for), to request
  • bïbh: to repeat
  • bïbha (f): repetition
  • bïgh: embarrassing
  • bïkh: to bleed
  • bïm: embarrassed
  • bïn: to meet
  • bïqi (n): blood
  • bïs: straight
  • bita (f): request
  • bïz: to embarrass
  • bo (m): sauce
  • bon: to retire (age out of working)
  • bor (f): bottom
  • bor (m): older brother
  • bos (n): child (prepubescent age group)
  • bu: deep
  • buja (m): boot
  • bukh: to fight
  • bum: how much (in plural, how many)
  • bur: low
  • bwaju (m): tongue
  • bwarti (m): evening
  • bwebh: to experience
  • bwekh: to settle
  • bwen (n): person (in plural, people)
  • Bwenkhir (n): mountain person; member of the Bwenkhir people
  • bwertu (n): animal
  • bwïn (n): day (period of time it takes the planet to rotate on its axis)
  • bwor: to suggest; to recommend
  • bwora (f): suggestion; recommendation
  • bwugh: depressing
  • bwum: depressed
  • bwuz: to depress
  • bym: to insist
  • byma (f): insistence
  • bys (f): fire
  • da (n): stone
  • dada (f): diamond
  • dakh: hard
  • dakha (f): cheese
  • daku (m): shoulder
  • dan: to walk
  • danto (m): nephew
  • daph: to lift
  • dar: to float
  • dem (m): metal
  • den: alive
  • dena (f): life (fact of being alive)
  • denja (f): autumn
  • des: to hang
  • dez: to hear
  • di: in
  • dï: to fall
  • dïm (m): younger brother
  • dir: to reach; to attain; to be (a certain age)
  • dïs: third person plural masculine; they
  • diz: sharp
  • diza (n): citizen
  • dizja (f): cabin
  • dobh: to fall in love (with)
  • dokh: to nod
  • domu (n): pair of pants
  • don: to fix
  • doph: to pour
  • dophu (m): penis
  • dugh (m): earth
  • dugh: disappointing
  • dum: disappointed
  • duri (m): heart
  • dusi (m): coat
  • duz: to disappoint
  • dwekh (m): fish
  • dwen: to seem
  • dwimi (n): skirt
  • dwista (f): floor
  • dwïz: to shake
  • dwogh: to flow
  • dygh: to follow
  • dykh: ten
  • dykhagh: tenth
  • dym: to lay (down)
  • dyn: to say
  • dyr: second person plural; you
  • dys (f): stream
  • ebh: to smile
  • egh: to convince
  • ekh: to masturbate
  • ekha (f): cracker
  • em (n): gold
  • en: to move (go somewhere else)
  • endi (m): mist
  • enti (n): parent
  • er (m): farmer
  • es: open
  • esa (f): soup
  • ez: to, for
  • ezjus: where to
  • gabh (f): back
  • gamba (f): body
  • ganga (f): wrist
  • gem: third person singular feminine; she, it
  • ghagh: exciting
  • ghakh (m): town; village
  • gham: excited
  • ghar (m): rock
  • ghara (n): iron
  • gharma (f): cloud
  • ghaz: to excite
  • ghedu (n): steel
  • ghekha (n): roof
  • ghem: to connect
  • ghen (m): right (opposite of left)
  • gher: to vomit, to throw up
  • gherga (n): vomit
  • ghes: to have (a child)
  • ghi: to crawl
  • ghikh (n): kid (young of the goat)
  • ghiph (m): thief
  • ghiphphanta (m): burglar
  • ghir: to grow
  • ghira (f): growth
  • ghïsti (m): back (of body)
  • ghïz: third
  • gho (m): wind
  • ghogh: rough
  • ghor: glad
  • ghos (f): day (daytime)
  • ghosjiph (f): noon
  • ghugh (m): throat
  • ghum (m): goat
  • ghwakh (m): king
  • ghwan (n): candy, sweets
  • ghwes: to find
  • ghwï: to spread
  • ghwom: to notice
  • ghwun: to touch
  • ghym: wrong
  • ghysa (f): wine
  • gigh: long
  • gim: to frighten
  • giphja (f): season
  • gom (m): chop (of pork, etc.)
  • gos: shallow
  • gur: to swallow
  • gwada (f): foot
  • gwagh (f): queen
  • gwan: to defeat
  • gwem (m): oil
  • gwen: to break
  • gwes: to ask (a question)
  • gwesa (f): question
  • gweska (n): salad
  • gwis: grey
  • gwïsta (m): cousin (male)
  • gwor: to be (location)
  • gwukh: to feel (linking verb)
  • gwum: to dig
  • gwunja (f): middle
  • gwygh: boring
  • gwykh: to conquer
  • gwykha (f): conquest
  • gwym: bored
  • gwyn: to fly
  • gwyna (f): flight
  • gwyz: to bore
  • gy: to avoid
  • gybh: to stab
  • gys: to jump, to leap
  • gytwa (f): gate
  • ibh: to drive
  • ïm (m): time
  • in: store, shop
  • ïn: because
  • ina (n): child (son or daughter)
  • inga (f): steam
  • ïnqa (f): finger, toe
  • is: to open
  • ïsa (m): country, nation, state, land
  • ista (f): land
  • iwu (n): liquid
  • ïz: right, correct
  • jabh: to kick
  • jaja (f): afternoon
  • jakh: to scratch
  • jam: to speak
  • jan: to regret
  • janga (f): snake
  • japh (n): neck
  • je: happy
  • jem: to collect
  • jen: to pick up
  • jeph: to menstruate
  • jer: to guarantee
  • jera (f): honey
  • jersi (f): bee
  • jes: to eat
  • ji: to scream
  • jibh (m): summer
  • jïbh: to try
  • jim: to sound
  • jin (m): light
  • jïn: when
  • jiph: high
  • jirba (n): view (political, etc.)
  • jïs (m): meat
  • jïtwa (f): leg
  • jo: to sing
  • jo (m): son
  • jobh: this (determiner)
  • jogh (m): leader, head
  • jojo (m): grandson (son's son)
  • jom: this (pronoun)
  • jonja (n): breath; spirit
  • jonjaswïm (n): weather
  • jono (m): grandson (daughter's son)
  • joph (f): top
  • jor: if
  • jos: here
  • jospa (n): world
  • juja (f): song
  • jun: to teach
  • juna (f): teaching
  • juny (n): teacher
  • jus: where
  • jy: to delight
  • jygh: shocking
  • jym: shocked
  • jyna (f): corner
  • jys: to win
  • jyz: to shock
  • ka: short
  • kaja (m): morning
  • kaka (f): thunder
  • kam: to compare
  • kama (f): comparison
  • kan: five
  • kanagh: fifth
  • kandykh: fifty
  • kandykhagh: fiftieth
  • kar (m): warrior
  • karpa (f): bowl
  • kas: to cut
  • kas: white
  • kaska (f): spring
  • kekh (m): cookie, biscuit
  • ken (f): hand
  • kha: to cough
  • khabh (m): soldier
  • khakh: to choke
  • kham: to look at
  • khar: to share
  • khaty (n): scarf
  • khaz: to squat
  • khebh: to build
  • khebhy (n): carpenter
  • khebwa (n): building
  • khekh: nine
  • khekhagh: ninth
  • khekhdykh: ninety
  • khekhdykhagh: ninetieth
  • khem: with
  • khem: to sneeze
  • khen (n): water
  • kher: third person plural feminine; they
  • khiba (f): ribbon
  • khigh: surprising
  • khikh: to hiccough
  • khim: surprised
  • khir (m): mountain
  • khirza (f): emerald
  • khiz: to surprise
  • khizi (f): lightning
  • khiphtu (m): lip
  • khokh (n): bone
  • khonti (f): leaf
  • khor: to laugh
  • khorzu (n): vegetable
  • khosi (m): ankle
  • khu: to put a curse on
  • khubh: to argue, to bicker, to quarrel
  • khubha (f): argument, quarrel
  • khudi (n): curse
  • khugh: to deny
  • khugha (f): denial
  • khuph (m): belly, abdomen
  • khur: thick
  • khwa: to bring
  • khwes: to learn
  • khwesiph (n): learner
  • khwesiphdan (n): toddler
  • khyn: old (opposite of young)
  • khyz: to trade
  • ki: one (number)
  • kim: to take
  • kïn: to locate
  • kïph: jealous
  • kir: that, who(m) (for neuter subjects)
  • kis (m): shirt
  • kïs: at
  • kïz: far (from)
  • kobh: to arrange
  • kobho (m): employee
  • kok: to defecate
  • kokh: to knock
  • koko (m): feces
  • kom: black
  • kon (m): head
  • kor: proud
  • kun (m): nut
  • kus (m): wall
  • kwa: small
  • kwaph (m): priest
  • kwas (m): land
  • kwen: to smoke
  • kwi: marker for yes/no questions
  • kwigh (m): night
  • kwighjiph (m): midnight
  • kwïm: to brood
  • kwïn: to buy
  • kwir: to split
  • kwis: to feel (organically)
  • kwïs: light (in weight)
  • kwïsta (f): dawn
  • kwom: flat
  • kwutu (m): ear
  • kwypa (f): road
  • kwys: few
  • kybh: to hug, to embrace
  • kyn: to kill
  • kyra (f): aunt
  • kyz: to announce
  • ma (f): mother
  • mada (n): solid
  • makh: to die
  • mama (f): maternal grandmother
  • man: to give birth to
  • maph: foreign
  • maphi (n): foreigner
  • mata (f): paternal grandmother
  • mem: good
  • meph: to pick (a fruit, etc.)
  • mes (n): copper
  • mï: to dance
  • migh: heartbreaking
  • mim: heartbroken, broken-hearted
  • mïn (f): jewelry
  • mïnjaph (f): necklace
  • mis: to listen
  • miz: to break the heart of
  • mo: dead
  • mogh: calming
  • mom: to make, to form, to create
  • mom: calm
  • mon: to throw away
  • mos (m): piece of furniture
  • mota (f): death
  • moz: to calm
  • mubh (m): left (opposite of right)
  • mugh: to suck
  • mwan (f): sand
  • mwes: to move (change residence)
  • mwïm: to join
  • mwïs: without
  • mygh (f): milk
  • myph: to play
  • myphy (n): player
  • myra (f): snail
  • mys: sorry
  • na: no (negative answer to a question)
  • na: to bleat
  • nagh: annoying
  • nam (n): name
  • nam: annoyed
  • nan: to cremate
  • nana (f): cremation
  • nano (m): ash
  • nar: blue
  • narbu: often
  • naz: to annoy, to bother
  • nebh (m): kidney
  • nem: to name
  • nen: to return (to its original owner)
  • nes: to admit, to confess
  • nesa (f): confession
  • nibh (m): nose
  • niki (f): horn
  • nïm: to lose (opposite of win)
  • nin: to take over
  • nïph: not to be
  • nir: to feel (touch)
  • no (f): daughter
  • nojo (f): granddaughter (son's daughter)
  • nom: to discuss
  • noma (f): discussion
  • nono (f): granddaughter (daughter's daughter)
  • nos: drink, beverage
  • nu (m): wave (of water)
  • nubh: dull
  • nwan (n): enemy
  • nwaph: to handle
  • nwem: to borrow
  • nwor: to lend
  • nwoz: happy (happy news)
  • ny: second person singular; you
  • nyn: to cook
  • nyny (n): chef, cook
  • nys (f): river
  • o (n): deity
  • obhes (n): god
  • oja: yes
  • om: first person singular; I
  • on: think (believe that...)
  • onga (f): pocket
  • onku (n): elder
  • onkughakh (n): village elder
  • ony (m): glove
  • oph: to state
  • oph: sad (sad news)
  • opha (f) statement
  • ophwo (n): goddess
  • or (m): lake
  • orja (m): alcohol
  • os: to stay
  • oxy (m): sapphire
  • pa: slow
  • pa: to see
  • pabh: first person plural exclusive; we
  • pagha (n): student
  • paghu (m): arm
  • paja (m): camp
  • pan: old (opposite of new)
  • par: to order
  • pas: to insult
  • pasa (f): insult
  • patwa (f): stomach
  • pekh (m): hat
  • perni (n): lung
  • pezi (n): patient
  • pha (m): sugar
  • pha: to marry
  • phakh: to bark
  • pham: to look for, to search for
  • phan (m): winter
  • phanta (f): house
  • phany (n): expert
  • phara (n): cap
  • phas: to hold
  • phasa (f): marriage
  • phekh: to get, to kill
  • phem (m): bread
  • pher: to paint
  • phes: hot
  • phïbh: to rub
  • phimpha (f): grass
  • phin: to make up, to reconciliate
  • phïn (m): smoke
  • phina (f): reconciliation
  • phïz: angry
  • phogh: narrow
  • phom: afraid
  • phonkhu (m): pimp
  • phoph (n): dust
  • phor: to supply
  • phur (f): moon; month
  • phuz: to frown
  • phwabh (n): lead (metal)
  • phwam (n): farm
  • phwanka (f): fog
  • phwem: to tie
  • phwin: to provide
  • phwis: to shoot
  • phwo (f): woman
  • phwoban (f): wife
  • phwom (n): pond
  • phwor: to offer
  • phwosera (f): bride
  • phwu: to sleep
  • phygh: to carry
  • phym: soft
  • phyma (f): butter
  • phyry (n): end
  • phys: to enter
  • phyz: to escape
  • pi: to spit
  • pïdu (n): door
  • pikhi (n) nickel
  • pïm: to make (cause)
  • pïn: to cross
  • pïn: rotten
  • piph: to break wind
  • piphi (m): flatulence, gas
  • pir: to reply
  • pira (f): answer
  • pis: all
  • pisa (f): vagina
  • pita (n): artist
  • pitu (m): saliva
  • pokh: to tap
  • pom: to beat (heartbeat)
  • pon: to punch
  • ponga (f): fist
  • por: to burp
  • pukh (m): storm
  • pur: to become, to get
  • pwabh (n): hill
  • pwakh: to swim
  • pwamba (n): cherry
  • pwem (f): sun
  • pwen: seven
  • pwenagh: seventh
  • pwendykh: seventy
  • pwendykhagh: seventieth
  • pwes: to cover
  • pwimba (f): chest
  • pwin (n): lover
  • pwïn: to ride
  • pwobh: six
  • pwobhagh: sixth
  • pwobhdykh: sixty
  • pwobhdykhagh: sixtieth
  • pwon (f): eye
  • pwosu (n): fetus
  • pwyph: to blow
  • pwyz (n): victim
  • pyr: other (ki pyr = another)
  • qakh: to attack
  • qakha (f): attack
  • qam: to catch (something thrown)
  • qaph: to point
  • qas: to approach
  • qegh: to let
  • qekh: to catch (fish)
  • qer (n): part
  • qerswa (n): behind, butt, rear end
  • qes: near
  • qïgh: amazing
  • qim: from
  • qïm: amazed
  • qimjus: where from
  • qin: to celebrate
  • qïn: than
  • qïngu (m): old man
  • qiska (f): poison
  • qïz: to amaze
  • qobhu (n): pair of shorts
  • qonja (f): egg
  • qor: to play (an instrument)
  • qua (n): gas
  • qugh: nerve-wracking
  • qum: nervous
  • quph: to leave alone
  • quz: to make nervous
  • qwa: to spend
  • qwe: to grow (transitive)
  • qwen: to operate (perform surgery)
  • qwes: to face
  • qwïs: to visit
  • qwor (m): who
  • qy: why
  • qygh: green
  • qyz (n): wood
  • ra: third person singular neuter; it, he, she
  • ragh (m): cereal
  • raja (m): belt
  • raja (n): platinum
  • rakh: to scamper
  • rakha (m): little boy
  • rar: to throw
  • ras: to worship
  • raspha (f): forest
  • rebh: red
  • reph (f): front
  • rephkon (f): forehead
  • res: to live
  • res (f): ruby
  • resa (n): religion
  • rez (n): mouth
  • rïda (m): edge
  • rïkh: so, so that, thus, therefore
  • rim: to look (linking verb)
  • rin: to be going to
  • rïn: to climb
  • rïnsa (f): younger sister
  • rïph: dry
  • rïs: to serve
  • rïspu (m): thumb
  • rista (f): observation (mom...risten - DAT = to observe)
  • rom: to return (to the place one originally was)
  • ronga (f): flower
  • ror: to roll
  • ros: to explain
  • rosa (f): explanation
  • roz (f): ring
  • rozbwaju (f): tongue ring
  • rozkwutu (f): earring
  • roznibh (f): nose ring
  • rozwerxa (f): eyebrow ring
  • rubh: that (determiner, by you)
  • rudu (n): stranger
  • rum: that (pronoun, by you)
  • rum: to run (of a nose)
  • rur: round
  • rus: there
  • rwesta (f): surface
  • ryba (n): tooth
  • rykh: to push
  • rym: to rise
  • ryma: how
  • rys: to turn (in a certain direction)
  • ryz: to receive, to get
  • sakh: heavy
  • sakha (f): cake
  • sam: to come
  • san: to be born
  • sana (f): birth
  • saph (m): tear
  • sapha (f): dress
  • saphta (f): snow
  • seja (f): tail
  • sem: that, who(m) (for feminine subjects)
  • sem: dirty
  • sen: to leave
  • seph: to cry
  • sepha (f): old woman
  • sera (m): wedding
  • ses (n): shoe
  • sesta (f): cousin (female)
  • sez: to hop
  • si: to send
  • sï: to choose, to pick, to select
  • sibh: to move (transitive)
  • sïgh: to describe
  • sïgha (f): description
  • sighi (n): virgin
  • sigu (m): fat
  • sikh: to taste (use one's sense of taste)
  • sïkh: to hit
  • sim: scary
  • sïm (m): dirt, soil
  • sima (f): cheek
  • sïn: to smell (linking verb)
  • sipa (f): sweat, perspiration
  • siph: to sweat, to perspire
  • sirki (f): seed
  • sis: to kiss
  • sisi (n): nipple
  • sixy (n): center
  • siz: to bake
  • sizy (n): baker
  • sobh: to remain, to stay
  • sogh (m): athlete
  • soja (f): life (experience of living)
  • sokha (n): bronze
  • som: to have sex
  • soma (f): sex
  • soph: to breathe
  • sudï (n): tin
  • sum: precious
  • suma (f): little girl
  • suph: to accuse
  • supha (f): accusation
  • surja (f): niece
  • swa: to sit
  • swanja (f): ceiling
  • swapha (f): flour
  • swasta (f): hair (mass)
  • swebh: warm
  • swegham: oneself, myself, yourself, himself, herself, itself, ourselves, yourselves, themselves
  • swenja (n): member
  • swer: yellow
  • swïm (f): sky
  • swïs (m): glass
  • swobh: to pay
  • swokh: empty
  • swon: second
  • swordu (m): uncle
  • swukh: to empty
  • swyph (f): emotion, feeling
  • swyphbïm (f): embarrassment
  • swyphbwum (f): depression
  • swyphdum (f): disappointment
  • swyphgham (f): excitement
  • swyphgwym (e): boredom
  • swyphje (f): joy
  • swyphjym (f): shock
  • swyphkhim (f): surprise
  • swyphkïph (f): envy
  • swyphkor (f): pride
  • swyphmim (f): heartbreak
  • swyphmom (f): calm, calmness
  • swyphmys (f): sorrow
  • swyphnam (f): annoyance
  • swyphphïz (f): anger
  • swyphphom (f): fear
  • swyphqïm (f): amazement
  • swyphqum (e): tension
  • swyphtwim (f): interest
  • swyphwam (f): sadness
  • swyphxom (f): disturbance
  • swyphzem (f): satisfaction
  • sykh (m): juice
  • sys: to creep
  • sysa (m) hero
  • sysi (n): worm
  • ta (m): father
  • tabu (m): clay
  • tama (m): maternal grandfather
  • tampa (f): branch
  • tas: what, which
  • tata (m): paternal grandfather
  • tegh: to take away
  • tem: to skin
  • tengha (n): friend
  • tenso (m): flame
  • teph: to stand
  • ter (f): older sister
  • tes: to express
  • tesphu (m): cave
  • tez: to boil
  • tïbh: to travel
  • tïm: to run
  • tinu (m): salt
  • tïph: that, who(m) (for masculine subjects)
  • titi (f): breast
  • tos: to believe
  • toso (m): belief
  • tubh: to do
  • tuph (n): church; temple
  • tus: to crouch
  • tusta (f): intestine
  • twen: to count; to be (so many years old)
  • twes: three
  • twesdykh: thirty
  • twesdykhagh: thirtieth
  • tweza (f): tree
  • twigh: interesting
  • twim: interested
  • twïm: to charge
  • twïn (n): brass
  • twiz: to interest
  • twom: to hurt, to injure
  • twon: to take pride
  • twus (n): face
  • twyr: to sew
  • ty: bad
  • tym: to fear
  • tyn (m): beer
  • typh (m): tower
  • tyrsa (n): skin
  • tys (m): year
  • tysa (f): mistress
  • tyza (m): side
  • uba (m): robe
  • ubhra (f): valley
  • unjo (m): apothecary's shop; drugstore
  • uno (m): apothecary
  • upha (f): base
  • upho (m): ghost
  • ur: to drop; to leave (leave it at the door)
  • us: to mention
  • usa (f): mention
  • wa: to talk, to converse
  • wagh: delicious
  • wam: sad
  • wam: to nurse, to breast-feed
  • waph: cold
  • waph: to want
  • wata (f): conversation
  • waz: to break up (with) (terminate a relationship)
  • we: to pray
  • weja (f): prayer
  • wem (n): sea
  • wem: to tell
  • wen (f): field
  • wendu (m): waist
  • werxa (m): eyebrow
  • wes: that (say that, know that, etc.)
  • wesbum: how much (in plural, how many) (I know how much, I wonder how much, etc.)
  • wesezjus: where to (I know where to, I wonder where to, etc.)
  • wesjïn: when (I know when, I wonder when, etc.)
  • wesjus: where (I know where, I wonder where, etc.)
  • weskwi: whether
  • wesqimjus: where from (I know where from, I wonder where from, etc.)
  • wesqwor: who (I know who, I wonder who, etc.)
  • wesqy: why (I know why, I wonder why, etc.)
  • wesryma: how (I know how, I wonder how, etc.)
  • westas: what, which (I know which, I wonder which, etc.)
  • wesxan: what (I know what, I wonder what, etc.)
  • wez: to fall asleep
  • wibha (f): prostitute
  • wïgh: clean
  • wïkh: to apologize
  • wïkha (f): apology
  • wïm (f): plant
  • win: tiny
  • wïn: four
  • wïn: to wash
  • wïnagh: fourth
  • wïndykh: forty
  • wïndykhagh: fortieth
  • wis: to urinate
  • wïs: wet
  • wisa (n): urine
  • wïsta (n): cream
  • wiz (f): window
  • wïz: to pull
  • wo: to call
  • wokh: to wonder
  • wom: to envy
  • won: to yawn
  • woph (m): ice
  • wu: to yell
  • wubh: to soothe
  • wugh (n): root
  • wys: to whisper
  • wyz: to squeeze
  • xampa (n): neighbor
  • xan (m): what
  • xas: which, who (relative)
  • xen: to steal
  • xepi (n): piece of clothing
  • xer: to sell
  • xersa (n): speck
  • xersatïm (n): moment
  • xeti (n): bank (of a river)
  • xïgh: eight
  • xïghagh: eighth
  • xïghdykh: eighty
  • xïghdykhagh: eightieth
  • xim: to tear, to rip
  • ximpo (m): elbow
  • xin (f): air
  • xiph: new
  • xïsta (n): pie
  • xo (f): music
  • xogh: disturbing
  • xom: disturbed
  • xoph: hundred
  • xophagh: hundredth
  • xoz: to disturb
  • xwan: to hurry, to rush
  • xwegh: to invade
  • xwegha (f): invasion
  • xwes (f): bird
  • xwokh: to hurt (feel pain)
  • xyn: to lose (come to no longer have)
  • xys (m): mind
  • y: and
  • ybh: young
  • ykh: first person plural inclusive; we
  • ykhta (n): mud
  • ym (m): wing
  • yn: to taste (linking verb)
  • yrsa (f): bark
  • ys (m): bush
  • ysta (m): muscle
  • zam: cool
  • zan (f): star
  • zanza (n): sock
  • zedo (n): nail (on finger or toe)
  • ze: to promise
  • zedu (m): suit, outfit
  • zegh: satisfying
  • zem (n): silver
  • zem: satisfied
  • zeta (f): promise
  • zez: to get engaged
  • zez: to satisfy
  • zeza (f): engagement
  • zi: to love (agape)
  • zibha (n): louse
  • ziby (m): guts (singular)
  • zidu (n): chin
  • zikh: to slit
  • zim: to freeze (transitive)
  • zïm: to bring up, to raise
  • zimpa (m): dough
  • zin: fast
  • zingwa (f): heel
  • ziph: to wake up
  • zir (m): garden
  • zis: to suffer
  • zïs: some (but not all)
  • ziti (n): lawn
  • ziz: to bite
  • zogh: huge, enormous, giant
  • zom: to close
  • zor: to smell (use one's sense of smell)
  • zum: closed, shut
  • zun: to know
  • zus: to give away
  • zwas: to surrender
  • zwasa (f): surrender
  • zwo: to grow up
  • zwon: big
  • zwona (n): adult
  • zybh: that (determiner, away from both of us)
  • zybra (f): feather
  • zygh: to swell
  • zymbha (m): stick
  • zym: that (pronoun, away from both of us)
  • zys: over there
  • zyxa (m): testicle