Béu : Chapter 9 : Word Building

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TW 415.png Welcome to béu

..... Assembling word

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Many béu words can be analysed as being constructed from more basic elements.

In chapter 5 we showed how a noun could be made out of two basic nouns.

This chapter is all about these non-basic words.

Divided into 32 sections.

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.... Nut ... -TU

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bautu = nut

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Ground nut = Monkey nut =

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.... Tree ... -PO

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ʔupo = tree

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Apple trees = amapo

Mango trees = byopo

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.... Berry ... -TI

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paiti = berry

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grape = mozeti (o) : (i) => mozetai

olive = oil.berry

strawberry = ? shadeberry ?

raspberry = thicket berry or clusterberry

blaclberry = thicket berry or clusterberry

cranberry =

gooseberry = melon.berry

black currants = ?

currants = ?

bilberry =

grouseberry = N.A.berry ?

lingonberry = bluti (o) : (i) => blutai

blueberry = helati (o) : (i) => helatai


lychee = longan = deer.eye : lychee = deer.eye sour : longan = deer.eye sweet ... these ones have no -ti affix.

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.... Book .... -LI

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toili = book

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A dictionary = nandauli

A text book = megauli

A manual = An instruction manual = ??

A cook book = ntuli

A story book = A novel = ??

A factual book = ??

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.... Fish ... -NYI

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sainyi = a fish

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cuttlefish = byonyi

cod

herring

trout

mackerel

plaice

skate

salmon = salinyi < salia "to jump"

pike

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.... Shop .... -FU

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kanfu = shop/stall

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kanfu pabla = a stall .... "stall" usually simply designated as pabla "table"

gozəfu = a fruit shop, a fruit stall

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.... Fruits ... -SO

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gozo = fruit

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apple = almazo

orange = koizo < sun fruit

mango = byozo

pineapple =

pear =

peach =

banana =

cherry =

rambutan =

durian =

jackfruit =

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We do not want a "unit", "boat".

⁕⁕nandauli is a good example of béu word building. toili = book, nandau = word, toili nandaun = book of words. However if two words such as these geudidau means extended word. It is also a good example of an extended word, in itself.

geuda is a verb meanbéuing to extend in one direction (usually not up). geudo is an noun meaning an extension or appendix. geudi is an adjective meaning extended.

nandau geudi = extended word ... now when a noun and a following adjective occur together a lot (and maybe take on a meaning slightly different) the concept they represent is normally upgraded to a word, by deleting all but the last CV (consonant vowel) in the first word, and sticking this CV on to the end of the second word.

Hence we get geudidau. In theory there is no limit to the combinations that can occur. However in practice (outside of technical language) there are slightly under a hundred different CV's, and the number of elements that every CV can combine with, varies from 3 or 4 up to about 40.

In English we have a number of common endings, such as "-ism", "-ology", "ist", etc. etc. In béu the end-stuck CV's can be thought of as equivalent to these English endings : the main difference is that this word building process is much more prevalent in béu.


The CV -dau (from nandau) is found in combination with a number of other elements. For example ;-


Note that in the last example, the meaning of the extended word has shifted a bit with respect to the meaning of the original words.

It is possible to extend further an extended word. For example ;-

kaza is an adjective meaning compicated and also is a noun meaning "a complicated thing" or "a complex".

kaza cwipadaun = a complex of a noun => cwipadauza = a noun phrase

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.... Leaf ..... -PAI

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lapai = a leaf

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Apple tree leaf = almapai

Mango tree leaf = byopai

etc. etc. etc.

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.... Tool ...... -MO

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gaumo = a tool

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This is actually an infix. It signifies a tool that facilitates the action. For example ...

kludau = to write : kludamo = a pen

solbe = to drink : solbemo = a straw

pluga = to plow, till : plumo = a plow ... a contraction of plugamo of course

cwá = to cross : cwamo = a bridge

kwè = to turn : kwemo = an axle

bái = to rise : baimo = a ladder

An interesting extention of the above is baimofan meaning "index", "table of contents", "look up table" or "list"

It means literally "a duo of ladders" ... the idea behind this word can be seen below ...

TW 923.png

In English "list" can be thought of as one dimensional ... in béu however, two dimentional ... either with a column numbering each item, or a column for ticking off after an item has been dealt with (bought).

Table or matrix are translated using the ...béu word for "net".

slòi = to flow : sloimo = drains

pila = to set/place/position/to put something in its proper position and orientation : pilamo = the 17 particles that show "case"

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.. Place ...... -DA

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hada = place

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kludau = to write : kludada = a scriptorium

flò = to eat : floda = a restaurant

solbe = to drink : solbeda = a bar

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.. Liquid ...... -SE

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moze = water

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almaze = apple juice

koize = orange juice

habian = bee

bianze = honey ... (some erosion here)

fainze = sauce  : fáin = to enrich

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.. Group ....... -DE

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mande = group

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doide = a mountain range < dòi

alhade = a bunch of flowers

bodide = a flock of birds

gwaide = an archipelago < gwái

sainyide = a school of fish

ʔupode = forest

ampede = a society, an association < ampeu

lentode = a league

pullde = a team, a club

kodade = cooperative < kodai

treatyde = alliance

doikade = a gang, a band

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Note ... the plural of boido "friend" is boide. As is the plural of keudo "enemy. So to say "a group of friends" = mande boide

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.. Master ...... -GU

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= master, lord

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landlord

houselord

shiplord

Also some agjectives from this construction ...

taigu = free < self.master

mpugu = democratic

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.. Air/gas ...... -LU

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kalu = Air/gas

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hydrogen = first.lu

helium = koilu

neon = unmixinglu second

argon = unmixinglu third

krupton = unmixinglu forth

clean = cadai ....

chlorine = cadakuzlu < cadakuʒi-lu

bromine = cadakuze < cadakuʒi-ze

iodine = cadakuʒi- ???

strontium = caimoi fairy metal

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.. Word ...... -DAU

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nandau = A word

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adjective = saidau

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sky.sound = a vowel sky.sound.za = a diphthong or a triphthong sky.sound. nyo = a vowel OR a diphthong/triphthong

earth.sound = a consonant earth.sound.za = a consonant cluster earth.sound.nyo = a consonant OR a consonant cluster

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.. Metal ...... -MOI

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delmoi = metal

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copper = ʔolimoi

bronze = pwemoi

iron/steel = gumoi

tin = fujemoi

lead = wobumoi

aluminium = yekimoi

zinc <= needle ??

cadmium = zinc.ita

gold = koimoi ... kòi = sun, day (24 hours)

silver = deumoi ... dèu = moon

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A Walker Scott ----

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Palladium is literally "wimp platinum".

pruvdrangphwéo ['pʰɹuv.dɹɐŋ.ɸwø] n. palladium ...... heavy silver

drrog-hlyś ['drɔɡ.ɬyɕ] n. thulium ... hlyś [ɬyɕ] n. wimp : drrog = metal

ñongbbuegh ['ɲɔŋ.bʱɯɣ] n. cadmium < zinc.shit : bbuegh ['bʱɯɣ] n. excrement

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.. Fellow ..... -PEU

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ampeu = a comrade, a fellow, a peer, someone of the same social status as you and on friendly terms with you. Not exactly a friend but you rub along with this person for mutual advantage. Emotionally neutral ... between friend and enemy.

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polji = womb ... polpeu = a twin, a triplet etc ... polpau = (twins) (i.e. two of them)

hodo = class (in a school) ... hodəpeu = a class mate

donəpeu = a companion

yearpeu = somebody born in the same year as you

namepeu = a namesake, somebody with the same name as you

countrypeu = a compatriate

gòs = aim, objective, purpose, goal ... gospeu = a comrade, a fellow traveller

All these words are their own plural

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.. Member ..... -CO

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This one deletes the last vowel of the root if attached to a diphthong ...... like -ko or -da or -la.

kuda = a shop .... kanfu ??

kudaco = a shop assistant

beuco = an active member of the béu community ... as opposed to a beumai who follows béu in a private manner ???

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.. Station ...... -HEU

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farm = anhèu .... i.e. a sort of spread out place where many activities take place. There are store houses and/or workshops related to these different activities plus a fair amount of open space. From this original meaning, hèu has become an affix with the meaning "station". As in police station, army base, petrol station, townhall etc. etc.

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ngeuheu = an airport

gaugoheu = factory .... gaugo = workshop

tunheu = a townhall .... tun = rule, power

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school is not hauheu rather it is banhai ... just one of these things

.. Wagon ...... -WEU

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wèu = A vehicle, a wagon

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train = soweu

bus = liloweu => loweu

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.. Building ....... -GO

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jengo = building ... from the verb ... jenga = "to build" < Swahili

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gaugo = workshop

haugo = schoolhouse ... a very small village would have haugo ... maybe one room and one teacher : A city would have banhai

dwego = a godown, warehouse

whorehouse

bath-house

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.. Subject ....... -GAU

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A field of study, a subject = megau

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peugagau = the entirety of human knowledge

slaigau = calculus

noigau = arithmetic

limbagau = linguistics

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.. Language ....... -BA

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A tongue, a language = limba

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englaba = English

flozeba = French

doicaba = German

italyaba = Italian

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.. Mistress ....... -GWI

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Any compounds formed with -gu can also form with -gwi

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.. Machine ...... -NYO

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ploinyo = a machine

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gàu = to do : gaunyo = a robot

blá = to speak : blanyo = the telephone

= to think : wenyo = a computer

ngeu = to fly : ngeunyo = an aeroplane

bái = to rise : bainyo = an elevator

kwè = to turn : kwenyo = lathe

mwé = to see : mwenyo = TV

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wèu = a vehicle : weunyo = a motor, an engine

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-NYO together with the -YO (powder < ponyo) tell us something interesting about béu syllable boundaries. In Ch 1, in the section "Word Medial" we can see that 35 consonant clusters can occur word medially. Normally these clusters are split between the syllables. For example pon-yo. However if the first syllable has a diphthong AND the consonant cluster is identical to one of the clusters allowed word initially, then the entire consonant cluster is in the second syllable. Hence ploinyo (which is a basic word and in no way derived) would be ploi-nyo.

Look back at ... Ch 5, "Assembling words".

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.. Small birds ...... -DI

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bodi = a small bird

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robin = halondi < halon = red hot coal lump

swift = sacodi < Swifts are the fastest of birds. Larger species are amongst the fastest fliers in the animal kingdom, with the white-throated needletail having been reported flying at up to 169 km/h (105 mph). Even the common swift can cruise at a maximum speed of 31 m/s or 112 km/h (70 mph).

swallow = taigudi < The swallow is called the "bird of freedom" because it cannot endure captivity and will only mate in the wild

tit = "chattering"

starling = "echo" < Starlings have diverse and complex vocalizations and have been known to embed sounds from their surroundings into their own calls, including car alarms and human speech patterns.

thrush/blackbird = autedi "blackishbird"

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.. Container ....... -COI

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A container = mencoi

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.. Stuff/powder ..... -YO

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powder = ponyo

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bunduyo = cement

wheatyo = flour

maizeyo = maize flour

ʔazwoyo = milk powder

fainyo = condiment : fáin = to enrich

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.. Volume/room ... -ʔAU

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foʔau = volume, room

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mozeʔau = bathrooom < fo?au moze

mauma?au = bedroom

nje?au = livingroom

dwe?au = store room

kyo?au = waiting room

ntu?au = kitchen

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The 6 regular shapes in 4 dimensions ...

foʔadan = a 5-cell < odan fo?au

foʔazan = an 8-cell

foʔajaigan = a 16-cell < ajaigan fo?au

foʔafain = a 24-cell < ifain fo?au

foʔapain = 120-cell < yapain fo?au

foʔagaufain = 600-cell < 42012 < egaufain fo?au

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.. Belief/theory ... - GAI

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Index

  1. Introduction to Béu
  2. Béu : Chapter 1 : The Sounds
  3. Béu : Chapter 2 : The Noun
  4. Béu : Chapter 3 : The Verb
  5. Béu : Chapter 4 : Adjective
  6. Béu : Chapter 5 : Questions
  7. Béu : Chapter 6 : Derivations
  8. Béu : Chapter 7 : Way of Life 1
  9. Béu : Chapter 8 : Way of life 2
  10. Béu : Chapter 9 : Word Building
  11. Béu : Chapter 10 : Gerund Phrase
  12. Béu : Discarded Stuff
  13. A statistical explanation for the counter-factual/past-tense conflation in conditional sentences