| Æðadĕ |
|Period||c. 1000 YP|
|Total speakers||c. 2 million|
|Writing system|| adapted |
|Classification|| Edastean |
|Basic word order||SVO|
This page relates to the
| Local links
Æðadĕ [ˈæ.ða.də] is, just like Ayasth and Aθáta, a descendant of the earlier Adāta language developed by Deiniol Jones (aka Dewrad). It was created for the "Derivation Relay" in August 2006 at the zompist board by Daniel Ebner (aka ebilein).
A daughter-language of Æðadĕ itself is Yād.
- 1 Phonology
- 2 Grammar
- 2.1 Nominal Morphology
- 2.2 Verbal Morphology
- 3 Syntax
- 4 Sample text
- 5 Lexicon
- 6 See also
Here follows the consonant inventory:
|Plosive||pʰ b||tʰ d||kʰ ɡ|
|Fricative||ɸ β||θ ð||s z||x||h|
The aspirated voiceless stops are usually pronounced without aspiration after another consonant.
The Vowel Inventory is as follows:
|High||i iː||u uː|
|Mid High||e eː||ə||ɔ ɔː|
ɸ and β are represented with f and v, θ with þ. Aspirated stops are written without a following h: p /pʰ/, t /tʰ/, k /kʰ/.
Sometimes (especially preceding another consonant) the voiceless stops are pronounced without aspiration.
Long Vowels are marked with a makron: ī, ē, ā, ō, ū; ə is represented by ĕ.
Sound Changes from Adāta
- i > j / _V: iarioba > jarjoba, hānedia > hānedja
- a, e > ə / unstressed: abesa > abəsə, lōzera > lōzərə
- b, d, g > β, ð, ɣ: jabə > jaβə, Adātə > Aðātə, gamun > ɣamun
- ə > nil / following or preceding a stressed syllable and always wordfinal, but never initial or after another vowel or halfvowel: aβən > aβn, ēəβ > ēəβ; Exception: pəpō, zəzāk, hápəβ and, curiously, Aðātə remain
- Two geminate consonants following each other are simplified to one: azz > az
- ls > lz: lsō > lzō
- n, l, r > ṇ, ḷ, ṛ / final and preceded by a consonant: aln > alṇ, khīrl > khīrḷ, lōzr > lōzṛ
- p(h), t(h), k(h) > ɸ, þ, x / _C (but not if preceding /j/): áplo > áɸlo, záthṇ > záþṇ
- regressive assimilation: áβs > áɸs, ásð > ázð, átzən > ádzən, ðiézk > ðiésk
- ai, ei, oi, au, eu > aj, ej, oj, aw, ew: eul > ewl, dei > dej
- á, é, í, ó, ú > ǽ, ié, í, ú, ué: Ádātə > Ǽðātə
- ué, ié > wé, jé
- Stress shifts to initial syllable
- ə > a / stressed: əpjāp > apjāp
- p, t, k > b, d, g / initial, V_V or final after a vowel: ǽk > ǽg
- Unstressed long vowels are shortened: abjāb > abjab
- lz > ḷz / wordinitial: lzō > ḷzō
- ɣ > h / initial: ɣǽmun > hǽmun
- ɣ > x: zūlɣ > zūlx
The Plural is formed by the prefix op- (< Adāta "opha", many), which becomes ov- before voiced stops or fricatives and of- before voiceless stops, fricatives, laterals and nasals. Additionally, long vowels are shortened because stress shifts to the initial syllable. Remember also that aspirated initial consonants are spoken without aspiration as soon as the prefix is added.
Pluralisation is not required if the noun is preceeded by such words as iz every or næm some.
- tālo moon, oftalo moons
- ðjesk king, ovðjesk kings
- iþki mistress, opiþki mistresses
- jādi prisoner, opjadi prisoners
Æðadĕ, unlike Adāta but very much like its sister languages Ayasth and Aθáta, marks possession with suffixes rather than independant words.
The following changes occur: wordfinal e and i > j, wordfinal o and u > w and wordfinal a vanishes.
- ðjesk king, ðjeskajg our king
- iþki mistress, iþkjaj my mistress
- iðo noble man, iðwaðo your noble man
- aðuna girl, aðunalaw your girl
Adjectives follow the noun they describe (ðjeskaj bira my brave king), but they do not change for number (ovðjeskaj bira my brave kings). A Comparative can be formed by suffixing -nez (or -ez if the adjective ends in a non-syllabic n), a Superlative by suffixing -jal (Adāta "ial", very).
- bira, biranez, birajal - brave, braver, bravest
- tērn̩, tērn̩nez, tērn̩jal - beautiful, more beautiful, most beautiful
- ðōdin, ðōdinez, ðōdinjal - holy, holier, holiest
For emphasis it is also possible to add jæl very in front of the Superlative. Remember, though, that jæl is never used before the comparative.
Example: ðjesk (jæl) birajal the bravest king
Subject Marker -ro
The Subject Marker suffix ro is suffixed to the last part of the noun phrase, but never to appositional nouns or relative phrases. It is also not used if the sentence is negated (obviously Æðadean speakers thought if it did not happen, why bother to mark the Subject?).
- ðjesk king, ðjeskro king
- iþkjaj my mistress, iþkjajro my mistress
- aðunalaw jæl tērn̩jal your most beautiful girl, aðunalaw jæl tērn̩jalro your most beautiful girl
- Sjenkĕn, ðjesk xizor Sjenken, the great king, Sjenkĕnro, ðjesk xizor Sjenken, the great king
Adverbs precede the verb they modify and are not marked otherwise.
- jero ōvo nun I went happily
- je ōvoro nun I, the happy one, went
Demonstratives and Quantifiers
Æðadĕ lost Adāta's three-way deixis of demonstratives and simplified it to a two-way distinction: this and that.
- zē Pl. zāg - this, these
- sje Pl. sjeg - that, those
Here follows a list of Quantifiers:
- næm some
- iz all
- ur every, each
Both Demonstratives and Quantifiers precede the noun they modify; if the noun is preceded by a demonstrative or quantifier, the plural prefix oph- is optional and usually omitted.
- zāg (ov)ðjesk these kings
- næm (oph)aðuna some girls
Like in Finnish or Vulgar Latin, the numeral 1 may indicate indefinity: ðjesk gi a king, some king. As can be seen from the example, numerals follow the noun they modify. All numerals usually go with the Singular of the noun, although plural is acceptable (though very uncommon) beginning with numeral two.
Higher numbers are combined with un and, beginning with hundreds, tens and finally one-digits.
- 15: ru un ðō
- 32: zōro un jæ
- 86: hweðro un is
- 152: jepi un ðōro un jæ
(*) The analogically formed 2nd person forms from singular ðo replaced the original "lākhok", "lākhok ro" which would have resulted in lākog, lākoxro.
(**) The plural oblique forms would originally have developed without the final "n"; it was, however, placed there due to analogy with the singular.
The Vocative forms are used as possessive pronouns in combination with the possessive suffixes if someone is adressed. They are not usually used to indicate mere possession.
Example: iþki! oh mistress, iþkjaj æxin! oh my mistress!
Compared to Adāta's verbal system, Æðadĕ has changed a lot. The habitual aspect was lost, as well as some moods. All in all, Æðadĕ tends to be a tense-language rather than an aspect-language. The following chart shows how the tenses developed from Adāta's aspects:
|Indicative||Ind. Perfective||Ind. Imperfective||Opt. Imperfective|
|Optative||Opt. Perfective||Opt. Imperfective||Paraphrased|
|Obligative||Oblig. Perfective||Oblig. Imperfective||Paraphrased|
Verbs are usually given in the Indicative Present Pl, which is the least inflected form. E.g. ævi say, zjema live, hæva drink.
|Optative||uk-n||uk-v||uk-si||uk-||ūsi VN*||ūs VN*|
|Obligative||so-n||so-v||so-si||so-||susi VN*||sō VN*|
(*) VN = Verbal noun
Verb Stems & Ending Varieties
Verbs whose Indicative Present Plural form ends in an a or an e usually loose this vowel when endings are suffixed (so ævi say with the stem ævi-, opposed to zjema live with the stem zjem-).
The affixed n of the past tense becomes syllabic (n̩) if following another consonant (thus ævin said next to zjemn̩ lived).
The last sound of the Stem is assimlated to the voiced Past Plural suffix v (nuzv died from nusa, die).
Similarly, the last sound of the Stem is assimilated to the voiceless Present Singular suffix si (hæfsi drinks from hæva, drink).
The prefix uk of Optative and Future Indicative only remains in front of h (ukhæfsi will drink). If the Stem begins with a vowel or halfvowel, it is softened to ug (ugævisi will say); if the Stem of the verb begins with another consonant, it becomes ux (uxzjemsi will live).
The Obligative prefix so is shortened to s in front of vowels and halvowels (sævi shall say).
Two geminate sounds are usually simplified to one (hæv drank instead of *hævv, nusi dies instead of *nussi)
|Optative||ugævin||ugæviv||ugævisi||ugævi||ūsi ævjĕn||ūs ævjĕn|
|Obligative||sævin||sæviv||sævisi||sævi||susi ævjĕn||sō ævjĕn|
|Optative||ukhævn̩||ukhæv||ukhæfsi||ukhæva||ūsi hævjĕn||ūs hævjĕn|
|Obligative||sohævn̩||sohæv||sohæfsi||sohæva||susi hævjĕn||sō hævjĕn|
The Verbal Noun can be formed by omitting the last vowel of the Present Plural and adding either -jĕn or -ĕjĕn (the latter is not as common as the former and thus marked in dictionaries).
Verbs beginning with a voiced plosive consonant (b, d, g) are usually two stemmed; they change this first voiced consonant into a voiceless consonant in Optative mood and in Future Present Indicative.
- dijo pull, uxtijo will pull
- bilæza send, uxpilæza will send
- giga throw, uxkiga will throw
Verbs that end in ja or je do not loose the final vowel in inflection, but change it to ĕ. This also goes for verbs of three or more syllables ending in simple a or e and is marked in dictionaries if it does not occur.
- mælja suck, mæljĕsi sucks
- ævuje hold, ævujĕsi holds
- ōloka forget, ōlokĕsi forgets
There are a few irregular verbs whose full inflection will be given now (they are æte be, æði be, dū drink and abena cry).
|Optative||uxtwen||uxtwev||uxtwesi||uxtu||ūsi dijĕn||ūs dijĕn|
|Obligative||sodwen||sodwev||sodwesi||sodu||susi dijĕn||sō dijĕn|
|Optative||uxpen||uxpenv||uxpensi||uxpena||ūsi abenjĕn||ūs abenjĕn|
|Obligative||spēn||spēnv||spēnsi||spēna||susi abenjĕn||sō abenjĕn|
Adāta's negative prefixes m- and a- came to be considered as separate prepositions; m became n (because 'm' was not allowed word final in Adāta) and later became syllabic ('ṇ'). The negative 'a' became 'æ'.
By the time we reach Æðadĕ ṇ and æ are interchangeable, although ṇ is probably used more often. They are simply put before the conjugated verb.
Example: N̩ abensi iþki. = Æ abensi iþki.
- not cry-PRES mistress
- The mistress is not crying.
Noun phrases consist of a noun that can be modified by adjectives, appositions and genitives. The order is usually Determiner - Noun - Adjective - Genitive - Apposition.
Example: iz ðipi jæl birajal æx Kāxd ovðjesk gæǽsun
- all child very bravest of Kaxd PL-king powerful
- all the bravest children of Kaxd, the powerful kings
The Indicative is used for reality (ðoro hæfsi you are drinking), the Imperative for command (īhæfsi drink!), the Optative for wishes (ðoro ukhæfsi you want to drink) and the Obligative for have-to or must constructions (ðoro sohæfsi you have to drink).
The Verbal Noun is used in relative clauses.
The difference between æte and æði
æte is used for temporary states, wherease æði is used for permanent statements. This distinction, however, only occurs in Indicative and Imperative Present.
- Đoro si zēlul. You are here. (temporary)
- Đoro æt mezaj. You are my father. (permanent)
Relative clauses follow the noun they modify. If the person acting in the relative clause is the same as the one it refers to, it takes the normal pronoun; if it is the object of the action in the relative clause, one has to use the oblique form.
Then one needs a relative timeword (jwe for contemporarity with the main sentence, wez for something that happened prior to the main sentence), then the Verbal Noun and finally, depending on which pronoun (normal or oblique) was used before, the Subject or Object of the Verbal Noun.
The Verbal Noun of to be usually is omitted, leaving only the relative timewords.
Example: Jero rōln̩ aðuna æn jwe ædaxewljĕn je.
- I-SUBJ love-PAST girl she-OBL PRES rape-VN I
- I loved the girl I raped.
N̩ rōla opaðuna ān æg wez ædaxewljĕn ān.
- not love-PRES PL-girl they-OBL they PAST rape-VN they-OBL
- Girls do not love those who raped them.
Because the Passive voice was lost, Passive sentences are usually active ones with an omitted Subject. Verbs are normally used in Singular.
Example: Hupin jen.
- defeat-PAST I-obl
- Someone defeated me = I was defeated.
Usual word order is S-V-O, as can be seen in the following example:
- Jero hupin ān.
- I-SUBJ defeat-PAST they-OBL
- I defeated them.
Negative Sentences, however, keep Adāta's V-S-O order:
- N̩ hupin je ān.
- not defeat-PAST I they-OBL
- I didn't defeat them.
The S-V-O word order is changed to V-O-S if the Subject is followed by appositional nouns or a relative clause:
- Ævin sjeb Sjenkĕnro, ðjesk xizor.
- speak-PAST thus Sjenken-SUBJ king great
- Thus spoke Sjenken, the great king.
- Weponĕpĕnĕv jen ovðjeskĕlĕs gæsusro æg wez babæzjĕn īl jen jwe ðipi.
- belittle-PAST I-OBL PL-kingdom nearby-SUBJ they PAST name-PARTICIPLE to I-OBL like child.
- The nearby kingdoms, who named me a child, belittle me.
Adpositional phrases are sorted manner - place - time. Other combinations are possible, but rarely used.
- Jero nun æd nælror īl Njedz gæb.
- I-SUB go-PAST by horse to Njedz last-year.
- Last year I went to Njedz by horse.
Ævin sjeb Sjenkĕnro, ðjesk xizor, ðjesk æx læs æx Kāxd, mēxt æx Zæm un æx Tālo:
īlnu jero æbṇ uv ōbagatjĕ æx mizaj, iz ðjeskĕlĕs rūlzro vi hēgon īl jen. Ovðjeskĕlĕs rūlz gæsusro æviv sjeb: "Mizagro æn ðjesk bira. Æro hupin ovðjeskĕlĕs ægarĕn. Un æro dæn jwe næg. Ðæl æt jwe ðipi æro æ jwe æbjĕn uv ōbagatjĕ æx mizag."
Hul æbṇ uv ōbagatjĕ æx mizaj jero, mēxt æx Zæm un æx Thālo, īlnu jero nun æt ovðjeskĕlĕs rūlz æg wez hēgon īl jen, jero ōvo nun īl ovzādi æx Upaj. Jero mjezagon ān un jero hæbĕvĕn dunaj īl mjen mæl. Jero ævin sjeb: "iþkjaj æxin kēnu æx ovze, weponĕpĕnĕv jen ovðjeskĕlĕs gæsusro æg wez babæzjĕn īl jen jwe ðipi. Un æxro sādv bæsjĕn æx ovgalĕs æx læsaðo ðōdin, iþkjaj æxin! Æðodin īenzĕb!"
Upajro ræton ovḷze æx mævaj. Æro welṇ jen un æro sæpin væpor īl jetjĕnaj. Jero hupin æd lað ru ān æg wez mugjĕn æga jen. Jero hupin ān. Jero ævujĕn opjadi un ovvu un ofxar un jero bilæzṇ ān īl læs æx Kāxd.
Sinakan, the great king, the king of the land of Kāxad, brother of the sun and the moon, spoke thus:
Before I sat on the throne of my father, alas! all the foreign countries were hostile towards me. The nearby foreign countries spoke thus: "His father was a brave king. Alas! he conquered many enemy countries. And he became a god. But luckily, he who sits on the throne of his father is a child."
When I, brother of the sun and moon, sat on the throne of my father, before I went to the foreign countries which were being hostile towards me, happily I went to the feasts of Ophai. I celebrated them to my benefit, and I rose my hand to the shining mother. I spoke thus: "My mistress, light of the stars, the nearby countries who name me a child belittle me. And they begin to attack the border of your holy land, my mistress! Strike the heathens down!"
Ophai heard the words of my mouth. She rose me up and she gave strength to my arm. I conquered those who rose against me in ten years. I conquered them. I captured many prisoners, oxen and sheep, and I sent them back to the land of Kāxad.
- Ævi-n sjeb Sjenkĕn-ro, ðjesk xizor, ðjesk æx læs æx Kāxd, mēxt æx Zæm un æx Thālo
- speak-PAST thus Sjenken-SUB, King great, King of Land of Kaxd, brother of sun and of moon:
- Sjenken, the great King, the King of the Land Kaxd, the brother of the Sun and of the Moon spoke thus:
- īlnu je-ro æb-ṇ uv ōbagatjĕ æx miz-aj, iz ðjeskĕlĕs rūlzro vi hēgon īl je-n.
- before I-SUB sit-PAST on throne of father-my, all kingdom foreign-SUB be-PAST hostile to I-OBL.
- Before I sat on the throne of my father, all foreign kingdoms were hostile to me.
- Ov-ðjeskĕlĕs rūlz gæsus-ro ævi-v sjeb, "Miz-ag-ro æn ðjesk bira.
- PL-kingdom foreign nearby-SUB speak-PAST thus: "Father-his-SUBJ be-PAST king brave.
- Foreign near kingdom spoke thus: "His father was a brave king.
- Æ-ro huphi-n ov-ðjeskĕlĕs ægarĕn. Un æ-ro dæ-n jwe næg.
- he-SUB defeat-PAST PL-kingdom enemy. and he-SUB become-PAST like god.
- He defeated enemy kingdoms and he became just like a god.
- Ðæl æ-th jwe ðiphi æ-ro æ jwe æb-jĕn uv ōbagatjĕ æx mizag.
- but be-PRES like child he-SUB he PRES sit-VN on throne of father-his.
- But like a child is he who now sits on the throne of his father.
- Hul æb-ṇ uv ōbagatjĕ æx miz-aj je-ro, mēxt æx Zæm un æx Thālo,
- when sit-PAST on throne of father-my I-SUB, brother of sun and of moon,
- When I, brother of the Sun and of the Moon, sat on the throne of my father,
- īlnu je-ro nun æth ov-ðjeskĕlĕs rūlz æg wez hēgon īl je-n,
- before I-SUB go-PAST to PL-kingdom foreign they PAST hostile to I-OBL,
- before I went to the foreign kingdoms that were hostile to me,
- je-ro ōvo nun īl ov-zādi æx Uphaj.
- I-SUB happy-ADV go-PAST to PL-feast of Uphaj.
- I happily went to the feast of Uphai.
- Je-ro mjezago-n ā-n un je-ro hæbĕvĕ-n dun-aj īl mjen mæl.
- I-SUB celebrate-PAST they-OBL and I-SUB lift-PAST hand-my to mother shining.
- I celebrated them and rose my hand to the shining mother.
- Je-ro ævi-n sjeb, "iþkj-aj æxin khēnu æx ov-ze,
- I-SUB speak-PAST thus: mistress-my my light of PL-star,
- I spoke thus: "Oh my mistress light of the stars,
- wephonĕphĕnĕ-v je-n ov-ðjeskĕlĕs gæsus-ro æg wez babæz-jĕn īl je-n jwe ðiphi.
- belittle-PAST I-OBL PL-kingdom nearby-SUBJ they PAST name-VN to I-OBL like child.
- the nearby kingdoms, who named me a child, belittle me.
- Un æx-ro sād-v bæs-jĕn æx ov-galĕs æx læs-aðo ðōdin, iþkj-aj æxin!
- and they-SUBJ begin-PAST attack-VN of PL-border of land-your holy, mistress-my my.
- And they begin to attack the borders of your holy land, o my mistress!
- æðodin ī-enzĕb!" Uphaj-ro rætho-n ov-ḷze æx mæv-aj.
- unholy-ADV IMP-strike. Uphaj-SUBJ hear-PAST PL-word of mouth-my.
- Strike unholy! Uphi heard the words of my mouth.
- Æ-ro wel-ṇ je-n un æ-ro sæphi-n væphor īl jetjĕn-aj.
- she-SUBJ rise-PAST I-OBL and she-SUBJ give-PAST strength to arm-my.
- She rose me up and gave strength to my arm.
- Je-ro huphi-n æd lað ru ā-n æg wez mug-jĕn æga je-n.
- I-SUBJ defeat-PAST with year ten they-OBL they PAST protest against I-OBL.
- I defeated within ten years those who protested against me.
- Je-ro huphi-n ā-n.
- I-SUBJ defeat-PAST they-OBL.
- I defeated them.
- Je-ro ævujĕ-n oph-jadi un ov-vu un of-xar un je-ro bilæz-ṇ ā-n īl læs æx Kāxd.
- I-SUBJ catch-PAST PL-prisoner and PL-ox and PL-sheep and I-SUBJ send-PAST they-OBL to land of Kaxd.
- I caught prisoners and oxen and sheep and sent them to the land of Kaxd.
Verbs are listed in Present Indicative Plural and are followed by their stems.
Verbal Nouns are listed if they are not formed by the principle Pres.Ind.Pl except last vowel adding -jĕn (e.g. ævi > ævjĕn, hæva > hævjĕn).
Remember the stem alternations of words beginning with voiced stops (those turn into voiceless following the prefix ux-).
abena, aben-/pen- v.irr. cry
æbe, æb- v. sit
æði v.irr. be
æthe v.irr. be
ævi, ævi- v. say
ævuje, ævujĕ-, ævujĕjĕn v. catch
abæza, abæz- v. make
babæza, babæz- v. name
bæso, bæso- v. attack
bilæza, bilæz- v. send
dæ, dæ-, dajĕn v. become
dijo, dijo-, dijĕjĕn v. pull
dū, dwe-, dijĕn v.irr. drink
enzĕba, enzĕb-, enzĕbĕjĕn v. strike
giga, gig- v. throw
hæbĕva, hæbĕv-, hæbĕvĕjĕn v. lift
hæva, hæv- v. drink
huphi, huphi- v. defeat
mælja, mæljĕ-, mæljĕjĕn v. suck
mjezago, mjezago-, mjezagĕjĕn v. celebrate
muga, mug- v. protest
nuna, nun- v. go
ōloka, ōlokĕ-, ōlokĕjĕn v. forget
rætho, rætho- v. hear
sāde, sād- v. begin
sæphi, sæphi- v. give
wela, wel- v. rise
wephonĕphĕna, wephonĕphĕnĕ-, wephonĕphĕnĕjĕn v. belittle
People and Family
aðuna n. girl
āphu n. country-dweller
āz n. city-dweller
ðiphi n. child
ðjesk n. king
ðjeska n. queen
eĕv n. man
iðo n. nobleman
iþki n. mistress
jādi n. prisoner
gāro n. friend
gēl n. scribe
māðo n. person
mēxt n. brother
miz n. father
mjen n. mother
mwexaðin n. baker
nēre n. woman
omo n. sister
zēje n. uncle
zjeme n. neighbour
æva, æv- v. sin
ælizĕðu n. temple
æbunin n. heretic
ðæj n. goddess
ðōdin a. holy
lōzṛ n. religion
mjezago, mjezago-, mjezagĕjĕn v. celebrate (a religious feast)
næg n. god
rūnk n. prophet
vnæza, vnæz- v. pray
zakhero n. priest
zækhea n. priestess
zikhor n. worship
zūð n. tradition
ædaxewla, ædaxewlĕ- ædaxewlĕjĕn v. rape
ædzĕn n. penis
hukho, hukho- v. masturbate
rōla, rōl- v. love
thiða, thið- v. have sex
ðōze a. white
hē a. blue
īgi a. black
næfṇ a. red
næmozi a. brown
ūbi a. green
ūme a. yellow
abaz n. fish
ājĕ n. snake
bjer n. goat
djedi n. flea
hwej n. mouse
ikh n. cat (< "domestic animal")
lē n. bird
moje n. worm
nælaĕph n. domestic animal
nælror n. horse
rēo n. fox
sī n. dog
vū n. ox
xār n. sheep
xēðo n. rabbit
zæþṇ n. pig
Weather and Astronomy
æg n. wind
æflo n. rain
ēbi, ēbi- v. freeze
ēj n. snow
ḷzō a. cold
mwelṇ n. ice
thālo n. moon
vwezis a. chilly
zæm n. sun
zē n. star
æd prep. with, using
æga prep. against
æl prep. without
æx prep. of
hæ prep. out of
īl prep. to, toward
jwe prep. as, like, equally to
nē prep. in, inside
pin prep. with (comitative)
uv prep. on, upon
wen prep. made of